This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Argentina, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Argentina.
Argentina is considered an expanding country in terms of its capacity in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Currently, Argentina operates three nuclear power plants. Two of them are in operation — Atucha I, 362 MW(e) and Atucha II, 745 MW(e) — while one is under life extension and revamping process — Embalse 648MW(e). At the same time, the CAREM 25 Small Modular Reactor Project — a nuclear reactor with a gross capacity of 32 MW(e) — is currently under construction. Argentina is also in negotiations with the People’s Republic of China through the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) for the possible construction of future NPPs.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1 ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1 Energy Policy
In December 2015, the Federal Government created the Ministry of Energy and Mining, raising the hierarchy of the former Energy Secretariat and focusing on strategic objectives such as: the reorganization of the energy sector in order to warrant the energy supply required for national development; the strategic planning of the energy matrix diversification, including the expansion of the participation of non-conventional renewable energies in the energy mix; the development of local potentials in hydrocarbons, including unconventional resources such as shale oil and shale gas; the recovery of the energy remuneration system; the promotion of an energy saving and efficiency policy; the implementation of a public energy information system and the commitment to accomplish the international agreements signed by Argentina regarding ??climate change and the sustainable development agenda.
In order to improve efficiency in the nuclear sector, the Government created the Under Secretariat of Nuclear Energy within the Ministry of Energy. Its core objectives are to assist in all matters related to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the management of radioactive sources locally; assist in the analysis, evaluation and monitoring of economic-financial engineering and the sustainability of project development associated with nuclear technology, as well as to assist state-level nuclear organizations and companies in the planning and monitoring of public investment projects; coordinate actions among the different political and social stakeholders involved in nuclear activity; set a strategy and clear objectives for the participation of Argentina in international forums, organizations and/or other initiatives in the nuclear field, both at the multilateral and bilateral level; assist dependant local organizations in actions that lead to compliance with international commitments in nuclear non-proliferation matters, nuclear safeguards, nuclear security and any other international commitments in the nuclear field; communicate coordination between the local nuclear organizations and the objectives established by the Federal Government; and assist in the design and execution of the strategic priorities of the Federal Government in the nuclear field, within the framework of the national energy matrix, among others.
According to the National Energetic Balance (BEN) 2016, 85.5% of total primary energy in Argentina was produced from fossil fuels. Furthermore, 53.6% corresponds to natural gas, 32.0% to oil, and 1.3% to mineral coal. The remaining sources correspond to hydroelectric energy (4.14%), nuclear energy (2.8%) and such renewable resources as wood (1.0%), bagasse (1.0%), biofuel (3.7%), vegetable alcohols (0.6%), wind energy (0.2%), solar energy (0.002%) and other primary resources (0.4%). This higher concentration of hydrocarbons in Argentina’s primary energy sources is a structural characteristic of the Argentine energy matrix.
It is important to consider that, according to the National Report on Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) published by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development in 2017, the energy sector is responsible for 53% of GHGs. The analysis of the BEN for the period 1970–2016 shows significant changes associated with the progressive replacement of oil by natural gas, the latter assuming all increases and the former remaining almost constant over time. It should be noted that throughout the period fossil fuels have remained between 82.2% and 92.6% of the entire primary energy mix. In past years, several laws were issued with the aim of decreasing the use of fossil fuels and making a rational use of energy by suggesting a series of objectives and mechanisms of promotion, and recognizing the importance of the participation of every energy source in the integration of the national energy mix.
As previously stated, the main goal is to diversify the power generation mix with greater participation from non-conventional renewable, hydro and nuclear energy sources. In August 2006, the reactivation of the nuclear programme was officially launched. Moreover, in 2009 Law No. 26.566 declared the nuclear programme to be of national interest and promoted special public regimes for the completion of the construction of the Atucha II NPP as well as the execution of the life extension project of the Embalse NPP — both activities under the scope of the operator of the nuclear power plants (NPP)s, Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA) — and the development of the CAREM SMR Project under the umbrella of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA).
In relation to renewable energy sources, in 2015 Law No. 27.191 instituted the creation of a National Promotion Regime for the Use of Renewable Energy Sources Destined for the Production of Electric Energy. Thus, goals have been established for the incorporation of renewable energies to the national energy matrix for electricity supply: 8%, 12%, 16%, 18% and 20% for the years 2017, 2019, 2021, 2023 and 2025, respectively.
Decree No. 231 of 2015, Ministry of Energy, National Energy Balance of the Argentine Republic, 2016, Law No. 26.566 on Nuclear Activity, Law No. 27.191 on National Promotion Regime for the Use of Renewable Energy Sources Destined for the Production of Electric Energy, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, National Report on Greenhouse Gases, 2017, Ministry of Energy, Argentina — Energy for Growth, Secretariat of Energy Planning, Scenarios and Project Assessment,
1.1.2 Estimated available energy
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Total amount in specific units*||444.00||389.294||336.53||18531||40.40||2.06|
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||10.04||12.77||11.84||18.85||0.61||0.03|
*Solid, liquid: millions tonnes; gas: billions m3; uranium: metric tonnes; hydro, renewable: TW.
Notes: For the coal reservoirs, the measured reserves of the Adaro Exploitation Plan were taken into account.
In the case of oil and gas, the proved reserves of the country until 31 December2015 were taken into account.
In the case of uranium, reasonably ensured sources are taken into account along with those inferred measured as metallic uranium at US $130. Data from December 2014.
**In the case of hydropower, the technically exploitable gross theoretical potential is 169 000 GWh/year, considering an average load factor of 0.477 power. Latest data was available in 2011.
***Regarding other renewables, the potential of geothermal sources, as well as wind and solar, are estimated considering an average load factor of 0.3. In the case of wind energy, it only corresponds to the projects submitted to the Energy Secretariat since the total wind resource potential is much higher. Latest data was available in 2011.
Ministry of Energy, Under Secretariat of Renewables Energies.
National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Reservoir and Evaluation, Raw Materials Exploration Management.
Ministry of Energy, 2030 Energy Scenarios, Secretariat of Energy Planning, Scenarios and Project Assessment. NEA-IAEA, Uranium 2016: Resources, Production and Demand, https://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2016/7301-uranium-2016.pdf
1.1.3 Energy statistics
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|1980||1990||2000||2010||2015||2016*||Compound annual growth rate (%)
|Energy consumption [EJ]**|
|Energetic production [EJ]|
|Net import (Import–Export)6 [EJ]||0.19||0.08||0.61||0.02||0.32||0.03||55.10|
* Latest available data from the 2016 National Energy Balance from the Ministry of Energy.
**Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Secondary energy net import (Import–Export)
(excluding electricity and non-energy products). In previous CNPP versions, only the primary energy consumption was considered, so the data across the whole table has been modified.
*** Solid fuels include coal from the primary sector + more net imports of residual coal and coal coke from the secondary sector.
1 Includes domestic supply of oil primary sector + net imports of all liquid fuels in the secondary sector.
2 Includes domestic supply of natural gas primary sector + net imports of all gaseous fuels in the secondary sector.
3 Takes into account the domestic offer of the primary sector of wood, bagasse, other primaries, and wind and solar energies. Also includes the domestic offer from the primary sector + net imports of biofuels from the secondary sector.
4 Shows the production of the primary energy sector.
5 Since 1997, Argentina imports all the uranium that its power plants consume, totally interrupting domestic production.
6 Net import (Import – Export) of the primary sector.
7 Total: Production + Net imports (Import–Export) of the primary sector.
1.2 THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1 Electricity system and decision making process
Since December 2015, the planning of the energy system and the decision making process is currently under the responsibility of the Ministry of Energy. Regarding the long term energy planning, the Ministry, through the Secretariat of Strategic Energy Planning, developed the 2030 Energy Scenarios, for which the basic guidelines of four alternative energy demand scenarios were established, focused on the exploitation of unconventional resources, the implementation of energy efficiency policies, and the promotion of renewable energies and other clean energy sources such as nuclear. In this regard, it is important to mention that the outcomes of the analysis which are associated with those scenarios resulting from the combination of different demand, investment, price and productivity assumptions, do not intend to be predictive, but are projections of what might occur according to the combination of such assumptions. Moreover, due to the dynamic nature of an energy sector which is undergoing a regulatory, economic and institutional normalization process, such scenarios are dynamic. Thus, this tool is part of a process for the definition of a shared vision of Argentine society for the construction of a sustainable energy future.
Goals for 2015–2019:
Normalize regulatory agencies and energy market operations.
Improve energy access and efficient use by households and productive sectors.
Ensure energy supply. Reverse the declining trend and increase oil and gas production, improve integration with neighbouring countries and boost investment in energy infrastructure, including the development of key hydro and nuclear projects in order to replace fossil fuels imports.
