This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Argentina, including factors related to effective planning, decision-making and implementation of the nuclear power programme which, all together, lead to nuclear power plants safe and economical operation.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Argentina.
Argentina is considered an expanding country in terms of peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Currently, it operates three nuclear power plants: Atucha I (CNA I) (362 MW(e)), Atucha II (CNA II) (745 MW(e)) and Embalse (CNE) (648 MW(e)) — which recently accomplished a successfully life extension and revamping process. Furthermore, Argentina is constructing the CAREM 25 small modular reactor (SMR), which will have a gross capacity of 32 MW(e). Argentina is also in negotiations with the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) of the People’s Republic of China for the possible construction of a future nuclear power plant (NPP).
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1 ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1 Energy policy
In September 2018, the federal Government created the Government Secretariat of Energy — formerly the Ministry of Energy — according to Decree 802/2018, which was established under the authority of the Ministry of Treasury. Mainly, it is focused on elaborating national energy strategies and policies and executing them.
In order to improve efficiency in the nuclear sector, the Government created the Under Secretariat of Nuclear Energy within the Government Secretariat of Energy. Its core objectives are the following:
To assist in all matters related to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the management of radioactive sources locally.
To assist in the analysis, evaluation and monitoring of economic/financial engineering and project development sustainability associated with nuclear technology, as well as to assist state level nuclear organizations and companies in the planning and monitoring of public investment projects.
To coordinate actions among the different political and social stakeholders involved in nuclear activity.
To set a strategy and clear objectives for the participation of Argentina in international forums, organizations and other initiatives of the nuclear field, at both the multilateral and bilateral level.
To assist local organizations in actions which lead to compliance with international commitments in nuclear non-proliferation matters, nuclear safeguards, nuclear security and any other international commitments in the nuclear field.
To communicate and coordinate between nuclear organizations and objectives established by the federal Government.
To assist in the design and execution of federal Government strategic priorities regarding the nuclear field, within the framework of the national energy matrix, among others.
According to the National Energy Balance (BEN) 2017, 86.5% of total primary energy in Argentina was produced from fossil fuels (54.0% from natural gas, 31.2% from oil and 1.3% from coal). The remaining energy production relied on hydroelectric energy (4.3%), nuclear energy (2.2%) and renewable resources such as wood (1.0%), bagasse (1.2%), biofuel (3.3%), vegetable alcohols (0.7%), wind energy (0.2%), solar energy (0.002%) and other primary resources (0.5%). The higher concentration of hydrocarbons in Argentina’s primary energy sources is a structural characteristic of the Argentine energy matrix.
It is important to consider that, according to the National Report on Greenhouse Gases published by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development in 2017, the energy sector is responsible for 53% of greenhouse gases. The analysis of the BEN for the period 1970–2017 shows significant changes associated with the progressive replacement of oil by natural gas — the latter was responsible for all increases while the former remained almost constant over time. It should be noted that throughout the period, fossil fuels have remained at between 82.2% and 92.6% of the entire primary energy mix. In recent years, several laws were issued with the aim of decreasing the use of fossil fuels and rationalizing the use of energy by suggesting a series of objectives and mechanisms of promotion, and recognizing the importance of using every energy source in the national energy mix.
As previously stated, the main goal is to diversify the power generation mix, with greater participation from non-conventional renewable, hydro and nuclear energy sources. In August 2006, the reactivation of the nuclear programme was officially launched. Moreover, in 2009, Law No. 26 566 declared the nuclear programme to be of national interest and promoted special public regimes for the completion of the construction of CNA II as well as the execution of the CNE life extension process — both activities under the scope of nuclear power plant operator Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA) and CAREM SMR Project development, which is under the responsibility of the National Atomic Energy Commission (Comisión Nacional de la Energía Atómica — CNEA).
In relation to renewable energy sources, in 2015, Law No. 27 191 introduced a National Promotion Regime for the Use of Renewable Energy Sources for the Production of Electric Energy. Thus, goals have been established for the incorporation of renewable energies to the national energy matrix for electricity supply: 8%, 12%, 16%, 18% and 20% for the years 2017, 2019, 2021, 2023 and 2025, respectively.
Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, Decree No. 231 of 2015 (2015),
Government Secretariat of Energy, National Energy Balance of the Argentine Republic (2017), http://www.argentina.gob.ar/energia/hidrocarburos/balances-energeticos-0
Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, Law No. 26 566 on Nuclear Activity (2009), http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/160000-164999/162106/norma.htm
Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, National Report on Greenhouse Gases (2017),
Government Secretariat of Energy, Argentina — Energy for Growth, Secretariat of Energy Planning, Scenarios and Project Assessment (2016),
1.1.2 Estimated available energy
Table 1 shows Argentina’s estimated available energy sources.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Total amount in specific units*||444.00||320 916||355 547||11 020 (RAR)
18 990 (IR)
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||10.04||11.9||11.1||6.98
Notes: For the coal reserves, the measured reserves of the Adaro Exploitation Plan were taken into account.
In the case of oil and gas, the proved reserves of the country until 31 December 2017 were taken into account.
In the case of uranium, tonnes of uranium (tU) as identified resources: reasonably assured resources (RAR), inferred resources (IR) for the production cost category
* Solid, liquid: million tonnes; gas: billion m3; uranium: metric tonnes; hydro, renewable: TW.
** In the case of hydropower, the technically exploitable gross theoretical potential is 169 000 GWh/year, considering an average load factor of 0.477. Latest data were available in 2011.
*** Regarding other renewables, the potential of geothermal sources, as well as wind and solar, are estimated considering an average load factor of 0.3. In the case of wind energy, it only corresponds to the projects submitted to the Energy Secretariat since the total wind resource potential is much higher. Latest data were available in 2011.
Sources: Government Secretariat of Energy, National Energy Balance of the Argentine Republic (2017),
Government Secretariat of Energy, Reserves Report (2018),
Government Secretariat of Energy, Under Secretariat of Renewables Energies;
National Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Reservoir and Evaluation, Raw Materials Exploration Management;
Government Secretariat of Energy, Energy Scenarios 2030 (2017),
1.1.3 Energy statistics
Energy statistics for Argentina are presented in Table 2.
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|1980||1990||2000||2010||2015||2017*||Compound annual growth rate (%)
|Energy consumption [EJ]**|
|Energetic production [EJ]|
|Net import (Import–Export)5 [EJ]||0.19||0.08||(0.61||0.02||0.32||0.33||49.57|
* Latest available data from the 2017 National Energy Balance from the Government Secretariat of Energy.
** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Secondary energy net import (Import–Export) (excluding electricity and non-energy products). In previous CNPP versions, only the primary energy consumption was considered, so the data across the whole table has been modified.
*** Solid fuels include coal from the primary sector + more net imports of residual coal and coal coke from the secondary sector.
1 Includes domestic supply of oil primary sector + net imports of all liquid fuels in the secondary sector.
2 Includes domestic supply of natural gas primary sector + net imports of all gaseous fuels in the secondary sector.
3 Takes into account the domestic offer of the primary sector of wood, bagasse, other primaries, and wind and solar energies. Also includes the domestic offer from the primary sector + net imports of biofuels from the secondary sector.
4 Since 1997, Argentina imports all the uranium that its power plants consume, totally interrupting domestic production.
5 Net import (Import – Export) of the primary sector.
6 Total: Production + Net imports (Import–Export) of the primary sector.
1.2 THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1 Electricity system and decision making process
Since September 2018 energy system planning and decision making has been under the responsibility of the Government Secretariat of Energy, formerly the Ministry of Energy, as previously mentioned, currently under the Ministry of Treasury. Regarding long term energy planning, the Government Secretariat of Energy, through the Secretariat of Strategic Energy Planning, developed the Energy Scenarios 2030. For that purpose, the basic guidelines of four alternative energy demand scenarios were established, focusing on exploitation of unconventional resources, implementation of energy efficiency policies and promotion of renewable energies and other clean energy sources such as nuclear. In this regard, it is important to mention that the outcomes of the analysis which are associated with those scenarios resulting from the combination of different demand, investment, price and productivity assumptions, are not intended to be predictive, but are projections of what might occur according to the combination of such assumptions. Moreover, due to the dynamic nature of an energy sector which is undergoing a regulatory, economic and institutional normalization process, such scenarios are dynamic. Thus, this tool is part of a process directed to define a shared vision of Argentine society, for achieving the construction of a sustainable energy future.
The goals for 2015–2019 are the following:
Normalize regulatory agencies and energy market operations.
Improve energy access and efficient use by households and productive sectors.
Ensure energy supply. Reverse the declining trend and increase oil and gas production, improve integration with neighbouring countries and boost investment in energy infrastructure, including the development of key hydro and nuclear projects in order to replace fossil fuels imports.
Diversify energy supply and incorporate renewables into Argentina’s energy matrix.
Argentina is considering restructuring its electricity market. From a situation where the electricity is largely subsidized to guarantee low prices, it is updating strategic priorities and accordingly reallocating the incentives. Among the measures taken are: (a) gradual reduction of subsidies for gas and electricity demand; (b) renegotiation of the distribution and transmission tariffs that have been frozen since 2002; (c) price increases for non-conventional gas; (d) international bids for renewable energy projects; and (e) bids for new thermal capacity.
The strategy aims to: (a) decrease fossil imports; (b) improve grid connexions with neighbouring countries; and (c) increase the electricity generation by 2025 with the addition of 10 GW of renewables. The fourth nuclear power plant (a 1200 MW pressurized water reactor) would be connected to the grid in December 2027. Its construction would begin in the year 2020. As part of the solution to improve energy supply security, decarbonization and access to energy, the share of nuclear energy in the electricity mix is expected to remain at least 10% by the year 2050.
Currently, gas and oil sources prevail in the energy mix of Argentina, which is a net importer, with consequences on the cost of electricity and its energy supply security. The country also needs to expand the population’s access to energy, particularly in remote areas, and wishes to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. As Argentina’s electricity grid is not significantly connected with neighbouring countries, this lack of power cannot be compensated through electricity imports.
Government Secretariat of Energy, Argentina, Energy for Growth (2016),
Government Secretariat of Energy, Energy Scenarios 2030 (2017),
World Energy Council, World Energy Trilemma Index (2017),
1.2.2 Structure of electric power sector
Generation, transmission and distribution
Laws No. 15.336 and No. 24 065, together with their respective regulatory decrees, establish the general legal framework that defined the dynamics of generation, transportation and distribution in the electricity system, including the categorization of the actors legitimately recognized and qualified to operate in the electricity sector. It is important to stress that under this framework the transport and distribution of electricity are defined as a public service, while generation is considered of general interest. While in the first two cases, considered natural monopolies, the State — through the Government Secretariat of Energy and the Electricity National Regulator Entity — has the power to establish specific regulations, in the case of the generation system it requires regulation only for those aspects and circumstances that affect the general interest.
The recognized stakeholders in the electricity market are: (a) generators or producers; (b) carriers; (c) distributors; and d) large users.
The Electricity National Regulator Entity was created as an independent agency within the Government Secretariat of Energy. Its objective is to control the enforcement of regulations on behalf of the agents of the market, thus defending the user’s interests. With the creation of the Government Secretariat of Energy, this objective has not only been maintained but also the agency’s activities and the organizational structure have been consolidated.
The Wholesale Electricity Market Administrator Company (CAMMESA) is a privately managed public company created with the purpose of administering the operation of the wholesale electricity market and of conducting the scheduled dispatch of electricity. Wholesale electric market agents own 80% of CAMMESA’s shares, while the remaining 20% are held by the Energy Policy Coordination Secretariat, which assumes the representation of the general interest and of the captive users. The indicated 80% is held in equal parts of 20% each by the generating agents, carriers, distributors and large users.
Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad,
Compañía Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Eléctrico S.A.,
Compañía Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Eléctrico S.A., Annual Report (2016),
1.2.3 Main indicators
As mentioned in Section 1.2.2, Argentina has an energy generation system with three main sources of energy: fossil, hydro, and nuclear power. Wind and solar energy are still relatively small. Table 3 and Table 4 present the main characteristics of the electric sector.
TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
|1980||1990||2000||2010||2015||2017*||Compound annual growth rate (%)
|Capacity of electric power station (GW(e))||G/N|
|Electricity production (TWh)||G/N|
|Total Electricity Consumption (TWh)||33.49||40.53||75.28||111.87||133.30||129.02||2.06|
* Latest available data.
1 It is worth clarifying that although Atucha II NPP started up from mid-2014, it started operating at full power only in February 2015.
2 Includes wood, bagasse, other primaries, biofuels, wind and solar power. The geothermal data are not included owing to insufficiency of data on its values since 1970.
3 During 2017, the Embalse NPP was out of service due to life extension tasks.
**Although both the capacity and the production of electricity from other renewable energy sources have been increasing since 2010, they were negligible in comparison to the other technologies until 2014, so a growth rate for the period between those years cannot be calculated.
Losses in electricity transmission are not deducted.
According to the merit order, base hydro and nuclear power generation technologies are dispatched first to meet baseload demand. Then, conventional thermal fossil generation meets the variable demand, and finally the rest is dispatched. Meanwhile, hydro technologies of reservoir and gas turbines satisfy the peak demands.
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)1||65.34||63.50||75.75||86.79||82.06||79.34|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)2||1242.93||1316.04||2127.46||2858.84||3108.9||3022.42|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)3||7.49||7.67||8.28||12.67||16.62||17.14|
|Nuclear/total electricity (%)4||5.89||14.76||6.94||5.69||5.04||3.92|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)** 4||5.72||(3.24||(33.87||(2.32||14.05||13.35|
* Latest data available.
** Net imports/total energy consumption. Net imports are calculated as imports minus exports both for primary and secondary energy except for exports exclusively from imported products. Total energy consumption is calculated as the primary domestic supply plus secondary net energy imports.
1 The energy consumption per capita considers the domestic supply of primary energy per capita plus the net imports of secondary energy per capita. For the population, the projected demographic data were taken from the 2010 Census.
2 As electricity consumption, the primary domestic supply is considered. For the population, the demographic data projected were taken from the 2010 Census.
3 The production of electrical energy over the production of BEN primary energy 2017.
4 Represents the nuclear share in electricity generation regarding the total electricity production.
Government Secretariat of Energy, National Energy Balance of the Argentine Republic (2017), Government Secretariat of Energy, Annual Statistics Report for the Energy Sector (2017), Government Secretariat of Energy, Statistical Report of the Electric Sector 2017 (2017), Government Secretariat of Energy, Hydrocarbons Statistical Information, National Atomic Energy Commission, Synthesis of the Wholesale Electricity Market (2017), www.cnea.gob.ar/es/publicaciones/2017-2/
Compañía Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Eléctrico S.A., Annual Report (2017), www.cammesa.com/linfoanu.nsf/MINFOANU?OpenFrameSet
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
CNEA was created on 31 May 1950 by Decree No. 10 936. Since then, it has been the main public organization devoted to research and development (R&D) in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and has also been responsible for promoting highly specialized training of human resources in the field of nuclear science.
Since its creation, CNEA has made steady progress in terms of technological autonomy related to nuclear reactors. In 1964, it began the necessary studies for the construction of CNA I. Construction of CNA I began in 1968 and it started commercial operation in 1974. The first unit construction had a national share involvement of 36.7% of its total cost, including 13% of the electromechanical components.
For CNE, construction began in 1974, it reached criticality in 1983 and it was connected to the grid in 1984. In 2007, the plant’s life extension project began with the feasibility and ageing studies, and on 31 December 2015, CNE completed its first operational cycle. After completing the project, the plant successfully achieved criticality on 4 January 2019, starting the second operational cycle.
In late 1979, a third nuclear power plant of 700 MW(e) with natural uranium and heavy water was under consideration with a similar design and at the same location as CNA I. The construction of CNA II began in 1981 with a scheduled operational date of July 1987. Construction was delayed due to budgetary constraints and in 1994, with 81% of construction completed, the project was officially halted. Construction was resumed with the relaunch of the Argentine Nuclear Plan in 2006, CNA II went critical on 3 June 2014 and began to supply full power to the national grid in February 2015.
Moreover, in the early 1980s, CNEA had already developed the conceptual design of a low power nuclear power plant, based on a light water reactor with passive and redundant safety systems, known as Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares (CAREM). In 2007, activities were resumed under the guidance of CNEA. The R&D organization embraced the project and the appropriate support and institutional structure were developed to house the project.
Law No. 26 566, sanctioned on 25 November 2009, established the main projects of the national nuclear power programme:
Extension of the operating licence and the necessary tasks for CNE’s life extension.
Beginning of studies for the definition of future CNA I life extension project.
Conclusion of construction, commissioning and operation of CNA II.
Launch of feasibility studies for the construction of a fourth NPP.
Design, execution and commissioning of a CAREM 25 SMR under the responsibility of CNEA.
In the field of nuclear fuels, the country manufactures all the nuclear fuel required by its operating nuclear research reactors as well as for its NPPs.
Furthermore, through the Government Secretariat of Energy, Argentina is planning the construction of additional NPPs, in accordance with Law No. 26 566. To this end, the country has engaged in negotiations with CNNC, given the strategic partnership established between Argentina and China.
National Atomic Energy Commission,
2.1.2 Current organizational structure
According to Law No. 24 804, known as the National Nuclear Activity Law, which was sanctioned by the National Congress in 1997 (and entered into force in 1998), the nuclear sector (Fig. 1) was organized into three main branches: (a) promoter (CNEA); (b) regulator (Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear — ARN)); and (c) utility (NA-SA).