Diversify energy supply and incorporate renewables to Argentina’s energy matrix.
Argentina is considering restructuring its electricity market. From a situation where the electricity is largely subsidized to guaranty low prices, it is updating strategic priorities and accordingly reallocating the incentives. Among the measures taken are: 1) gradual reduction of subsidies for gas and electricity demand; 2) renegotiation of the distribution and transmission tariffs that have been frozen since 2002; 3) price increases for non-conventional gas; 4) international bids for renewable energy projects; and 5) bids for new thermal capacity.
The strategy aims to (i) decrease fossil imports; (ii) improve grid connexions with neighbouring countries; and (iii) increase by 50% the electricity generation by 2025, including the possible addition of 800 MW of nuclear and 10 GW of renewables. As part of the solution to improve energy supply security, decarbonization and access to energy, the share of nuclear energy in the electricity mix is expected to reach 10% in the mid term.
Gas and oil currently prevail in the energy mix of Argentina, which is a net importer, with consequences on the cost of electricity and its energy supply security. The country also needs to expand the population’s access to energy, particularly in remote areas, and wishes to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As the Argentinian electricity grid is not significantly connected with neighbouring countries, this lack of power cannot be compensated through electricity imports.
Ministry of Energy. Argentina, Energy for Growth, Ministry of Energy, 2030 Energy Scenarios, Secretariat of Energy Planning, Scenarios and Project Assessment, WEC, World Energy Trilemma Index, 2017, https://www.worldenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Energy-Trilemma-Index-2017-Report.pdf
1.2.2 Structure of electric power sector
Generation, transmission and distribution:
Laws No. 15.336 and No. 24.065, together with their respective regulatory decrees, establish the general legal framework that defined the dynamics of generation, transportation and distribution in the electricity system, including the categorization of the actors legitimately recognized and qualified to operate in the electricity sector. It is important to stress that under this framework the transport and distribution of electricity are defined as a public service, while generation is considered of general interest. While in the first two cases, considered natural monopolies, the National State — through the Ministry of Energy and the Electricity National Regulator Entity (ENRE) — has the power to establish specific regulations, in the case of generation system it requires regulation only for those aspects and circumstances that affect the general interest.
The recognized stakeholders in the electricity market are a) generators or producers; b) carriers; c) distributors; and d) large users.
The Electricity National Regulator Entity (ENRE) was created as an independent agency within the Energy Secretariat. Its objective is to control the enforcement of regulations on behalf of the agents of the market, thus defending the user’s interests. With the creation of the Ministry of Energy this objective has not only been maintained but also the agency’s activities and the organizational structure have been consolidated.
The Wholesale Electricity Market Administrator Company (CAMMESA) is a private managed public company created with the purpose of administering the operation of the Wholesale Electricity Market and of conducting the electricity scheduled dispatch. Wholesale Electric Market agents own 80% of CAMMESA’s share package while the remaining 20% is held by the Energy Policy Coordination Secretariat who assumes the representation of the general interest and of the captive users. The indicated 80% is integrated in equal parts of 20% each by the generating agents, carriers, distributors and large users.
Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad (ENRE), Compañía Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Eléctrico S.A. (CAMMESA), CAMMESA, Annual Report, 2016, http://www.cammesa.com/linfoanu.nsf/MINFOANU?OpenFrameSet
1.2.3 Main indicators
As mentioned in Section 1.2.2, Argentina has an energy generation system with three main sources of energy: fossil, hydro, and nuclear power. Wind and solar energy are still relatively small. Table 3 and Table 4 present the main characteristics of the electric sector.
TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
|1980||1990||2000||2010||2015||2016*||Compound annual growth rate (%)
|Capacity of electric power station (GW(e))||G/N|
|Electricity production (TWh)||G/N|
|Total Electricity Consumption (TWh)||33.49||40.53||75.28||111.87||133.30||133.30||3.64|
* Latest available data.
1 It is worth clarifying that although CNA II NPP started up from mid-2014, it started operating at full power only in February 2015.
2 It includes wood, bagasse, other primaries, biofuels, wind and solar power. The geothermal data was excluded due to insufficiency of data on its values since 1970.
3 During 2016, the CNE NPP was out of service due to life extension tasks.
**Although both the capacity and the production of electricity from other renewable energy sources has been increasing since 2010, they were negligible in comparison to the other technologies until 2014, so a growth rate for the period between those years cannot be calculated.
** Losses in electricity transmission are not deducted.
According to the merit order, technologies are dispatched first for base load: base hydro and nuclear power generation. Then, conventional thermal fossil generation meets the variable demand, and finally the rest is dispatched. Meanwhile, hydro technologies of reservoir and gas turbines satisfy the peak demands.
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)1||65.34||63.50||75.75||86.79||82,06||80.96|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)2||1242.93||1316.04||2127.46||2858.84||3108.9||3127.06|
|Electricity production/ Energy production (%)3||7.49||7.67||8.28||12.67||16.62||17.02|
|Nuclear/total electricity (%)4||5.89||14.76||6.94||5.69||5.04||5.57|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)** 4||5.72||–3.24||–33.87||–2.32||14.05||12.87|
* Latest data available.
** Net imports/total energy consumption. Net imports are calculated as imports minus exports both for primary and secondary energy except for exports exclusively from imported products. Total energy consumption is calculated as the primary domestic supply plus secondary net energy imports.
1 The energy consumption per capita considers the domestic supply of primary energy per capita plus the net imports of secondary energy per capita. For the population, the projected demographic data were taken from the 2010 Census.
2 As electricity consumption, the primary domestic supply is considered. For the population, the demographic data projected were taken from the 2010 Census.
3 The production of electrical energy over the production of BEN primary energy.
4 It represents the nuclear share in electricity generation regarding the total electricity production.
Ministry of Energy, National Energy Balance of the Argentine Republic, 2016, Ministry of Energy, Annual Statistics Report 2016 for the energy sector, Ministry of Energy, Statistical Report of the Electric Sector, 2016, Ministry of Energy, Hydrocarbons Statistical Information, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Synthesis of the Wholesale Electricity Market, 2017, https://www.cnea.gob.ar/es/publicaciones/2017-2/
Compañía Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Eléctrico S.A. (CAMMESA), CAMMESA, Annual Report, 2016, http://www.cammesa.com/linfoanu.nsf/MINFOANU?OpenFrameSet
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
On 31 May 1950, by Decree No. 10.936, the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) was created. Since then, CNEA is the main public organization devoted to research and development (R&D) in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and also promotes the highly specialized training of human resources in the field of nuclear science.
Since its creation, CNEA has made steady progress in terms of technological autonomy related to nuclear reactors. In 1964, it began the necessary studies for the construction of the Atucha I NPP. Construction of Atucha I NPP (CNA I) began in 1968 and started commercial operation in 1974. The first unit construction had a national share involvement of 36.7% of its total cost, including 13% of the electromechanical components.
The construction of Embalse NPP (CNE) began in 1974, reaching criticality in 1983 and connecting to the grid in 1984.
In late 1979, the construction of a third nuclear power plant of 700 MW(e) with natural uranium and heavy water was under consideration with a similar design and same location as Atucha I. The construction of Atucha II NPP (CAN II) began in 1981 with a scheduled operational date of July 1987. Construction was delayed due to budgetary constraints and in 1994, with 81% of construction completed, the project was officially halted. Construction was resumed with the relaunch of the Argentine Nuclear Plan in 2006. Atucha II went critical on 3 June 2014 and supplied full power to the national grid in February 2015.
Moreover, in the early 1980s, CNEA had already developed the conceptual design of a low power nuclear power plant, based on a light water reactor with passive and redundant safety systems, known as CAREM. In 2007, activities were resumed, under the guidance of CNEA. The R&D organization embraced the project and the appropriate support and institutional structure were developed to house the project.
Law No. 26.566, sanctioned on 25 November 2009, established the main projects of the national nuclear power programme:
Extension of the operating licence and the necessary tasks for CNE’s life extension.
Beginning of studies for the definition of CNA I future life extension project.
Conclusion of construction, commissioning, and operation of CNA II.
Launch of feasibility studies for the construction of a fourth NPP.
Design, execution and commissioning of a CAREM-25 NPP under the responsibility of CNEA.
In the field of nuclear fuels, the country manufactures all nuclear fuel required by its operating nuclear research reactors as well as NPPs.
Furthermore, Argentina through the Ministry of Energy and the nuclear power plant utility NA-SA is planning the construction of additional NPPs, in accordance with Law No. 26.566. To this end, the country has engaged in negotiations with the CNNC in order to explore the possibility of jointly developing the projects, given the strategic partnership established between Argentina and the People’s Republic of China.