FIG. 1. Organizational structure of the nuclear sector.
There are nuclear companies associated with CNEA (Fig. 2), created as commercial entities devoted to supply on an industrial scale to the nuclear sector and its related nuclear fuel cycle:
NA-SA: The state owned company in charge of the operation of NPPs.
INVAP S.E.: Its main activity is the designing and building of complex technological systems for nuclear, aerospace, government and defence, industrial and medical equipment.
Combustibles Nucleares Argentinos S.A. (CONUAR). Its objective is the production of nuclear fuel for research reactors and NPPs, and to supply nuclear components and equipment. Additionally, it recently merged with FAE S.A., a company devoted to special alloys, zircaloy tubes and special component manufacturing.
Empresa Neuquina de Servicios de Ingeniería S.E. (ENSI). This company provides heavy water for research reactors and NPPs, being one of the few heavy water producers that operate in the international market.
DIOXITEK S.A.: A company devoted to the production of uranium dioxide to supply the fabrication process of fuel assemblies for CNA I, CNA II and CNE NPPs. It also manufactures sealed Co-60 sources.
FIG. 2. Technical relations and supply connections among CNEA, NA-SA, supplier companies and ARN.
2.2 NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1 Status and characteristics of nuclear power plant performance
In 2017, the generation of nuclear power achieved by NA-SA was of 6161 GWh, representing 5.4% of Argentina’s total electric generation. Of the total nuclear share, 2 533 015 MWh were produced by CNA I, while the remaining 3 628 220 MWh were produced by CNA II.
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
*The decline of the UCF of CNE is because during 2017 it did not operate due to life extension tasks, which started on 31 December 2015.
** The value is low because the plant went out of service for four months during 2017
2.2.2 Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
CNA I: Throughout its lifetime, improvements in the facility design were implemented, such as: replacement of all fuel assemblies in fuel channels, construction of a second ultimate heat sink, construction of a second temporary spent fuel pool, and the modification of the third circuit. Also, in 1996, the change of the original fuel design from natural uranium to slightly enriched uranium resulted in a 40% reduction in fuel consumption and a reduction in cost of approximately 30%. This allowed the extension of the spent fuel pool time limit before reaching its maximum capacity. Subsequently, the plant was repowered with 5 MW(e) during 2013, due to the redesign of the generator’s high pressure stage blades. In 2003, a second heat sink, a system that enabled the management of small loss of coolant accidents, was put in place.
Currently, the spent fuel elements dry storage reservoir, which is necessary when completing the cooling stage in pools, is under construction. Moreover, based on the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, safety measures were implemented, for example, through the installation of hydrogen recombiners to manage a severe accident. A new emergency electric system is in place and a pump has been installed in the guaranteed secondary circuit.
On 12 April 2018, CNA I obtained an operating licence extension from ARN. The new authorization allows the plant to operate for five years of full power generation or until 29 September 2024, the end date of the current periodic safety review, whichever occurs first.
Regarding life management, the activities developed in the framework of the IAEA’s Technical Cooperation Programme must be mentioned. Since 2009, activities devoted to the support of ageing management for long term operation and the enhancement of NPP life management have been performed.
CNE: On 31 December 2015, the first operational cycle of the NPP concluded, after 30 years of operation, with a net load factor of 79.04%. It was decided to begin the last stage of the life extension project. The objective of the project has been to extend the NPP operation by 25 to 30 years and to increase its electric power by approximately 35 MW(e). In this context, CNE has developed a set of actions linked to the facility’s life management and has completed a life and ageing assessment for different systems. The major working areas to be developed in the project were: revision of pressure and calandria tubes, feeders, steam generators and repowering.
CNA II: From a design and construction perspective, CNA II has updated safety systems and concepts. On 29 May 2014, ARN granted the startup licence, and on 21 May 2016 a commercial operating licence was also granted by ARN. CNA II started its operation and plant life management activities are performed on a regular basis.
2.2.3 Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
There are no reactors reaching shutdown phase in Argentina.
TABLE 6. STATUS OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit||Shutdown reason||Decommission strategy||Current decommission phase||Current fuel management phase||Decommission licence||Licence termination year|
2.3 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
2.3.1 Nuclear power development strategy
In August 2006, the federal Government supported the national nuclear programme reactivation focusing in the production of nuclear energy and the development of nuclear applications for public health, industry and agriculture. To that end, as mentioned in Section 2.1.1., Law No. 26 566 was sanctioned.
Since its creation in 1950, CNEA has made constant progress towards technological autonomy in the field of nuclear reactors. The first PHWR nuclear power plant — CNA I, with KWU-Siemens technology — began commercial operation in June 1974, reaching a national participation of 36.7% of its total cost.
CNE (using Canada deuterium–uranium (CANDU) technology) was connected to the network in January 1984. That decision was based on technology transfer agreements with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and continuing with the policy of promoting national participation, 51% was reached.
CNA II began operating at 100% capacity on 18 February 2015. Its construction began at the end of 1979 and was stopped in 1994, with 80% of civil works completed. The CNA II project, which was completed in 2014, represented a great challenge for Argentine engineering and was the mainstay of the reactivation of nuclear activity, reaching 88% national participation.
In February 2019, CNE re-entered the Argentine interconnection system after a life extension process. In this way, its second operating cycle began for a 30 years period, also with a significant national participation. The plant life extension is widely justified from the economic and financial point of view since its investment cost was less than 50% of that of a new NPP.
Regarding the CAREM SMR Project, it is worth mentioning that it is the first NPP fully designed and constructed by Argentina and has an advance rate of 56%. Among the main objectives of the project are: to demonstrate the functionality of the concept, on a smaller scale than that projected for commercial modules; to generate capabilities for the development of nuclear projects within CNEA, its associated companies and Argentina’s private industry; commercial operation of nationally designed NPPs; and to repeat the success obtained with the research reactors exported, thus consolidating Argentina as world reference on SMRs.
On the other hand, Argentina has undertaken feasibility studies to incorporate evolutionary light water reactor designs into its fleet in the short term, taking into account the implications of domestic and foreign policy, and the technological, economic and human resources points of view. Their adoption will enhance and optimize the national nuclear fuel cycle capabilities, by using both technologies. Competition among suppliers is being promoted to achieve technology transfer, favourable economic and financial terms, as well as component and critical supplies guarantees.
In this sense, conversations with foreign vendors are maintained on the basis of local capabilities and considering local industry involvement, particularly with regard to the nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, in compliance with Law No. 26 566 that establishes the installation of a fourth plant with one or two modules, it was decided to start negotiations with CNNC to build a Hualong Power Reactor (HPR-1000).
Subsequently, for technical, economic and financial reasons, the national government decided to negotiate with CNNC, in order to develop a strategy focused on achieving the maximum possible local participation and the manufacture of future fuel elements of national origin.
Regarding CAREM, the strategy is focused on the engineering development. In all the options under consideration, the modules respect the original design and share common facilities in order to achieve an investment reduction of approximately 25%.
The incorporation of PWR reactors will improve and optimize the capabilities of the national nuclear fuel cycle, using both technologies, in order to maintain a minimum nuclear generation share of 10% to 2050.
Table 7 summarizes the planned nuclear power plants, indicating their relevant characteristics and schedules.
TABLE 7. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit/Project name||Owner||Type||Capacity in MW(e)||Expected construction start year||Expected commercial year|
|CAREM 25||CNEA||PWR||32||2014 (under construction)||2023 (estimated)|
|IV NPP||NA-SA||PWR||1200||2020 (estimated)||2028 (estimated)|
2.3.2 Project management
The Argentine nuclear energy programme is directly supported by the national Government. According to Law No. 24 804, the Argentine State is responsible for designing nuclear policies, carrying out R&D activities and regulating and controlling nuclear activities through two independent public entities, CNEA and ARN. NA-SA is responsible for Argentine NPPs operation.
The Ministry of Treasury, the Under Secretariat of Nuclear Energy and NA-SA are the agencies and institutions carrying out the procurement of the fourth nuclear power plant, linking with existing suppliers of the international market and with specialists on specific nuclear issues. CNEA plays a special role in this process, particularly regarding the nuclear fuel cycle.
The government analyses financing issues with suppliers, considering a range of options to decide how to proceed with future nuclear projects. The details of these discussions are commercially sensitive.
In all discussions with suppliers, it is stressed that whenever negotiations are carried out, participation of local industry, transfer of technology and construction of fuel elements in the country are always relevant issues.
2.3.3 Project funding
For near future activities, the following financing sources have been identified:
CNE life extension and repowering: This project has been financed by the Latin American Development Bank. In 2010, this entity approved funding of $240 million to extend the life of the power plant. However, this funding represents only part of the total; the most significant part is covered with contributions from the national treasury.