2.1.2 Current organizational structure
According to Law No. 24.804, known as the National Nuclear Activity Law, sanctioned by the National Congress in 1997 (which entered into force in 1998), the nuclear sector was organized into three main branches: (1) promotor (the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA)); (2) regulator (the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN)); and (3) utility (Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA)).
FIG. 1. Organizational structure of the nuclear sector.
There are nuclear companies associated with CNEA, created as commercial entities devoted to supply on, an industrial scale, the nuclear sector and its related nuclear fuel cycle:
NA-SA: The state owned company in charge of the operation and construction of NPPs.
INVAP S.E.: Its main activity is the designing and building of complex technological systems for nuclear, aerospace, government and defence, industrial and medical equipment.
CONUAR S.A.: Combustibles Nucleares Argentinos S.A. Its objective is the production of nuclear fuel for research reactors and NPPs and the supply of nuclear components and equipment.
FAE S.A.: Fábrica de Aleaciones Especiales S.A. Its main activity is the production of Zircaloy tubes and structural elements.
ENSI S.E.: Empresa Neuquina de Servicios de Ingeniería S.E. This company provides heavy water for research reactors and NPPs, being one of the few heavy water producers that operate in the international market.
DIOXITEK S.A.: A company devoted to the production of uranium dioxide to supply the fabrication process of fuel assemblies for CNA I, CNA II and CNE NPPs. It also manufactures sealed Co-60 sources.
FIG. 2. Technical relations and supply connections among CNEA, NA-SA, supplier companies and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN).
2.2 NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1 Status and characteristics of nuclear power plants performance
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
In 2016, the generation record for nuclear electric production was achieved by NA-SA, with the generation of 7.677 GWh, representing 5.56% of the total electric generation of the country. From the total nuclear share, 2 476 802.7 MWh were produced by CNA I, while the remaining 5 200 489.6 MWh were produced by CNA II.
2.2.2 Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
CNA I: Throughout its lifetime, improvements in the facility design were implemented, such as: replacement of all fuel assemblies in fuel channels, construction of a second ultimate heat sink, construction of a second temporary spent fuel pool, and the modification of the third circuit. Also, in 1996, the change of the original fuel design from natural uranium to slightly enriched uranium resulted in a 40% reduction in fuel consumption and around a 30% cost reduction. This extended the time limit of the spent fuel pool to reach its maximum capacity. Subsequently, the plant was repowered with 5 MW(e) during 2013, due to the redesign of the blades of the generator’s high pressure stage. In 2003, a second heat sink, a system that enabled the management of small loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs), was put in place.
Currently, the dry storage reservoir of spent fuel elements that is necessary when completing the cooling stage in pools is under construction. Moreover, due to the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, safety measures were implemented, for example, through the installation of hydrogen recombiners to manage a severe accident. A new emergency electric system is in place and a pump has been installed in the guaranteed secondary circuit.
On 12 April 2018, CNA-I obtained the extension of its operating licence from ARN. The new authorization allows the plant to operate for five years of full power generation or until 29 September 2024, the end date of the current periodic safety review, whichever occurs first.
Regarding life management, the activities developed under the framework of the IAEA’s Technical Cooperation Programme, must be mentioned. Since 2009, activities devoted to the support of ageing management for long term operation and the enhancement of NPP life management have been performed.
CNE: On 31 December 2015, the first operational cycle of the NPP concluded, after 30 years of operation, with a net load factor of 79.04%. The decision was taken to begin the last stage of the life extension project. The objective of the project is to extend the operation of the NPP between 25 and 30 years and to increase its electric power by approximately 35 MW(e). In this context, CNE has developed a set of actions linked with the facility’s life time management and has completed a life and ageing assessment for different NPP systems. The major working areas to be developed in the project are: revision of pressure and calandria tubes, feeders, change of steam generators, and repowering.
CNA II: From a design and construction perspective, CNA II has up to date safety systems and concepts. On 29 May 2014, ARN granted the startup licence and on 21 May 2016 a commercial operating licence was also granted by ARN. CNA II started its operation recently and plant life management activities are performed on a regular basis.
2.2.3 Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
There are no reactors reaching near shutdown phase in Argentina.
TABLE 6. STATUS OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit||Shutdown reason||Decommission strategy||Current decommission phase||Current fuel management phase||Decommission licence||Licence termination year|
2.3 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
2.3.1 Nuclear power development strategy
In August 2006, the Federal Government supported the reactivation of the National Nuclear Programme for the production of nuclear energy and the development of nuclear applications for public health, industry and agriculture. To this end, as mentioned in Section 2.1.1., Law No. 26.566 was sanctioned.
Considering the prominence of light water reactors (LWRs) worldwide, Argentina has undertaken feasibility studies to incorporate evolutionary design LWRs into its fleet in the short term, given the implications of domestic and foreign policy, and from the technological, economic and human resources points of view. Their adoption will enhance and optimize the national nuclear fuel cycle capabilities, by using both technologies. Competition among suppliers is being promoted to achieve technology transfer, favourable economic and financial terms, as well as component and critical supplies guarantees.
Regarding the planning for the construction of future nuclear power plants, conversations with foreign vendors are maintained on the basis of local capabilities, taking into account the interest in involving local industry to the extent possible, particularly with regard to the nuclear fuel cycle.
It must be stressed that other capabilities related to future NPP projects are being considered, such as in the case of the production of Co-60 at CNE and the possibility of establishing a water desalination facility at the CAREM future commercial unit.
Since, according to the Law, the nuclear sector in Argentina is a federal activity, new sites are being promoted for the allocation of new NPPs.
Argentina has developed a consistent global nuclear power programme that includes a significant research capacity, an active supply chain and a domestic front end cycle. This global and integrated nuclear power programme is dedicated to the domestic consumption of energy, with the sole exception of the CAREM project, a technology developed for exportation. Argentina is developing domestic competencies and capacities to be self-sufficient throughout the fuel cycle; however, it still relies on the international market for economic reasons, as imports may lower costs. For example, although Argentina has identified enough domestic uranium resources to sustain its nuclear energy programme, the country still purchases uranium for its NPPs on the international market. Similarly, while Argentina has developed domestic enrichment capacities (relying on diffusion technology) and has a research programme on centrifugation, it still purchases enriched uranium in the international market.
In Table 7, the planned nuclear power plants are summarized, indicating their characteristics and relevant schedules:
TABLE 7. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit/Project name||Owner||Type||Capacity in MW(e)||Expected construction start year||Expected commercial year|
|CAREM 25||CNEA||PWR||32||Under construction||2021 (estimated)|
2.3.2 Project management
Argentina, the nuclear power programme is mainly supported by the Federal Government. According to the law, the Argentinian state is in charge of designing nuclear policies and exercises the functions of R&D, regulation and control of nuclear activities through two independent public entities
Currently, NA-SA manages nuclear power projects under the supervision of the Under Secretariat of Nuclear Energy, while technical support is provided by CNEA, according to the stipulations set forth by law. As an exception to this, legislation establishes that the design, implementation and commissioning of the CAREM reactor prototype are entrusted to CNEA.
For further information, please refer to Section 2.1.2.
2.3.3 Project funding
For activities in the near future, the following financing sources have been identified:
CNE life extension and repowering: This project has been financed by the Latin American Development Bank. In 2010, this entity approved funding of $240 million to extend the life of the power plant. However, this funding represents only part of the total; the most significant part is covered with contributions from the National Treasury.
CAREM project: A trust administration agreement was signed between CNEA and the National Bank. Funds for CAREM are provided by the National Treasury.
Future NPPs: Several funding options are taken into account. These include: the possibility of generating trusts, authorizing NA-SA to conclude the necessary contracts with national public financial institutions, and international financing schemes.
2.3.4 Electric grid development
Argentina is looking forward to implementing new siting for its future NPPs. Some of the sites surveyed so far warrant the installation of a high voltage grid in order to connect the NPPs with the National Grid.
National Atomic Energy Commission, http://www.cnea.gov.ar/
The Atucha site houses two operating NPPs, where cooling water is provided by the Paraná de las Palmas river. The CAREM NPP is under construction next to the Atucha site, and will also use the Paraná de las Palmas water for cooling. The Atucha site also has the capability to host future NPPs, but the environmental impact assessment needs to be completed.
To evaluate and assess possible new sites for NPPs, the Under Secretariat of Nuclear Energy — with the technical support of the CNEA, NA-SA and the company INVAP S.E. —is working on coordinating the required studies in order to develop an exhaustive survey about the existing possibilities in the country. Consideration of the location of possible future projects includes technical aspects as well as social factors, local conditions and stakeholder involvement.
2.3.6. Public awareness
Recently there has been a strong campaign, led by the Federal Government and associated agencies, to promote the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In this regard, taking into account the possibility of the construction of new NPPs in Argentina, as well as the country’s visibility as an international vendor of nuclear technology (e.g. research reactor exports), public awareness and public opinion in relation to nuclear energy and the associated companies has improved.
It is also worth mentioning that open information/transparency is warranted by law as well as promoted and provided by the Federal Government, particularly regarding nuclear policies, associated projects and specific agency activities. The main nuclear organizations promote access to detailed information on their activities, facilities and ongoing projects as well as public visits to their facilities.
For more information regarding public awareness, see Section 2.10.
2.4 ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
From the beginning of nuclear activities in Argentina, a knowledge acquisition process has been promoted. All external acquisitions, such as NPP contracts, not only facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technologies, but also maximize the involvement of the local industrial complex.
As mentioned before, the operator, as well as the company in charge of NPP construction, is NA-SA. This company is responsible for the negotiation of contracts, tariffs and agreements with international technology vendors, and is currently spearheading negotiations with CNNC for the construction of future NPPs.
CNEA was chosen to be responsible for the development and construction of the SMR CAREM project. Under its coordination, many other state owned and mixed ownership companies are involved in the construction and procurement of different products and services intended for the construction of the CAREM prototype, such as: INVAP S.E., CONUAR/FAE, and DIOXITEK S.A.
2.5 ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
The three NPPs in Argentina are the property of the State (ownership is managed through the Ministry of Energy). Since 1994, the operation of NPPs has been the sole responsibility of the state owned company NA-SA.
2.6 ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
Law No. 24804 assigns CNEA state ownership of spent fuel and responsibility for the management of radioactive waste. It also sets forth that CNEA shall determine the way in which NPPs and any other significant facilities (Type I facilities) are decommissioned.
2.7 FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
Every activity of the nuclear fuel cycle is oriented towards satisfying the main objective of guaranteeing uranium reserves and supply in the long term for the current and future operation of the commercial NPPs and research reactors in the country.
The capabilities comprehended in the nuclear fuel cycle in which Argentina is currently working are: uranium prospecting, mining, conversion and purification, fuel fabrication, waste management, and spent fuel interim storage. In addition, the country has acquired the knowledge and technologies associated with uranium enrichment. With the reactivation of the gaseous diffusion mock-up and the development of centrifuges and laser technologies, synergies among different working groups are being promoted in order to consolidate a single project direction to enhance efforts in this area.
The characteristics of the developed fuel cycle stages are as follows:
Mining, prospecting and production: As a consequence of the reactivation of the nuclear programme, active exploration/evaluation of ore deposits have been undertaken. CNEA owns 64 exploration licences in Argentina, taking into account both requested and conceded exploration permit areas, statements of discovery and ore deposits. There are also private uranium exploration companies in the country all of which are currently members of the Argentine Chamber of Uranium Companies (CADEU).
Uranium conversion: In Argentina, the uranium industry is currently owned by the State. Private sector participation exists only in the exploration phase, even though legislation provides for the participation of both public and private sectors in uranium exploration and development activities.
The conversion of uranium concentrate (U3O8 or ADU) to UO2 is performed by DIOXITEK S.A. This public company is the only enterprise with the capability to produce nuclear grade uranium powder in the country. The nominal production capacity of the DIOXITEK plant is 150 t of UO2 per year.
A new uranium dioxide processing plant (NPUO2) is under construction. This industrial plant will have a capacity of 460 t UO2 per year.
Uranium enrichment: The technology developed by CNEA at the Pilcaniyeu Technological Complex is gaseous diffusion. Research is also being conducted for the command of laser and ultracentrifuge technologies.
Fuel fabrication: The Factory of Special Alloys, FAE SA, is in charge of the manufacture of Zircaloy rods and UO2 pellets used in the fuel fabrication process. The technology applied was developed by CNEA and is constantly updated. Fuel fabrication is performed by CONUAR SA. UO2 pellets are fabricated and assembled for fuel assemblies of CNA I, CNAII, and CNE NPPs and material testing reactor (MTR) type fuels and fuels for the RA-3 research reactor are also fabricated by the company. CONUAR will also be responsible for the provision of the locally designed fuel assemblies for the CAREM project.
Storage of spent fuels: The nuclear operators are responsible for the storage, treatment and transportation of the spent fuels. Temporary storage of spent fuels is performed in situ in the NPPs. The utility is jointly working with CNEA on analysing the future steps that will be taken in the near future.
Regarding the waste generated by uranium mining activities, the Project of Environmental Restoration of Uranium Mining (Proyecto de Restitución Ambiental de la Minería del Uranio, PRAMU) aims at reconditioning sites where activities related to uranium mining have been developed.
Radioactive waste management: All radioactive waste management activities are oriented towards guaranteeing environment protection, public health and the rights of future generations in accordance with the regulations set forth by ARN and in compliance with the law. Further, Law No. 25.018 establishes CNEA as the institution responsible for the implementation of the Radioactive Waste Management National Programme (Programa Nacional de Gestión de Residuos Radiactivos, PNGRR).
Disposal of spent fuel: CNEA is responsible for the disposal of spent fuel. The decision whether to reprocess fissile material contained in spent fuel has to be adopted before 2030, when the design phase of an underground laboratory would be expected to start in order for a deep geological repository to be commissioned by 2060, as set forth in the 2012 Strategic Plan.
2.8 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1 R&D organizations
CNEA, as the national institution devoted to R&D in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, fosters technologically innovative activities in the nuclear area and consequently performs development and transfer of new technologies in associated fields. One of its main aims has been to provide robust technological support to the country’s nuclear system.
Argentina has engaged in a wide array of R&D activities in the fields of physical sciences, chemistry, radiobiology, metallurgy, science and technology of materials and engineering. In particular, CNEA’s capabilities in radioisotope production, applications and ionizing radiation underscore its experience as a world strategic leader in the field of nuclear applications in human health.
As the nuclear activity in Argentina is a federal activity, several facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle are scattered across the national territory. It is important to mention that the following centres concentrate the main activities developed by CNEA:
Bariloche Atomic Centre (Centro Atómico Bariloche — CAB), mainly devoted to research, development and training of human resources in the fields of physics and nuclear engineering.
Constituyentes Atomic Centre (Centro Atómico Constituyentes — CAC) performs activities within basic research and technological development, focusing on interdisciplinary activities such as micro and nanotechnology.
Ezeiza Atomic Centre (Centro Atómico Ezeiza — CAE), located in the Ezeiza district, is mainly devoted to nuclear technology applications development.
Pilcaniyeu Technological Complex, located in the province of Río Negro, is devoted to uranium enrichment activities and other technological activities.
In total, Argentina operates five research reactors, one in each nuclear research centre and two at public national universities.
2.8.2 Development of advanced nuclear technologies
CNEA organizes research and technological activities of scientific development in different fields. These activities involve advanced projects related to nuclear activity and its applications.
Argentina has designed and is developing its own small and medium sized reactor (SMR), which is called Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares — CAREM. At the beginning of 2014, the structural construction of the civil works started. For further information regarding the CAREM project, see Sections 2.1.1 and 2.3.1.
2.8.3 International cooperation and initiatives
Argentina has been a Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1957 and has gradually developed a nuclear energy policy in line with international conventions and treaties in the nuclear field.
Argentina has strengthened its participation in multilateral forums such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG); the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC); the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT); and the Generation IV International Forum (GIF).
Argentina also participates in the Ibero-American Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulatory Agencies (Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiológicos y Nucleares — FORO) and the CANDU Senior Regulators Group (CSRG).
On 1 September 2017, Argentina officially joined the Nuclear Energy Agency. Argentina is currently an active participant in NEA meetings and working groups.
The scope of international cooperation in the area of nuclear energy development and its application is extensive between the main entities that perform in the Argentine nuclear sector and international companies, governments, and organizations. Such cooperation is promoted and carried out by CNEA, ARN, and NA-SA, which maintain a special link with the IAEA. It also must be stressed that Argentina has developed strong ties with Latin American countries, promoted in part by the IAEA through the Project Area of Latin America, also through the projects under the Regional Cooperative Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) and through initiatives launched and developed by CNEA. Every year, CNEA receives an important number of foreign students and professionals, mainly from Latin American countries, Africa and Asia, who participate in the scholarship programme which is awarded by the IAEA.
Bilateral cooperation is developed according to three axes: interaction with countries with a long history in the nuclear field; assistance to newcomer countries; and collaboration and complementarity activities with countries with an expanding nuclear programme.