CAREM project: A trust administration agreement was signed between CNEA and the National Bank. Funds for CAREM are provided by the national treasury.
Future NPPs: Several funding options are taken into account. These include: the possibility of generating trusts, with national public financial institutions, and international financing schemes.
The supplier of the fourth plant will contribute 85% of the necessary funds and the rest will be of local origin. For this purpose, financial engineering is being carried out to determine the origin of the local contribution.
2.3.4 Electric grid development
Argentina will implement new siting for its future NPPs. Some of the sites surveyed so far warrant the installation of a high voltage grid in order to connect future NPPs with the national grid.
CAMMESA is the company responsible for the planning of future expansions of existing networks based on new projects for the short, medium and long term. It is not necessary to create new lines for the CAREM 25 SMR Project, but for the fourth plant, a new line was planned with its node and its corresponding transformation stations.
NA-SA acquired land on the border property where the CNA I and CNA II plants are located at the Atucha Nuclear Complex with the purpose of installing future nuclear power plants. The fourth plant will be located in the same place next to CNA II. The prototype of the CAREM 25 SMR is also under construction next to CAN I and CAN II . Cooling water in all cases comes from the Paraná de Las Palmas River.
The Under Secretariat of Nuclear Energy, with the technical support of CNEA, NA-SA and INVAP S.E., is working on the necessary studies to identify possible sites, taking into account both technical aspects and social factors, local conditions and participation of interested actors.
2.3.6. Public awareness
Recently, there has been a strong campaign, led by the federal Government and associated agencies, to promote the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In this regard — taking into account the possibility of the construction of new NPPs in Argentina, as well as the country’s visibility as an international vendor of nuclear technology (e.g. research reactor exports) — public awareness and public opinion in relation to nuclear energy and the associated companies has improved.
It is also worth mentioning that open information/transparency is guaranteed by law as well as promoted and provided by the federal Government, particularly regarding nuclear policies, associated projects and specific agency activities. The main nuclear organizations promote access to detailed information on their activities, facilities and ongoing projects as well as public visits to their facilities. For more information regarding public awareness, see Section 2.10.
2.4 ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
From the beginning of nuclear activities in Argentina, a knowledge acquisition process has been promoted. All external acquisitions, such as NPP contracts, not only facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technologies, but also maximize the involvement of the local industrial complex.
The Nuclear Energy Under Secretariat is responsible for the negotiation of contracts, tariffs and agreements with international technology vendors, and is currently spearheading negotiations with CNNC for the construction of future NPPs.
CNEA was assigned by law to be responsible for the design, development and commissioning of the SMR CAREM Project. Under its coordination, many other state owned and mixed ownership companies are involved in the construction and procurement of different components and services intended for the construction of the CAREM prototype, such as: INVAP S.E., CONUAR S.A., and DIOXITEK S.A.
2.5 ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
The three NPPs in Argentina are State property (ownership is managed through the Government Secretariat of Energy). Since 1994, the operation of NPPs has been the responsibility of the state owned company NA-SA.
2.6 ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
Law No. 24 804 assigns CNEA state ownership of spent fuel and responsibility for the management of radioactive waste. It also sets forth that CNEA shall determine the way in which NPPs and any other significant facilities (Type I facilities) are decommissioned.
2.7 FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
Every activity of the nuclear fuel cycle is oriented towards satisfying the main objective of guaranteeing uranium reserves and supplying long term operation of commercial NPPs and research reactors in the country.
The capabilities included in the nuclear fuel cycle in which Argentina is currently working are uranium prospecting, conversion and purification, fuel fabrication, waste management and spent fuel interim storage. In addition, the country has acquired the knowledge and technologies associated with uranium enrichment. With the reactivation of the gaseous diffusion mock-up and the development of centrifuges and laser technologies, synergies among different working groups are being promoted in order to consolidate a single project direction to enhance efforts in this area.
The characteristics of the developed fuel cycle stages are as follows:
Mining, prospecting and production: As a consequence of the reactivation of the nuclear programme, active exploration/evaluation of ore deposits has been undertaken. CNEA owns 64 exploration licences in Argentina, taking into account requested and conceded exploration permit areas, statements of discovery and ore deposits. There are also private uranium exploration companies in the country, all of which are currently members of the Argentine Chamber of Uranium Companies.
Uranium conversion: In Argentina, the uranium industry is currently owned by the State. Private sector participation exists only in the exploration phase, even though legislation allows participation of both the public and private sectors in uranium exploration and development activities.
The conversion of uranium concentrate (U3O8 or (NH4)2U2O7 (ammonium diuranate — ADU)) to UO2 is performed by DIOXITEK S.A. This public company is the only enterprise with the capability to produce nuclear grade uranium powder in the country. The nominal production capacity of DIOXITEK plant is 150 t of UO2 per year.
A new uranium dioxide processing plant is under construction. This industrial plant will have a capacity of 460 t UO2 per year.
Uranium enrichment: The technology developed by CNEA at the Pilcaniyeu Technological Complex is gaseous diffusion. Research is also being conducted for the command of laser and ultracentrifuge technologies.
Fuel fabrication: CONUAR S.A. is in charge of manufacturing Zircaloy rods and UO2 pellets used in the fuel fabrication process. The technology applied was developed by CNEA and is constantly updated. Fuel fabrication is performed also by CONUAR. UO2 pellets are fabricated and assembled for fuel assemblies of the CNA I, CNA II and CNE NPPs, and material testing reactor type fuels and fuels for the RA-3 research reactor are also fabricated by the company. CONUAR will also be responsible for the provision of the locally designed fuel assemblies for the CAREM Project.
Storage of spent fuels: The nuclear operators are responsible for the storage, treatment and transportation of the spent fuels. Temporary storage of spent fuels is performed in situ in the NPPs. The utility is jointly working with CNEA on analysing the steps that will be taken in the near future.
Regarding the waste generated by uranium mining activities, the Project of Environmental Restoration of Uranium Mining (Proyecto de Restitución Ambiental de la Minería del Uranio) aims at reconditioning sites where activities related to uranium mining have been developed.
Radioactive waste management: All radioactive waste management activities are oriented towards guaranteeing environmental protection, public health and the rights of future generations in accordance with the regulations set forth by ARN and in compliance with the law. Further, Law No. 25 018 establishes CNEA as the institution responsible for the implementation of the Radioactive Waste Management National Programme (Programa Nacional de Gestión de Residuos Radiactivos).
Disposal of spent fuel: CNEA is responsible for the disposal of spent fuel. The decision whether to reprocess fissile material contained in spent fuel has to be adopted before 2030, when the design phase of an underground laboratory would be expected to start in order for a deep geological repository to be commissioned by 2060.
OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, IAEA, Uranium 2018: Resources, Production and Demand (2018),
2.8 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1 R&D organizations
CNEA, as the national institution devoted to R&D in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, fosters technologically innovative activities in the nuclear area and consequently performs development and transfer of new technologies in associated fields. One of its main aims has been to provide robust technological support to the country’s nuclear system.
Argentina has engaged in a wide array of R&D activities in the fields of physical sciences, chemistry, radiobiology, metallurgy, science and technology of materials and engineering. In particular, CNEA’s capabilities in radioisotope production, applications and ionizing radiation underscore its experience as a world strategic leader in the field of nuclear applications in human health.
As the nuclear activity in Argentina is a federal activity, several facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle are scattered across the national territory. It is important to mention that the following centres concentrate the main activities developed by CNEA:
Bariloche Atomic Centre (Centro Atómico Bariloche) is mainly devoted to research, development and training of human resources in the fields of physics and nuclear engineering.
Constituyentes Atomic Centre (Centro Atómico Constituyentes) performs activities within basic research and technological development, focusing on interdisciplinary activities such as micro and nanotechnology.
Ezeiza Atomic Centre (Centro Atómico Ezeiza), located in Ezeiza district, is mainly devoted to nuclear technology applications development.
Pilcaniyeu Technological Complex, located in the province of Río Negro, is devoted to uranium enrichment activities and other technological activities.
In total, Argentina operates five research reactors, one in each nuclear research centre and two at public national universities.
National Atomic Energy Commission,
2.8.2 Development of advanced nuclear technologies
CNEA organizes research and technological activities for scientific development in different fields. These activities involve advanced projects related to nuclear activity and its applications.
Argentina has designed and is building the CAREM SMR. It is the first nuclear power reactor fully designed by Argentina (CNEA), seeking to promote local capacities for the development and commissioning of nuclear power plants. Likewise, with the CAREM Project the Argentine nuclear sector is emerging as one of the world leaders in the SMR segment. At the beginning of 2014, the structural construction of the civil works started. For further information, see Sections 2.1.1 and 2.3.1.
2.8.3 International cooperation and initiatives
Argentina has been a Member State of the IAEA since 1957 and has gradually developed a nuclear energy policy in line with international conventions and treaties in the nuclear field.