The first objective is achieved by participating in technological development projects with agencies of well established nuclear countries in order to promote local technological development; the second axis is completed by cooperating with newcomer countries with the objective of promoting knowledge of Argentine nuclear technology overseas, and at the same time achieving a commercial purpose by opening up potential markets for the national nuclear sector; and the third axis is achieved by complementing and integrating efforts in search of synergies and economies of scale. NA-SA has a special collaboration agreement with the Brazilian Electro nuclear company, sharing Brazilian and Argentine work during the outages at the nuclear stations in Brazil and Argentina, as well as other issues of interest for both countries.
Within the context of its regulating task, ARN also has close and diverse interaction with national and foreign organizations, both governmental and non-governmental.
2.9 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
Argentina has developed a long-lasting nuclear education and training programme. CNEA is the main human resources training institution in the nuclear field. Since its creation in the 1950s, CNEA trains highly specialized human resources in strategic areas of the nuclear field as well as the scientific, technical and national productive system. For this purpose, in agreement with Argentine public national universities three academic institutes have been created over the years. The teaching positions are staffed by active engineers, scientists and technologists. The professional quality of the graduates is assured by full-time dedication, small intense classes, and supervised hands-on learning in the laboratories of CNEA nuclear research centres, where the students have full access to the different facilities.
CNEA has a long tradition of welcoming students from regional countries and vast experience in the training of foreign students responsible for operating the different facilities sold by the country abroad, as is the case of research reactors.
For the development of the necessary capacities in human resources and for them to sustain the diverse activities promoted by the organizations that integrate the Argentine nuclear sector, these three academic institutions have undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in several specialties:
Balseiro Institute (IB) is located at the Bariloche Atomic Centre (CAB). It was founded in 1955 through an agreement between CNEA and the National University of Cuyo (UNCuyo), as a specialized centre for physics teaching. It later incorporated other careers, mainly related to nuclear technology, including nuclear engineering. It was designated as an IAEA Collaborating Centre.
Sábato Institute (IS) is located at the Constituyentes Atomic Centre (CAC). It was founded in 1993, based on the Training Programme on Metallurgy. It is affiliated with the National University of San Martín (UNSAM) and is mainly focused on material science and technology.
Dan Beninson Institute (IDB) is located at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre (CAE). It was created through an agreement between CNEA and UNSAM in 2006. It is focused on nuclear engineering, methodology and application of radioisotopes, radiotherapy physics and dosimetry. For its part, Argentina through ARN, has been training people in radiological protection and nuclear safety for more than thirty years. An important part of these activities is carried out in collaboration with national universities, such as the University of Buenos Aires (UBA), and courses are also developed with the support of the IAEA.
Education and training on nuclear and radiological safety, based on ARN’s postgraduate courses and other training courses on this subject and the training of nearly 900 professionals from Latin America, the Caribbean and other regions of the world, together with the IAEA’s decision to create competency through training and knowledge management in safety, has prompted the IAEA to establish a long term compromise with ARN to support this activity.
2.10 STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
In recent decades, the Argentine nuclear sector as a whole has undergone a series of substantive changes regarding engagement with the various stakeholders directly or indirectly involved in the development of its activities. Specifically, with the reactivation of the nuclear programme and the development of its associated projects, public institutions and a network of companies, including research, development and production agencies and the operator of the NPPs, have established institutional communication policies and, when necessary according to the law, have held corresponding public hearings.
All the projects — those that were reactivated as well as those that started from scratch — are in compliance with the laws currently in force at the local, provincial and national levels. A close relationship is maintained with the federal and local regulatory and inspection organizations on a regular and collaborative basis (ARN, provincial Ministries of Environment, provincial water departments, provincial organisms for sustainable development, municipalities, among others), understanding that the safety of people and the environment are essential for the continuity of nuclear activities and a cornerstone of the nuclear sector. The study of social perception is also essential, in order to better direct communication activities and fulfil the legal requirements in the case of the environmental impact assessments required by the various control agencies mentioned previously. The inclusion of civil society aims at involving it in the decision making process and at raising awareness about its main concerns and expectations about nuclear activities.
Additionally, in the case of companies with State participation, actions linked to incorporate social responsibility are promoted, including an active involvement in the communities where those facilities are located, as well as other actions related to the protection of the environment.
For communication of the various initiatives and projects in the field of nuclear power as well as in R&D and the application of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, campaigns are regularly developed through the various agencies and companies and their communication channels — including social media — as well as through participation in fairs, exhibitions and thematic events linked to the development of scientific and technological activities, in general.
Furthermore, Argentina has fostered interaction at bilateral levels with its neighbouring countries and among their governmental agencies through the signing of institutional agreements. It has thus developed an active agenda of promotion of its main projects, communicating their main objectives and providing transparency by transmitting their characteristics by enhancing information exchange and experts’ visits.
2.11 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Any activity involving the use of ionizing radiation, hence regulated by ARN, shall have emergency procedures or plans in place. This is a requirement of the licensing process and oversight of these activities. ARN sets criteria and evaluates the radiological and nuclear emergency plans and procedures, which are made by the controlled facilities.
Regarding intervention in radiological emergencies in facilities other than nuclear power plants, ARN has a Radiological Emergency Intervention System (Sistema de Intervención de Emergencias Radiológicas, SIER). This system is designed to:
Advise the operators of facilities in case of radiological emergencies;
Advise public authorities intervening in control of radiological emergencies;
Intervene in emergency situations in those facilities or practices in which radiological accidents cannot be controlled by those responsible for the facilities where such accidents took place, or in which members of the public could be affected, and in which unforeseen radiological emergency situations happen in public areas.
SIER has a primary intervention group which works in weekly shifts throughout the year. This system has specific equipment and the logistics structure necessary for timely and efficient intervention in accidents with potential radiological consequences.
ARN has established cooperation agreements with other agencies such as the Federal Police, the National Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard to act in radiological emergencies.
In order to comply with the provisions set forth by Law No. 24.804 and its reglementary decree, ARN has created the Intervention System in Nuclear Emergencies (Sistema de Intervención en Emergencias Nucleares, SIEN), which complements the existing SIER in case of nuclear emergencies. In the event that the latter may reach members of the public, SIEN is designed to fulfil the intrinsic function of ARN, undertaking the actions of other organizations involved, such as the Municipal Civil Defence, the Provincial Civil Defence Department (in Buenos Aires and Córdoba), and the National Civil Protection Department.
It is important to note that all the activities of ARN, which has over 50 years of regulatory experience with the treatment of accidents, have also been developed within the legal framework of the National Nuclear Activity Law No. 24.804 and its Reglementary Decree No. 1390. This activity fully complies with the recommendations and obligations at an international level and is also supported by scientific knowledge on the matter.
The main features of the emergency response systems of ARN can be summarized as follows:
SIEN System: The Nuclear Emergency Intervention System, which has the following objectives:
Respond to emergencies caused by accidents at nuclear power plants with consequences outside the facility;
Intervene in the stages of emergency preparation, training and intervention;
Establish a link with the Federal Emergency System (SIFEM).
SIER System: The Radiological Emergency Intervention System, which has the following objectives:
Respond to radiological emergencies occurring in facilities and minor practices, or affecting the population;
Respond to unforeseen radiological emergencies in public areas;
Advise public entities and users.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1 Regulatory authority
In 1994, the State designated a governmental, autonomous and technically independent institution for the exclusive exercise of these functions in order to differentiate its own regulatory role from that of the regulated. Therefore, Decree No. 1540 of 1994 established the National Nuclear Regulatory Agency (Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, ENREN) until the promulgation, on 23 April 1997, of Law No. 24804, which established the current Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN). This law states that the State sets the regulation policy and control of the nuclear industry by means of ARN. Decree No. 1390 of 27 November 1998 regulates this law by defining its scope and procedures that facilitate its application.
ARN acts as an autarchic agency within the jurisdiction of the President and is subject to the public comptroller. In compliance with article 7 of the law, ARN is in charge of regulating and controlling the activities undertaken by the nuclear industry in all areas related to nuclear and radiation safety; protection, physical security and control of the use of nuclear materials; and licensing and control of nuclear installations and international safeguards. The law states that the regulation and control of the activity of the nuclear industry is subject to ‘national jurisdiction’ regarding these aspects.
ARN regulates and controls the activities undertaken in the nuclear industry in Argentina and ensures its compliance with the binding regulation in order to:
Protect people, the environment and future generations from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation;
Guarantee that nuclear materials are used only for authorized peaceful purposes;
Advise the executive in the field of nuclear industry.
With these objectives in mind, ARN fulfils the following activities:
Establishes a regulatory framework;
Issues, suspends or revokes installations and personnel licences;
Oversees and controls, by means of inspections, evaluations and regulatory audits;
Monitors the environment around the nuclear facilities and other sites of interest;
Intervenes in case of emergencies at the national, provincial or municipal level;
Manages training and education related to the regulatory act;
Authorizes imports and exports of all radioactive materials.
3.1.2 Licensing process
Facilities overseen by ARN have different aims, such as: electricity generation; fabrication of fuel elements for nuclear reactors; radioisotope production; radiation sources production; sterilization of medical materials; and the use and application of ionizing sources in medicine, industry, and basic and applied research.
From a licensing process, facilities are classified as Class I, II and III facilities, differentiated on the basis of radiation risk and risk associated with technological complexity.
For Class I and II facilities, ARN grants licences, and for Class III facilities it grants records, according to the binding regulatory regulations AR 0.0.1. and AR 0.11.1.
Class I facilities require the following types of authorization to be granted: building licence, startup licence, operating licence and decommissioning licence. These facilities must operate with an operating licence, and its personnel must have the individual licences and specific authorizations to have posts that have a significant influence on safety.
Class II facilities require an operating licence issued to the responsible institution of the practice with radioactive material or with ionizing radiation. Additionally, it is necessary that those responsible hold specific individual permits for specific practices.
Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), http://www.arn.gob.ar/
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The national legal framework has governed nuclear activities in Argentina since the 1950s. This legal framework comprises the National Constitution, bilateral and multilateral treaties and conventions, laws, decrees, resolutions and regulatory standards.
Decree No. 10.936 of 31 May 1950 created the National Atomic Energy Commission (Comisión Nacional de la Energía Atómica — CNEA), which is in charge of R&D as well as the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. CNEA is a shareholder in most industrial companies involved in the nuclear fuel cycle. At present, CNEA reports to the Under Secretariat of Nuclear Energy, Ministry of Energy.
Law No. 24.804 of 2 April 1997 (National Nuclear Law) established the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear — ARN), replacing the previously existing safety authority. ARN is an autonomous public body, empowered by the National Nuclear Law to issue safety regulations, in the form of resolutions, regulatory standards (referred to as AR Standards) and regulatory guides. At present, ARN reports to the General Secretariat of the Presidency.
The Argentine legal and regulatory system entails different aspects from ratification of international treaties for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy to establishing different standards for the regulation and control of the nuclear industry, R&D and projects in Argentina.
National Constitution of the Argentine Republic, Arts. 41/42/43: regarding the rights and obligations in maintaining a healthy environment for present and future generations, the right to be informed about the incidence of consumption activities in the health, safety and economic interests of the citizens, and the legal actions citizens are able to take in case the aforementioned rights are affected.
Law No. 1919: Mining Code. It was passed, and later sanctioned in 1886. Amendments and complementary regulations of the law are available in the following link:
Amendments and/or complementary regulations of the law are available in the following link:
Decree/Law No. 6673: Patents and Trademarks. Model or Industrial Design. Reglementary Decree No. 5682/65. Sanctioned in 1963. Modified by the regulations appearing in:
Law No. 17048: Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage. Sanctioned and enacted in 1966. Modified by Law No. 22455.
Law No. 21947: Convention on Prevention of Pollution of the Sea due to Discharge of Waste and Other Substances. Sanctioned and enacted in 1979.
Law No. 22455: Convention Relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material. Sanctioned and enacted in 1981.
Law No. 22498 of 1956: Legal Regime of the National Atomic Energy Commission, as an autarchic entity. Enacted on 19 December 1956. Published in the Official Bulletin on 28 December 1956.
Law No. 22507: Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof. Sanctioned and enacted in 1981.
Law No. 23340: Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water. Sanctioned and enacted in 1986.
Law No. 23353: article 867, Customs Code modification, for a new classification of smuggling crimes. Enacted 14 august 1986. Published in the Official Bulletin on 10 September 1986.
Law No. 23620: Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Sanctioned and enacted in 1988. Amended by Law No. 26640, sanctioned on 13 October 2010 and enacted on 16 November 2010.
Law No. 23731: Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Sanctioned and enacted in 1989 by Decree No. 983/89.
Decree No. 603 of 1992: Export Control Regime of Sensitive Material and War Material. Establishes the Argentine Commission of Export Control of Sensitive Material and War Material. Published in the Official Bulletin on 14 April 1992. Modified by the regulations set forth in the following link:
Law No. 24051: on Hazardous Waste. Enacted 17 December 1991. Published in the Official Bulletin on 17 January 1992.
Law No. 24272: Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty), adopted in Mexico in 1967 with introduced amendments in 1990, 1991 and 1992 (Tlatelolco Treaty). Sanctioned and enacted in 1993.
Decree No. 981 of 2005: Modification of Nucleoeléctrica Argentina Sociedad Anónima article of association. Enacted 18 August 2005. Published in the Official Bulletin on 22 August 2005.
Decree No. 1065 of 2001: Modification of the authority structure of the National Atomic Energy Commission. Enacted 23 August 2001. Published in the Official Bulletin on 28 August 2001.
Decree No. 1085 of 2006: Regarding the completion of activities related to the conclusion of the Atucha II NPP by Nucleoeléctrica Argentina Sociedad Anónima. Enacted 23 August 2006. Published in the Official Bulletin on 25 August 2006.
Decree No. 1390/98: Approving the regimentation of Law No. 24.804 on Nuclear Activity. Enacted 27 November 1998. Published in the Official Bulletin on 4 December 1992.
Decree No. 1540 of 1994: Reorganization of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission. Creation of the National Nuclear Regulatory Entity (Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, ENREN), and creation of the corporation Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA). Sanctioned and published in the Official Bulletin in 1994. Modified by the regulations established in the following link:
Decree No. 1760 of 2009: Agreement between the National Atomic Energy Commission and Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A., regarding the article of association. Enacted on 16 November 2009. Published in the Official Bulletin on 19 November 2009.
Law No. 24448: Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Sanctioned in 1994 and enacted in 1995.
Law No. 24481: On Invention Patents and Utility Models, and its reglementary decree 260/91. Sanctioned in 1995. The amendments of the law appear in the following link:
Law No. 24776: Convention on Nuclear Safety. Sanctioned and enacted in 1997.
Law No. 24804 and its Reglementary Decree No. 1390/98: National Law on Nuclear Activity. Tasks. Regulation criteria. Partially sanctioned and enacted in 1997. Amendments appear in the following link:
Law No. 25018: On Radioactive Waste Management. General provisions. Sanctioned and enacted in 1998 by means of Decree No. 1222/98. The amendments appear in the following link:
Law No. 25022: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York, USA. Sanctioned and enacted in 1998. The amendments of the law appear in the following link:
http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/verVinculos.do?modo=2&id=53853Law No. 25279: Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Sanctioned and enacted in 2000. The amendments of the law appear in the following link:
Law No. 25313: Protocol of Amendment to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (amending and supplementing the Vienna Convention approved by Law No. 17048). Sanctioned and enacted in 2000. Entered into force in 2003.
Law No. 25675: On a National Environmental Policy. Minimal Budget for Sustainable Management. Sanctioned and enacted in the Official Bulletin in 2002. Modified by the regulations set forth in:
Law No. 25837: Agreements. Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sanctioned in 2003; enacted in 2004. Published in the Official Bulletin in 2004, it entered into force in 2004.
Law No. 25842: Agreements. Fostering of Nuclear Technology and Science. Sanctioned in 2003, it was enacted in 2004 and published in the Official Bulletin in 2004. It entered into force in 2005.
Law No. 25886: Section 189 bis of the Criminal Code. Sanctioned on 14 April 2004, it was enacted on 4 May 2004.
Law No. 26566: Nuclear industry, R&D projects. Sanctioned and enacted in 2009.
Law No. 26640: Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Sanctioned on 13 October 2010 and enacted on 16 November 2010.
Law No. 26976: Approves the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Sanctioned on 27 August 2014 and enacted on 17 September 2014 by means of Decree No. 1605 of 2014.
Law No. 27111: It modifies the Mining Code and Decree No. 456 of 1997, thus replacing articles 31, 215 and 221 in relation to the total value of the land. Sanctioned on 17 December 2014 and enacted on 20 January 2015.
Nuclear Regulatory Standards:
AR 0.0.1. Licensing of Class I facilities;
AR 0.11.1. Licensing of Class I facility staff;
AR 0.11.2. Psychophysical capacity requirements for specific authorizations;
AR 0.11.3. Retraining of Class I facilities staff;
AR 0.11.4. Licensing of staff for facilities Class II and Class III of the nuclear fuel cycle;
AR 2.12.1. Radiological safety criteria for the management of radioactive waste from mining manufacturing facilities;
AR 3.1.1. Occupational exposure to nuclear power reactors (NPRs);
AR 3.1.2. Limitation of radioactive effluents in NPRs;
AR 3.1.3. Radiological criteria with reference to accidents in NPRs.