Argentina has strengthened its participation in multilateral forums such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism and the Generation IV International Forum.
Argentina also participates in the Ibero-American Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulatory Agencies (Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiológicos y Nucleares) and the CANDU Senior Regulators Group.
On 1 September 2017, Argentina officially joined the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Argentina is currently an active participant in its meetings and working groups.
The scope of international cooperation in the area of nuclear energy development and its application is extensive among the main entities that perform in the Argentine nuclear sector and international companies, governments, and organizations. Such cooperation is promoted and carried out by CNEA, ARN and NA-SA, which maintain a special link with the IAEA. It also must be stressed that Argentina has developed strong ties with Latin American countries, promoted in part by the IAEA through the Technical Cooperation Programme projects in the Latin America and the Caribbean region, also through the projects under the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) and through initiatives launched and developed by CNEA. Every year, CNEA receives an important number of foreign students and professionals, mainly from Latin American countries, Africa and Asia, who participate in the scholarship programme which is supported by the IAEA.
Bilateral cooperation is developed according to three axes: (a) interaction with countries with a long history in the nuclear field; (b) assistance to newcomer countries; and (c) collaboration and complementarity activities with countries with an expanding nuclear programme.
The first objective is achieved by participating in technological development projects with agencies of nuclear countries in order to promote local technological development. The second axis is completed by cooperating with newcomer countries with the objective of promoting knowledge of Argentine nuclear technology overseas, and at the same time achieving a commercial purpose by opening up potential markets for the national nuclear sector. The third axis is achieved by complementing and integrating efforts in search of synergies and economies of scale. NA-SA has a special collaboration agreement with the Brazilian Electronuclear company, sharing Brazilian and Argentine work during the outages at the nuclear stations in Brazil and Argentina, as well as other issues of interest for both countries.
Within the context of its regulating task, ARN also has a close and diverse interaction with national and foreign organizations, both governmental and non-governmental.
2.9 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
Argentina has developed a long lasting nuclear education and training programme. CNEA is the main human resource training institution in the nuclear field. Since its creation in the 1950s, CNEA has trained highly specialized human resources in strategic areas of the nuclear field as well as the scientific, technical and national productive system. For this purpose, in agreement with Argentine public national universities, three academic institutes have been created over the years. The teaching positions are staffed by active engineers, scientists and technologists. The professional quality of the graduates is assured by full time dedication; small, intense classes; and supervised, hands-on learning in the laboratories of CNEA nuclear research centres, where the students have full access to the different facilities.
CNEA has a long tradition of welcoming students from countries in the region and vast experience in the training of foreign students responsible for operating the different facilities sold by the country abroad, as is the case of research reactors.
For the development of the necessary capacities in human resources and for them to sustain the diverse activities promoted by the organizations that integrate the Argentine nuclear sector, these three academic institutions have undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in several specialties:
Balseiro Institute is located at the Bariloche Atomic Centre. It was founded in 1955 through an agreement between CNEA and the National University of Cuyo, as a specialized centre for physics teaching. It later incorporated other careers, mainly related to nuclear technology, including nuclear engineering. It was designated as an IAEA Collaborating Centre.
Sábato Institute is located at the Constituyentes Atomic Centre. It was founded in 1993, based on the Training Programme on Metallurgy. It is affiliated with the National University of San Martín (UNSAM) and is mainly focused on material science and technology.
Dan Beninson Institute is located at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. It was created through an agreement between CNEA and UNSAM in 2006. It is focused on nuclear engineering, methodology and application of radioisotopes, radiotherapy physics and dosimetry. For its part, Argentina through ARN, has been training people in radiological protection and nuclear safety for more than 30 years. An important part of these activities is carried out in collaboration with national universities, such as the University of Buenos Aires, and courses are also developed with the support of the IAEA.
Education and training on nuclear and radiological safety, based on ARN’s postgraduate courses and other training courses on this subject and the training of nearly 900 professionals from Latin America, the Caribbean and other regions of the world, together with the IAEA’s decision to create competency through training and knowledge management in safety, has prompted the IAEA to establish a long term agreement with ARN to support this activity.
2.10 STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
In recent decades, the Argentine nuclear sector has undergone a series of substantive changes regarding engagement with a variety of stakeholders, directly or indirectly, involved in the development of its activities. Specifically, owing to the reactivation of the nuclear programme and the development of its associated projects, public institutions and a network of companies, including research, development and production agencies and the operator of the NPPs, have established institutional communication policies and, when necessary according to the law, have held corresponding public hearings.
All the projects — those that were reactivated as well as those that started from scratch — are in compliance with the law at the local, provincial and national levels. A close relationship is maintained with federal and local regulatory and inspection organizations on a regular and collaborative basis (ARN, provincial Ministries of Environment, provincial water departments, provincial organizations for sustainable development and municipalities among others), understanding that the safety of people and the environment is essential for the continuity of nuclear activities and a cornerstone of the nuclear sector. The study of social perception is also essential in order to better direct communication activities and fulfil the legal requirements in the case of environmental impact assessments required by the various control agencies mentioned previously. The inclusion of civil society aims at involving it in the decision making process and at raising awareness about its main concerns and expectations about nuclear activities.
Additionally, in the case of companies with State participation, actions linked to incorporate social responsibility are promoted, including an active involvement in the communities where those facilities are located, as well as other actions related to the protection of the environment.
For communication about the various initiatives and projects in the field of nuclear power as well as in R&D and the application of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, campaigns are regularly developed through the various agencies and companies and their communication channels — including social media — as well as through participation in fairs, exhibitions and thematic events linked to the development of scientific and technological activities in general.
Furthermore, Argentina has fostered interaction at bilateral levels with its neighbouring countries and among their governmental agencies through the signing of institutional agreements. It has thus developed an active agenda of promotion of its main projects, communicating their main objectives and providing transparency by transmitting their characteristics by enhancing information exchange and experts’ visits.
2.11 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Any activity involving the use of ionizing radiation, hence regulated by ARN, shall have emergency procedures or plans in place. This is a requirement of the licensing process and oversight of these activities. ARN sets criteria and evaluates the radiological and nuclear emergency plans and procedures, which are made by the controlled facilities.
Regarding intervention in radiological emergencies in facilities other than nuclear power plants, ARN has a Radiological Emergency Intervention System (Sistema de Intervención de Emergencias Radiológicas, SIER). This system is designed to:
Advise the operators of facilities in case of radiological emergencies;
Advise public authorities intervening in control of radiological emergencies;
Intervene in emergency situations in those facilities or practices in which radiological accidents cannot be controlled by those responsible for the facilities where such accidents took place, or in which members of the public could be affected, and in which unforeseen radiological emergency situations happen in public areas.
SIER has a primary intervention group which works in weekly shifts throughout the year. This system has specific equipment and the necessary logistical structure for timely and efficient intervention in accidents with potential radiological consequences.
ARN has established cooperation agreements with other agencies such as the Federal Police, the National Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard to act in radiological emergencies.
In order to comply with the provisions set forth by Law No. 24 804 and its regulatory decree, ARN has created the Nuclear Emergency Intervention System (Sistema de Intervención en Emergencias Nucleares, SIEN), which complements the existing SIER in case of nuclear emergencies. In the event that the latter reach members of the public, SIEN is designed to fulfil the intrinsic function of ARN, undertaking the actions of other organizations involved, such as the Municipal Civil Defence, the Provincial Civil Defence Department (in Buenos Aires and Córdoba) and the National Civil Protection Department.
It is important to underline that all the activities of ARN, which has over 50 years of regulatory experience in the treatment of accidents, have also been developed within the legal framework of the National Nuclear Activity Law No. 24 804 and its Regulatory Decree No. 1390. This activity fully complies with the recommendations and obligations at an international level and is also supported by scientific knowledge on the matter.
The main features of the emergency response systems of ARN can be summarized as follows:
SIEN, which has the following objectives:
Respond to emergencies caused by accidents at nuclear power plants with consequences outside the facility;
Intervene in the stages of emergency preparation, training and intervention;
Establish a link with the Federal Emergency System.
SIER, which has the following objectives:
Respond to radiological emergencies occurring in facilities and minor practices, or affecting the population;
Respond to unforeseen radiological emergencies in public areas;
Advise public entities and users.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1 Regulatory authority
In 1994, the State designated a governmental, autonomous and technically independent institution for the exclusive exercise of these functions in order to differentiate its own regulatory role from that of the regulated organizations. Therefore, Decree No. 1540 of 1994 established the National Nuclear Regulatory Agency (Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear) until the promulgation on 23 April 1997 of Law No. 24 804, which established the current ARN. This law states that the State sets the regulation policy and control of the nuclear industry by means of ARN. Decree No. 1390 of 27 November 1998 regulates this law by defining its scope and procedures that facilitate its application.