AR 3.2.1. General safety criteria for the design of NPRs;
AR 3.2.3. Fire safety in NPRs;
AR 3.3.1. Design of the core of NPRs;
AR 3.3.2. Heat removal systems in NPRs;
AR 3.3.3. Primary pressure circuit in NPRs;
AR 3.3.4. Safety in fuel assemblies for NPRs;
AR 3.4.1. Protection and instrumentation system related to NPR safety;
AR 3.4.2. Extinction systems for NPRs;
AR 3.4.3. Confinement system in NPRs;
AR 3.5.1. Essential electrical supply in NPRs;
AR 3.6.1. Quality system in NPRs;
AR 3.7.1. Schedule for the presentation of documents prior to the commercial operation of an NPR;
AR 3.8.1. Preliminary tests and startup of NPRs;
AR 3.9.1. General safety criteria for the operation of NPRs;
AR 3.9.2. Communication of relevant events in NPRs;
AR 3.10.1. Protection against earthquakes in NPRs;
AR 3.17.1. Dismantling of NPRs;
AR 4.1.1. Occupational exposure in research nuclear reactors;
AR 4.1.2. Radioactive effluent limitation in research reactors;
AR 4.1.3. Radiological criteria relative to accidents in research reactors;
AR 4.2.1. Design of critical compounds;
AR 4.2.2. Design of research reactors;
AR 4.2.3. Fire safety in research reactors;
AR 4.5.1. Design in the electric energy supply system in research reactors;
AR 4.7.1. Schedule for the presentation of documents prior to the operation of a research reactor;
AR 4.7.2. Schedule for the presentation of documents prior to the operation of a critical compound;
AR 4.8.1. Preliminary tests and startup of critical component;
AR 4.8.2. Preliminary tests and startup of research reactors;
AR 4.9.1. Operation of critical component;
AR 4.9.2. Operation of research reactors;
AR 5.1.1. Occupational exposure in Class I particle accelerators;
AR 5.7.1. Schedule for the presentation of documents prior to the operation of a particle accelerator;
AR 6.1.1. Occupational exposure of Class I radioactive facilities;
AR 6.1.2. Limitation of radioactive effluents in Class I radioactive facilities;
AR 6.2.1. Design of fixed irradiation plants with mobile underwater irradiation sources;
AR 6.7.1. Schedule for the presentation of documents prior to the operation of an industrial irradiation plant;
AR 6.9.1. Operation of fixed irradiation plants with mobile underwater irradiation sources;
AR 7.9.1. Industrial gammagraphy equipment operation;
AR 7.9.2. Operation of radiation sources for industrial applications;
AR 7.11.1. Individual permits for industrial gammagraphy equipment operators;
AR 7.11.2. Individual permits for radiation sources operators for industrial application;
AR 8.2.1. Use of sealed sources in brachytherapy;
AR 8.2.2. Operation of linear accelerators for medical use;
AR 8.2.3. Telecobalt therapy facility operation;
AR 8.2.4. Use of non-sealed radioactive sources in nuclear medicine facilities;
AR 8.11.1. Individual permits for the use of radioactive material or ionizing radiation in humans;
AR 8.11.2. Minimum clinical training requirements to obtain individual permits for medical use.
AR 8.11.3. Individual permits for specialists and technicians in radiotherapy physics;
AR 10.1.1. Basic standard of radiological safety;
AR 10.10.1. Siting evaluation for NPRs;
AR 10.12.1. Radioactive waste management;
AR 10.13.1. Physical protection standard for nuclear materials and facilities;
AR 10.13.2. Physical safety standard for sealed sources;
AR 10.14.1. Non-deviation guarantees of nuclear materials, and materials, facilities and equipment of nuclear interest;
AR 10.16.1. Transport of radioactive materials.
3.2.2. Main regulations in the nuclear sector
ARN is entitled to set out regulations within its competency in agreement with section a) of article 16 of Law No. 24804. Argentine regulatory standards are intended for development; they are not prescriptive but fulfil safety objectives. The way to achieve these objectives is based on the decision making process by the entity responsible for the design, construction, startup, operation and decommissioning of the facility. Such organizations must provide ARN with the technical means to achieve the objectives established by the regulations.
Regulations of ARN include the agency regulatory experience in the control and oversight of activities in the nuclear field in Argentina, which are compatible with IAEA regulations, as well as with scientific criteria recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).
Regulatory guidelines of the institution recommend a course of action which is not compulsory and that can be used to facilitate the fulfilment of regulations.
AR 1 Dosimetric factors for external irradiation and internal contamination, as well as food intervention.
This regulatory guideline has information associated with Regulatory Regulation AR 10.1.1.
AR 3 Conditions to be verified by the examining medical doctor in agreement with the psychophysical job profile diagram of the specified task.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 0.11.2.
AR 4 Design of research nuclear reactors.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 4.2.2.
AR 5 General recommendations for obtaining and renewing individual permits for industrial gammagraphy operators.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 7.11.1.
AR 6 Generic exemption levels.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 10.1.1.
AR 7 Design of critical assemblies.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 4.2.1.
AR 8 Generic clearance levels.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 10.1.1.
AR 10 Programmes of specialized and specific training for personnel licensing of Class I radioactive facilities.
This regulatory guideline has information related to Regulatory Standard AR 0.11.1.
AR 13 Radioactive waste storage.
Nuclear Regulatory Authority
Law No. 24804 of 1997 — National Law on Nuclear Activity
Decree No. 1390 of 1998.
APPENDIX 1. INTERNATIONAL, BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS
INTERNATIONAL TREATIES, CONVENTIONS,
AND AGREEMENTS SIGNED/RATIFIED BY THE COUNTRY
|TREATY/AGREEMENT NAME||DATE of SIGNATURE||NATIONAL LAW||ENACTED||RATIFICATION||ENTRY INTO FORCE||DURATION|
|Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and under Water||No. 23.340||1986||1986||1986||Unlimited|
|Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean||No. 24.272||1993||1994||1994||Unlimited|
|Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and Ocean Floor in the Subsoil ||No. 22.507||1981||1983||1989||Unlimited|
|Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||No. 24.448||1995||1995||1995||Unlimited|
|Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty||1996||No. 25.022||1998||1998||Not yet ||Unlimited|
|Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Waste and Other Matter||1972||No. 21947||1979||1979||1979||Unlimited|
|Agreement between the Government of the Argentine Republic and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) related to the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||1996||No. 24.869||1997||1997||1997||Ten years and is automatically renewed by successive five year periods|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL)||1998||No. 25.842||2004||2004||2005||Ten years and is renewed by successive five year periods|
|International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism||2005||No. 26.976||2016||2016||2016|
|Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||1996||No. 17.048||1967||1977|
COOPERATION AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA IN THE AREA OF NUCLEAR POWER
|TREATY/AGREEMENT NAME||DATE of SIGNATURE||NATIONAL LAW||ENACTED||RATIFICATION||ENTRY INTO FORCE||DURATION|
|IAEA Statute||1956||No. 14.467||1958||1957||1957||Unlimited|
|Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and the Federal Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards||1991||No. 24113||1992||1994||1994|
|Application of the Quadripartite Agreement in Relation to the Tlatelolco Treaty and the NPT||1997||Valid as long as Argentina is part of the Tlatelolco Treaty, NPT or Bilateral Agreement|
|Practical Arrangements between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the National Atomic Energy Agency of the Argentine Republic (CNEA)||2012||Extended in 2015|
|Agreement between the National Atomic Energy Agency of the Argentine Republic (CNEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Concerning the Establishment of the Internet Reactor Laboratory (IRL) Project in Latin America.||2013|
|Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the IAEA||No. 16.478||1964||Unlimited|
|Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the IAEA to the Government of the Argentine Republic||1991||1991||Unlimited|
|TREATY/AGREEMENT NAME||COUNTERPART||DATE of SIGNATURE||NATIONAL LAW||ENACTED||RATIFICATION||ENTRY INTO FORCE||DURATION|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Algeria||2008||No. 26.765||2012||2012||2012||20 years, with possibility of renewal|
|Cooperation Agreement on Pacific Uses of Nuclear Energy||Armenia||1998||No. 25.285||2000||2001||2001||Five years, with automatic renovation|
|Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of the Nuclear Energy||Australia||2001||No. 26.014||2005||2005||Unlimited|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Bolivia (Plurinational State)||1970||No. 18.814||1970||1971||1971||Unlimited|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services of the Argentine Republic and the Ministry of Hydrocarbons and Energy of the Plurinational State of Bolivia||Bolivia (Plurinational State)||2013||Five years, automatically extendable for periods of equal value|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Bolivia (Plurinational State)||2015||Pending||20 years, automatically extendable for ten years|
|Agreement on Immunities and Privileges of the Brazilian–Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials in Argentina||Brazil||No. 24.580||1995||Unlimited|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Application of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Brazil||1980||No. 22.494||1981||1983||1983||Ten years, with automatic renovation of two years |
|Protocol on the Immediate Notification and Mutual Assistance in Cases of Nuclear Accidents and Radiological Emergencies||Brazil||1986||Unlimited|
|Nuclear Cooperation Protocol||Brazil||1986||1986||1986||Unlimited|