ARN acts as an autonomous agency within the jurisdiction of the President and is subject to the public comptroller. In compliance with article 7 of the law, ARN is in charge of regulating and controlling the activities undertaken by the nuclear industry in all areas related to nuclear and radiation safety; protection, physical security and control of the use of nuclear materials; and licensing and control of nuclear installations and international safeguards. The law states that the regulation and control of nuclear industry activity is subject to ‘national jurisdiction’.
ARN regulates and controls the activities undertaken in the nuclear industry in Argentina and ensures its compliance with the binding regulations in order to do the following:
Protect people, the environment and future generations from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation;
Guarantee that nuclear materials are used only for authorized peaceful purposes;
Advise the national executive power in the field of nuclear industry.
With these objectives in mind, ARN fulfils the following activities:
Establishes a regulatory framework;
Issues, suspends or revokes licences for installations and personnel;
Oversees and controls, by means of inspections, evaluations and regulatory audits;
Monitors the environment around the nuclear facilities and other sites of interest;
Intervenes in case of emergencies at the national, provincial or municipal level;
Manages training and education related to the regulatory act;
Authorizes imports and exports of all radioactive materials.
3.1.2 Licensing process
Facilities overseen by ARN have different aims, such as: electricity generation; fabrication of fuel elements for nuclear reactors; radioisotope production; radiation source production; sterilization of medical materials; and the use and application of ionizing sources in medicine, industry, and basic and applied research.
The licensing process classifies facilities as Class I, II and III, differentiated on the basis of radiation risk and the risk associated with technological complexity.
For Class I and II facilities, ARN grants licences, and for Class III facilities it grants records, according to the binding regulatory regulations AR 0.0.1. and AR 0.11.1.
Class I facilities require the following types of authorization to be granted: building licence, startup licence, operating licence and decommissioning licence. These facilities must operate with an operating licence, and their personnel must have the individual licences and specific authorizations to have posts that have a significant influence on safety.
Class II facilities require an operating licence issued to the institution responsible for the practice with radioactive material or with ionizing radiation. Additionally, it is necessary that the responsible staff hold specific individual permits for specific practices.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The national legal framework has governed nuclear activities in Argentina since the 1950s. This legal framework comprises the national Constitution, bilateral and multilateral treaties and conventions, laws, decrees, resolutions and regulatory standards.
Decree No. 10 936 of 31 May 1950 created CNEA, which is in charge of R&D as well as the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. CNEA is a shareholder in most industrial companies involved in the nuclear fuel cycle.
Law No. 24 804 of 2 April 1997 (National Nuclear Law) established ARN, replacing the previous safety authority. ARN is an autonomous public body, empowered by the National Nuclear Law to issue safety regulations, in the form of resolutions, regulatory standards (referred to as AR Standards) and regulatory guides. At present, ARN reports to the General Secretariat of the Presidency.
Argentina’s legal and regulatory system entails different aspects from ratification of international treaties for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy to establishing different standards for the regulation and control of the nuclear industry, R&D and projects in Argentina.
National Constitution of the Argentine Republic, articles 41/42/43: regarding the rights and obligations relating to maintaining a healthy environment for present and future generations, the right to be informed about the effects of consumption activities on the health, safety and economic interests of the citizens, and the legal actions citizens are able to take in case the aforementioned rights are affected.
Law No. 1919: Mining Code. It was passed, and later sanctioned in 1886. Amendments and complementary regulations are available at:
Amendments and/or complementary regulations are available at:
Decree/Law No. 6673: Patents and Trademarks. Model or Industrial Design. Regulatory Decree No. 5682/65. Sanctioned in 1963. Modified by the regulations appearing at:
Law No. 17 048: Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage. Sanctioned and enacted in 1966. Modified by Law No. 22 455.
Law No. 21 947: Convention on Prevention of Pollution of the Sea due to Discharge of Waste and Other Substances. Sanctioned and enacted in 1979.
Law No. 22 455: Convention Relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material. Sanctioned and enacted in 1981.
Law No. 22 498 of 1956: Legal Regime of the National Atomic Energy Commission, as an autonomous entity. Enacted on 19 December 1956. Published in the Official Bulletin on 28 December 1956.
Law No. 22 507: Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof. Sanctioned and enacted in 1981.
Law No. 23 340: Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water. Sanctioned and enacted in 1986.
Law No. 23 353: article 867, Customs Code modification, for a new classification of smuggling crimes. Enacted 14 August 1986. Published in the Official Bulletin on 10 September 1986.
Law No. 23 620: Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Sanctioned and enacted in 1988. Amended by Law No. 26 640, sanctioned on 13 October 2010 and enacted on 16 November 2010.
Law No. 23 731: Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Sanctioned and enacted in 1989 by Decree No. 983/89.
Decree No. 603 of 1992: Export Control Regime of Sensitive Material and War Material. Establishes the Argentine Commission of Export Control of Sensitive Material and War Material. Published in the Official Bulletin on 14 April 1992. Modified by the regulations set forth at:
Law No. 24 051: on Hazardous Waste. Enacted 17 December 1991. Published in the Official Bulletin on 17 January 1992.
Law No. 24 272: Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty), adopted in Mexico in 1967 with amendments in 1990, 1991 and 1992. Sanctioned and enacted in 1993.
Decree No. 981 of 2005: Modification of Nucleoeléctrica Argentina Sociedad Anónima articles of association. Enacted 18 August 2005. Published in the Official Bulletin on 22 August 2005.
Decree No. 1065 of 2001: Modification of the authority structure of the National Atomic Energy Commission. Enacted 23 August 2001. Published in the Official Bulletin on 28 August 2001.
Decree No. 1085 of 2006: Regarding the completion of activities related to the conclusion of the Atucha II NPP by Nucleoeléctrica Argentina Sociedad Anónima. Enacted 23 August 2006. Published in the Official Bulletin on 25 August 2006.
Decree No. 1390/98: Approving the regulation of Law No. 24 804 on Nuclear Activity. Enacted 27 November 1998. Published in the Official Bulletin on 4 December 1992.
Decree No. 1540 of 1994: Reorganization of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission. Creation of the National Nuclear Regulatory Entity (Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, ENREN), and creation of the corporation Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA). Sanctioned and published in the Official Bulletin in 1994. Modified by the regulations at:
Decree No. 1760 of 2009: Agreement between the National Atomic Energy Commission and Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A., regarding the article of association. Enacted on 16 November 2009. Published in the Official Bulletin on 19 November 2009.
Law No. 24 448: Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Sanctioned in 1994 and enacted in 1995.
Law No. 24 481: On Invention Patents and Utility Models, and its regulatory decree 260/91. Sanctioned in 1995. The amendments of the law appear at:
Law No. 24 776: Convention on Nuclear Safety. Sanctioned and enacted in 1997.
Law No. 24 804 and its Regulatory Decree No. 1390/98: National Law on Nuclear Activity. Tasks. Regulation criteria. Partially sanctioned and enacted in 1997. Amendments appear at:
Law No. 25 018: On Radioactive Waste Management. General provisions. Sanctioned and enacted in 1998 by means of Decree No. 1222/98. The amendments appear in the following link:
Law No. 25 022: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York, USA. Sanctioned and enacted in 1998. The amendments of the law appear at:
www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/verVinculos.do?modo=2&id=53853Law No. 25 279: Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Sanctioned and enacted in 2000. The amendments of the law appear at:
Law No. 25 313: Protocol of Amendment to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (amending and supplementing the Vienna Convention approved by Law No. 17 048). Sanctioned and enacted in 2000. Entered into force in 2003.
Law No. 25 675: On a National Environmental Policy. Minimal Budget for Sustainable Management. Sanctioned and enacted in the Official Bulletin in 2002. Modified by the regulations at:
Law No. 25 837: Agreements. Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sanctioned in 2003; enacted in 2004. Published in the Official Bulletin in 2004, it entered into force in 2004.
Law No. 25 842: Agreements. Fostering of Nuclear Technology and Science. Sanctioned in 2003, it was enacted in 2004 and published in the Official Bulletin in 2004. It entered into force in 2005.
Law No. 25 886: Section 189 bis of the Criminal Code. Sanctioned on 14 April 2004, it was enacted on 4 May 2004.
Law No. 26 566: Nuclear industry, R&D projects. Sanctioned and enacted in 2009.
Law No. 26 640: Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Sanctioned on 13 October 2010 and enacted on 16 November 2010.
Law No. 26 976: Approves the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Sanctioned on 27 August 2014 and enacted on 17 September 2014 by means of Decree No. 1605 of 2014.
Law No. 27 111: It modifies the Mining Code and Decree No. 456 of 1997, thus replacing articles 31, 215 and 221 in relation to the total value of the land. Sanctioned on 17 December 2014 and enacted on 20 January 2015.