|Agreement between Argentina and Brazil for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy||Brazil||1991||No. 24.046||1991||1991||Unlimited|
|Protocol on Privileges and Immunities of the Brazilian–Argentine Agency of Accountancy and Nuclear Material Control in Brazil||Brazil||Added to the above mentioned agreement in 1991||No. 24.048||1992||1992||1992||Unlimited|
|Joint Declaration Concerning the Creation of the Argentine–Brazilian Nuclear Energy Application Agency (ABAEN)||Brazil||2001||Unlimited|
|Additional Protocol to the Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Application of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy in the Areas of Reactors, Nuclear Fuels, Radioisotopes and Radiofarms and Radioactive Waste Management||Brazil||2005||Unlimited|
|Additional Protocol to the Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Application of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy in the Areas of Regulation and Implementation of Nuclear Regulation||Brazil||2005||Unlimited|
|Presidential Joint Declaration (Section B., Subcommittee on Energy, Transport and Infrastructure — Nuclear Cooperation)||Brazil||2008|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Bulgaria||2000||No. 25.809||2003||Five years, automatic renovation every five years|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Canada||1994||No. 24.646||1996||1996||30 years, automatic renovation for ten year periods|
|Cooperation Agreement in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Chile||1976||No. 22.886||1983||1983||1983||Five years, with renovation every year|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||China||1985||No. 23.712||1989||15 years, renovations for five year periods|
|Agreement for Cooperation in Construction of the Pressurized Tubes Heavy Water Reactor Project in the Argentine Republic||China||2014||2014||Shall remain in force until the parties consider, in writing, that the cooperation under this agreement is complete.|
|Memorandum of Understanding on the Cooperation in the Pressurized Tubes Heavy Water Reactor Project in Argentina||China||2015||2015|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Energy and Mining of the Argentine Republic and the National Energy Administration of the People’s Republic of China on the Cooperation for the Construction of Nuclear Power Plants in the Argentine Republic||China||2016||Pending|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Colombia||1967||No. 19.505||1972||1972||1972||Unlimited|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Application of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Costa Rica||1992||No. 24.981||1998||2006||2006||Ten years, automatic renovation for successive two year periods|
|Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation||Cuba||1984||No. 23.388||1987||Unlimited|
|Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy between the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services of the Argentine Republic and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of the Republic of Cuba||Cuba||2009||2009|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Ecuador||1977||No. 21.896||1978||1979||1979||Five years, with automatic renovation every year|
|Agreement for Scientific and Technical Cooperation||Egypt||1981||1983||Five years, with automatic renovation for five year periods|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful and Non-explosive Use of Nuclear Energy||France||1994||No. 24.647||1996||1996||1996||Ten years, with automatic renovation for successive ten year periods|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Greece||1997||No. 25.286||2000||2000||2000||Ten years, with automatic renovation for five year periods|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Development and the Application of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Guatemala||1986||No. 24.645||1996||1997||Five years, automatically renewed for two year periods|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||India||2010||No. 26.766||2012||2013||20 years, with automatic renovation for successive ten year periods|
|Agreement for the Cooperation in the Pacific Uses of Nuclear Energy||Indonesia||1990||No. 24.161||1992||1993||Five years, with automatic renovation every year|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Jordan||2009||No. 26.767||2012||Ten years, with automatic renovation for successive ten year periods|
|Agreement of Cooperation for the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Mexico||2002||No. 26.771||2012||2013||Two years, with automatic renovation for successive two year periods|
|Cooperation Agreement Concerning the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy||Morocco||1996||No. 24.980||1998||Five years, with automatic renovation on a yearly basis|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Paraguay||1967||No. 18.436||1969||1969||Unlimited|
|Cooperation Agreement in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Peru||1968||No. 18.255||1969||1969||Unlimited|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Republic of Korea||1996||No. 24.860||1997||1997||Ten years, with automatic renovation for successive five year periods|
|Agreement for the Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Romania||1990||No. 24.217||1993||1993||Ten years, with automatic renovation for successive five year periods|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the State Atomic Energy Corporation “ROSATOM” and the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services of the Argentine Republic on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Russian Federation||2010||2010|
|Agreement on the Guidelines for Cooperation between the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services of the Argentine Republic and the State Atomic Energy Corporation “ROSATOM” in the Framework of Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy||Russian Federation||2010|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the State Nuclear Energy Corporation “ROSATOM” and the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services of the Argentine Republic on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Russian Federation||2011|
|Agreement between the Government of Argentina and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Russian Federation||2014||Ten years, with automatic renovation for successive two year periods|
|Agreement for Cooperation on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Saudi Arabia||2011||No. 26.768||2012||2013||20 years, with automatic renovation for successive ten year periods|
|Special Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Application of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Spain||1978||1978||Five years, with automatic renovation for successive two year periods|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Thailand||1996||No. 24.861||1997||1998||Five years, with automatic renovation on a yearly basis|
|Agreement for the Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Turkey||1988||No. 23.914||1991||1992||15 years, with automatic renovation for successive five year periods|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy between Argentina and the United Arab Emirates||United Arab Emirates||2013||No. 26.969||2014||2014||Ten years, with renovation for successive ten year periods|
|Memorandum of Cooperation between the Ministry of Federal Planning, Public Investment and Services and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs||United Arab Emirates||2014||2014||Five years|
|Agreement for Cooperation Concerning the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||United States of America||1996||No. 24.862||1997||1997||30 years|
|Agreement Concerning Cooperation to Prevent Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and other Radioactive Material||United States of America||2010||2010||Five years, with automatic renovation for successive five year periods|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Energy and Mining from Argentina and the National Nuclear Security Administration of the United States for Cooperation in the Fields of Nuclear and Radiological Security||United States of America||2016||Unlimited|
|Cooperation Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Uruguay||1968||No. 17.938||1968||1972||Unlimited|
|Complementary Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation for Peaceful Purposes in Nuclear Energy||Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic)||1979||No. 22.314||1980||1980||Five years, with automatic renovation on a yearly basis|
|Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Vietnam||2001||No. 25.776||2003||2004||Ten years, with automatic renovation for successive five year periods|
APPENDIX 2. MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, ENTITIES AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER ACTIVITIES
Main organizations, entities and companies previously mentioned in Section 2, appear as follows with the corresponding contact information.
|ORGANIZATION/COMPANY ||WEB SITE|
|MINISTRY OF ENERGY ||https://www.argentina.gob.ar/energiaymineria|
|UNDER SECRETARIAT of NUCLEAR ENERGY||https://www.argentina.gob.ar/energia-nuclear|
|NATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION||http://www.cnea.gov.ar|
|NUCLEAR REGULATORY AUTHORITY (ARN)||http://www.arn.gob.ar/|
|NUCLEOELECTRICA ARGENTINA S.A. (NA-SA)||http://www.na-sa.com.ar/|
|COMBUSTIBLES NUCLEARES ARGENTINOS (CONUAR S.A.)||http://www.conuar.com.ar/|
|FABRICACIÓN DE ALEACIONES ESPECIALES S.A. (FAE S.A.)||http://www.fae.com.ar/|
|EMPRESA NEUQUINA DE SERVICIOS DE INGENIERÍA S.E.||http://www.ensi.com.ar/|
|ENTE NACIONAL REGULADOR DE LA ELECTRICIDAD (ENRE)||https://www.argentina.gob.ar/enre |
|COMPAÑÍA ADMINISTRADORA DEL MERCADO MAYORISTA ELÉCTRICO S.A. (CAMMESA)||http://www.cammesa.com.ar/|
Juan Leandro FERRER
Institutional Relations Manager
National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) — Argentine Republic
Av. del Libertador 8250
Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (1429)
Tel.: + 54 11 4704 1045
Norberto Ruben COPPARI
Planning, Coordination and Control Management — Strategic Planning Deputy Manager
National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) — Argentine Republic
Av. General Paz 1499
Buenos Aires Province San Martín (1650)
Tel.: + 54 11 6772 7526