Nuclear regulatory standards
AR 0.0.1. Licensing of Class I facilities;
AR 0.11.1. Licensing of Class I facility staff;
AR 0.11.2. Psychophysical capacity requirements for specific authorizations;
AR 0.11.3. Retraining of Class I facility staff;
AR 0.11.4. Licensing of staff for facilities Class II and Class III of the nuclear fuel cycle;
AR 2.12.1. Radiological safety criteria for the management of radioactive waste from mining manufacturing facilities;
AR 3.1.1. Occupational exposure to nuclear power reactors (NPRs);
AR 3.1.2. Limitation of radioactive effluents in NPRs;
AR 3.1.3. Radiological criteria with reference to accidents in NPRs;
AR 3.2.1. General safety criteria for the design of NPRs;
AR 3.2.3. Fire safety in NPRs;
AR 3.3.1. Design of the core of NPRs;
AR 3.3.2. Heat removal systems in NPRs;
AR 3.3.3. Primary pressure circuit in NPRs;
AR 3.3.4. Safety in fuel assemblies for NPRs;
AR 3.4.1. Protection and instrumentation system related to NPR safety;
AR 3.4.2. Extinction systems for NPRs;
AR 3.4.3. Confinement system in NPRs;
AR 3.5.1. Essential electrical supply in NPRs;
AR 3.6.1. Quality system in NPRs;
AR 3.7.1. Schedule for the presentation of documents prior to the commercial operation of an NPR;
AR 3.8.1. Preliminary tests and startup of NPRs;
AR 3.9.1. General safety criteria for the operation of NPRs;
AR 3.9.2. Communication of relevant events in NPRs;
AR 3.10.1. Protection against earthquakes in NPRs;
AR 3.17.1. Dismantling of NPRs;
AR 4.1.1. Occupational exposure in research nuclear reactors;
AR 4.1.2. Radioactive effluent limitation in research reactors;
AR 4.1.3. Radiological criteria relative to accidents in research reactors;
AR 4.2.1. Design of critical assemblies;
AR 4.2.2. Design of research reactors;
AR 4.2.3. Fire safety in research reactors;
AR 4.5.1. Design in the electric energy supply system in research reactors;
AR 4.7.1. Schedule for the presentation of documents prior to the operation of a research reactor;
AR 4.7.2. Schedule for the presentation of documents prior to the operation of a critical assembly;
AR 4.8.1. Preliminary tests and startup of critical assemblies;
AR 4.8.2. Preliminary tests and startup of research reactors;
AR 4.9.1. Operation of critical assemblies;
AR 4.9.2. Operation of research reactors;
AR 5.1.1. Occupational exposure in Class I particle accelerators;
AR 5.7.1. Schedule for the presentation of documents prior to the operation of a particle accelerator;
AR 6.1.1. Occupational exposure of Class I radioactive facilities;
AR 6.1.2. Limitation of radioactive effluents in Class I radioactive facilities;
AR 6.2.1. Design of fixed irradiation plants with mobile underwater irradiation sources;
AR 6.7.1. Schedule for the presentation of documents prior to the operation of an industrial irradiation plant;
AR 6.9.1. Operation of fixed irradiation plants with mobile underwater irradiation sources;
AR 7.9.1. Industrial scintigraphy equipment operation;
AR 7.9.2. Operation of radiation sources for industrial applications;
AR 7.11.1. Individual permits for industrial scintigraphy equipment operators;
AR 7.11.2. Individual permits for radiation sources operators for industrial applications;
AR 8.2.1. Use of sealed sources in brachytherapy;
AR 8.2.2. Operation of linear accelerators for medical use;
AR 8.2.3. Telecobalt therapy facility operation;
AR 8.2.4. Use of non-sealed radioactive sources in nuclear medicine facilities;
AR 8.11.1. Individual permits for the use of radioactive material or ionizing radiation in humans;
AR 8.11.2. Minimum clinical training requirements to obtain individual permits for medical use;
AR 8.11.3. Individual permits for specialists and technicians in radiotherapy physics;
AR 10.1.1. Basic standard of radiological safety;
AR 10.10.1. Siting evaluation for NPRs;
AR 10.12.1. Radioactive waste management;
AR 10.13.1. Physical protection standard for nuclear materials and facilities;
AR 10.13.2. Physical safety standard for sealed sources;
AR 10.14.1. Non-deviation guarantees of nuclear materials, and materials, facilities and equipment of nuclear interest;
AR 10.16.1. Transport of radioactive materials.
Main regulations in the nuclear sector
ARN is entitled to set out regulations within its competency in agreement with section (a) of article 16 of Law No. 24 804. Argentina’s regulatory standards are intended for development; they are not prescriptive but fulfil safety objectives. The way to achieve these objectives is based on the decision making process carried out by the entity responsible for the design, construction, startup, operation and decommissioning of the facility. Such organizations must provide ARN with the technical means to achieve the objectives established by the regulations.
ARN regulations take into account the agency’s regulatory experience in the control and oversight of activities in the nuclear field in Argentina, and are compatible with IAEA regulations, as well as with scientific criteria recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.
Regulatory guidelines of the institution recommend a course of action which is not compulsory and that can be used to facilitate the fulfilment of regulations.
AR 1 Dosimetric factors for external irradiation and internal contamination, as well as food intervention.
This regulatory guideline has information associated with Regulatory Standard AR 10.1.1.
AR 3 Conditions to be verified by the examining medical doctor in agreement with the psychophysical job profile diagram of the specified task.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 0.11.2.
AR 4 Design of research nuclear reactors.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 4.2.2.
AR 5 General recommendations for obtaining and renewing individual permits for industrial scintigraphy operators.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 7.11.1.
AR 6 Generic exemption levels.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 10.1.1.
AR 7 Design of critical assemblies.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 4.2.1.
AR 8 Generic clearance levels.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 10.1.1.
AR 10 Programmes of specialized and specific training for personnel licensing of Class I radioactive facilities.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 0.11.1.
AR 13 Radioactive waste storage.
Nuclear Regulatory Authority,
Law No. 24 804 of 1997 — National Law on Nuclear Activity
Decree No. 1390 of 1998.
APPENDIX 1. INTERNATIONAL, BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS
INTERNATIONAL TREATIES, CONVENTIONS,
AND AGREEMENTS SIGNED/RATIFIED BY THE COUNTRY
|TREATY/AGREEMENT NAME||DATE of SIGNATURE||NATIONAL LAW||ENACTED||RATIFICATION||ENTRY INTO FORCE||DURATION|
|Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and under Water||No. 23 340||1986||1986||1986||Unlimited|
|Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean||No. 24 272||1993||1994||1994||Unlimited|
|Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and Ocean Floor in the Subsoil ||No. 22 507||1981||1983||1989||Unlimited|
|Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||No. 24 448||1995||1995||1995||Unlimited|
|Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty||1996||No. 25 022||1998||1998||Not yet ||Unlimited|
|Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Waste and Other Matter||1972||No. 21 947||1979||1979||1979||Unlimited|
|Agreement between the Government of the Argentine Republic and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) related to the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||1996||No. 24 869||1997||1997||1997||Ten years and is automatically renewed by successive five year periods|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL)||1998||No. 25 842||2004||2004||2005||Ten years and is renewed by successive five year periods|
|International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism||2005||No. 26 976||2016||2016||2016|
|Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||1996||No. 17 048||1967||1977|
COOPERATION AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA IN THE AREA OF NUCLEAR POWER
|TREATY/AGREEMENT NAME||DATE of SIGNATURE||NATIONAL LAW||ENACTED||RATIFICATION||ENTRY INTO FORCE||DURATION|
|IAEA Statute||1956||No. 14 467||1958||1957||1957||Unlimited|
|Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and the Federal Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian–Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards||1991||No. 24 113||1992||1994||1994|
|Application of the Quadripartite Agreement in Relation to the Tlatelolco Treaty and the NPT||1997||Valid as long as Argentina is part of the Tlatelolco Treaty, NPT or Bilateral Agreement|
|Practical Arrangements between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the National Atomic Energy Agency of the Argentine Republic (CNEA)||2012||Extended in 2015|
|Agreement between the National Atomic Energy Agency of the Argentine Republic (CNEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Concerning the Establishment of the Internet Reactor Laboratory (IRL) Project in Latin America.||2013|
|Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the IAEA||No. 16 478||1964||Unlimited|
|Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the IAEA to the Government of the Argentine Republic||1991||1991||Unlimited|
|TREATY/AGREEMENT NAME||COUNTERPART||DATE of SIGNATURE||NATIONAL LAW||ENACTED||RATIFICATION||ENTRY INTO FORCE||DURATION|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Algeria||2008||No. 26 765||2012||2012||2012||20 years, with possibility of renewal|
|Cooperation Agreement on Pacific Uses of Nuclear Energy||Armenia||1998||No. 25 285||2000||2001||2001||Five years, with automatic renewal|
|Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of the Nuclear Energy||Australia||2001||No. 26 014||2005||2005||Unlimited|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Bolivia (Plurinational State)||1970||No. 18 814||1970||1971||1971||Unlimited|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services of the Argentine Republic and the Ministry of Hydrocarbons and Energy of the Plurinational State of Bolivia||Bolivia (Plurinational State)||2013||Five years, automatically extendable for periods of equal value|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Bolivia (Plurinational State)||2015||Pending||20 years, automatically extendable for ten years|
|Agreement on Immunities and Privileges of the Brazilian–Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials in Argentina||Brazil||No. 24 580||1995||Unlimited|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Application of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Brazil||1980||No. 22 494||1981||1983||1983||Ten years, with automatic renewal of two years |
|Protocol on the Immediate Notification and Mutual Assistance in Cases of Nuclear Accidents and Radiological Emergencies||Brazil||1986||Unlimited|
|Nuclear Cooperation Protocol||Brazil||1986||1986||1986||Unlimited|
|Agreement between Argentina and Brazil for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy||Brazil||1991||No. 24 046||1991||1991||Unlimited|
|Protocol on Privileges and Immunities of the Brazilian–Argentine Agency of Accountancy and Nuclear Material Control in Brazil||Brazil||Added to the above mentioned agreement in 1991||No. 24 048||1992||1992||1992||Unlimited|
|Joint Declaration Concerning the Creation of the Argentine–Brazilian Nuclear Energy Application Agency (ABAEN)||Brazil||2001||Unlimited|
|Additional Protocol to the Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Application of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy in the Areas of Reactors, Nuclear Fuels, Radioisotopes and Radiofarms and Radioactive Waste Management||Brazil||2005||Unlimited|
|Additional Protocol to the Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Application of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy in the Areas of Regulation and Implementation of Nuclear Regulation||Brazil||2005||Unlimited|
|Presidential Joint Declaration (Section B., Subcommittee on Energy, Transport and Infrastructure — Nuclear Cooperation)||Brazil||2008|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Bulgaria||2000||No. 25 809||2003||Five years, automatic renewal every five years|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Canada||1994||No. 24 646||1996||1996||30 years, automatic renewal for ten year periods|
|Cooperation Agreement in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Chile||1976||No. 22 886||1983||1983||1983||Five years, with renewal every year|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||China||1985||No. 23 712||1989||15 years, renewal for five year periods|
|Agreement for Cooperation in Construction of the Pressurized Tubes Heavy Water Reactor Project in the Argentine Republic||China||2014||2014||Shall remain in force until the parties consider, in writing, that the cooperation under this agreement is complete|
|Memorandum of Understanding on the Cooperation in the Pressurized Tubes Heavy Water Reactor Project in Argentina||China||2015||2015|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the Government Secretariat of Energy and Mining of the Argentine Republic and the National Energy Administration of the People’s Republic of China on the Cooperation for the Construction of Nuclear Power Plants in the Argentine Republic||China||2016||Pending|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Colombia||1967||No. 19 505||1972||1972||1972||Unlimited|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Application of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Costa Rica||1992||No. 24 981||1998||2006||2006||Ten years, automatic renewal for successive two year periods|
|Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation||Cuba||1984||No. 23 388||1987||Unlimited|
|Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy between the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services of the Argentine Republic and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of the Republic of Cuba||Cuba||2009||2009|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Ecuador||1977||No. 21 896||1978||1979||1979||Five years, with automatic renewal every year|
|Agreement for Scientific and Technical Cooperation||Egypt||1981||1983||Five years, with automatic renewal for five year periods|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful and Non-explosive Use of Nuclear Energy||France||1994||No. 24 647||1996||1996||1996||Ten years, with automatic renewal for successive ten year periods|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Greece||1997||No. 25 286||2000||2000||2000||Ten years, with automatic renewal for five year periods|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Development and the Application of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Guatemala||1986||No. 24 645||1996||1997||Five years, automatically renewed for two year periods|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||India||2010||No. 26 766||2012||2013||20 years, with automatic renewal for successive ten year periods|
|Agreement for the Cooperation in the Pacific Uses of Nuclear Energy||Indonesia||1990||No. 24 161||1992||1993||Five years, with automatic renewal every year|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Jordan||2009||No. 26 767||2012||Ten years, with automatic renewal for successive ten year periods|
|Agreement of Cooperation for the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Mexico||2002||No. 26 771||2012||2013||Two years, with automatic renewal for successive two year periods|
|Cooperation Agreement Concerning the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy||Morocco||1996||No. 24 980||1998||Five years, with automatic renewal on a yearly basis|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Paraguay||1967||No. 18 436||1969||1969||Unlimited|
|Cooperation Agreement in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Peru||1968||No. 18 255||1969||1969||Unlimited|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Republic of Korea||1996||No. 24 860||1997||1997||Ten years, with automatic renewal for successive five year periods|
|Agreement for the Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Romania||1990||No. 24 217||1993||1993||Ten years, with automatic renewal for successive five year periods|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the State Atomic Energy Corporation “ROSATOM” and the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services of the Argentine Republic on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Russian Federation||2010||2010|
|Agreement on the Guidelines for Cooperation between the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services of the Argentine Republic and the State Atomic Energy Corporation “ROSATOM” in the Framework of Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy||Russian Federation||2010|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the State Nuclear Energy Corporation “ROSATOM” and the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services of the Argentine Republic on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Russian Federation||2011|
|Agreement between the Government of Argentina and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Russian Federation||2014||Ten years, with automatic renewal for successive two year periods|
|Agreement for Cooperation on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Saudi Arabia||2011||No. 26 768||2012||2013||20 years, with automatic renewal for successive ten year periods|
|Special Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Application of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Spain||1978||1978||Five years, with automatic renewal for successive two year periods|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Thailand||1996||No. 24 861||1997||1998||Five years, with automatic renewal on a yearly basis|
|Agreement for the Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Turkey||1988||No. 23 914||1991||1992||15 years, with automatic renewal for successive five year periods|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy between Argentina and the United Arab Emirates||United Arab Emirates||2013||No. 26 969||2014||2014||Ten years, with renewal for successive ten year periods|
|Memorandum of Cooperation between the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs||United Arab Emirates||2014||2014||Five years|
|Agreement for Cooperation Concerning the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||United States of America||1996||No. 24 862||1997||1997||30 years|
|Agreement Concerning Cooperation to Prevent Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and other Radioactive Material||United States of America||2010||2010||Five years, with automatic renewal for successive five year periods|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the Government Secretariat of Energy and Mining from Argentina and the National Nuclear Security Administration of the United States for Cooperation in the Fields of Nuclear and Radiological Security||United States of America||2016||Unlimited|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Uruguay||1968||No. 17 938||1968||1972||Unlimited|
|Complementary Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation for Peaceful Purposes in Nuclear Energy||Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic)||1979||No. 22 314||1980||1980||Five years, with automatic renewal on a yearly basis|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Viet Nam||2001||No. 25 776||2003||2004||Ten years, with automatic renewal for successive five year periods|
APPENDIX 2. MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, ENTITIES AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER ACTIVITIES
Main organizations, entities and companies previously mentioned in Section 2, appear as follows with the corresponding contact information.
|ORGANIZATION/COMPANY ||WEB SITE|
|GOVERNMENT SECRETARIAT OF ENERGY ||www.argentina.gob.ar/energia|
|UNDER SECRETARIAT OF NUCLEAR ENERGY||www.argentina.gob.ar/energia/energia-electrica/nuclear|
|NATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION||www.argentina.gob.ar/comision-nacional-de-energia-atomica|
|NUCLEAR REGULATORY AUTHORITY (ARN)||www.argentina.gob.ar/arn|
|NUCLEOELECTRICA ARGENTINA S.A. (NA-SA)||www.na-sa.com.ar|
|COMBUSTIBLES NUCLEARES ARGENTINOS (CONUAR S.A.)||www.argentina.gob.ar/enre |
|DIOXITEK S.A||www.dioxitek.com.ar |
|EMPRESA NEUQUINA DE SERVICIOS DE INGENIERÍA S.E||www.ensi.com.ar|
|ENTE NACIONAL REGULADOR DE LA ELECTRICIDAD (ENRE)||www.argentina.gob.ar/enre |
|COMPAÑÍA ADMINISTRADORA DEL MERCADO MAYORISTA ELÉCTRICO S.A. (CAMMESA)||www.cammesa.com.ar|
Juan Leandro FERRER
Institutional Relations Manager
National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) — Argentine Republic
Av. del Libertador 8250
Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (1429)
Tel.: + 54 11 4704 1045
Norberto Ruben COPPARI
Planning, Coordination and Control Management — Strategic Planning Deputy Manager
National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) — Argentine Republic
Av. General Paz 1499
Buenos Aires Province San Martín (1650)
Tel.: + 54 11 6772 7526