This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Bangladesh, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economicaloperations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Bangladesh.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. Energy Information
1.1.1. Energy Policy
Presently, primary commercial energy resources include natural gas, oil, condensates, coal, peat and renewable energy resources. Biomass still plays an important role in the country’s energy consumption in the rural area. Government is actively considering use of nuclear energy for electricity generation.
The appreciable commercial energy resources of the country are a well-developed natural gas sector and an undeveloped coal sector. Prevailing constraints in the indigenous commercial energy sources limit the scope of widening the range of possible long-term national energy supplies.
A long-term strategic plan is required for carrying out systematic exploration and proper appraisal of discoveries. Hydrocarbon resource assessment studies indicate good prospects for finding new hydrocarbon resources, especially in the offshore and deep-sea areas.
Bangladesh is facing twin energy crises – an urban energy crisis characterized by power shortages and skyrocketing gas consumption and a rural energy crisis reflected in the increasing inability of the rural poor to have access even to low-valued traditional biomass. To overcome these crises, sector reforms and additional investments are urgently needed for accelerated development, and thus improving basic livelihoods of urban and rural population.
Areas having prospects of finding uranium and thorium deposits are to be appraised and techno-economic feasibility studies conducted at prospective sites.
An earlier energy planning effort led to the formulation of the first National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1996, which brought Government attention to the urgency of ensuring proper exploration, production, distribution and rational use of energy sources to meet the growing energy demand of the country. With the rapid changes in global, as well as domestic conditions, the Energy & Mineral Resources Division (EMRD) has undertaken a comprehensive programme for updating the National Energy Policy. The proposed updated policy will describe the role that the energy sector must play in order to meet its obligations for sustainable development of the country. This policy will also focus on implementation mechanisms and procedures for tracking results to ensure that the policies are reflected in practice.
Priority will be given on diversification of available indigenous commercial energy resources, with coal assuming a much expanded role in providing the country’s future energy needs.
The recoverable reserves of four coalfields could range from 250 million to 900 million tons, depending on the mining methods applied.
Due attention will be given for implementation of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) to cater to the future energy needs of the country. At the same time, opportunity for regional energy trade will be explored to enhance energy security of the country.
The major issues causing slow development of the energy sector have been identified by Government and other agencies. The following remedial measures need to be taken to address those issues:
More emphasis needs to be given on hydrocarbon exploration and development by national companies as well as IOCs to meet the future demand of gas.
Dependence on natural gas is to be reduced by developing alternative sources of commercial energy.
Gas and electricity consumption practices are to be improved by efficient management.
Transparent transaction of subsidies needs to be ensured through oversight of the regulatory body.
Massive investment is required to meet the growing energy demand.
Power supply shortages are to be addressed by establishing new power plants, and proper maintenance and rehabilitation of existing power plants.
Public-private partnership and/or joint ventures and private sector participation are to be further encouraged.
Institutional capacity is to be built through necessary legal and administrative reforms and intensive investment programmes.
Nuclear energy is to be introduced within the shortest possible time.
The overall goals of the energy sector are to:
Provide adequate and secure energy resources for all.
Support socio-economic development.
Reduce poverty and ensure social equity.
Provide a sustainable energy mix.
Promote rational use of energy.
Improve sector management and performance.
Increase private sector investment.
Ensure balanced growth of the east and west zones of the country.
Promote regional energy markets.
Source: NEP 2008
1.1.2. Estimated Available Energy
Bangladesh's per capita energy consumption is very low. The 2013 energy consumption value stands at about 216 kgOE compared to the world average of 1894 kgOE. Total primary energy consumption in 2013 was 33.90 MTOE. Two-thirds of the country's total population level in rural areas, meeting most of their energy needs (domestic, commercial and industrial) from traditional biomass fuels. Various marketing companies under the Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC) distribute kerosene and diesel throughout the country at a uniform tariff rate set by the government. Around 62% have access to electricity with a per capita availability of 321 kWh per annum.
The quality of service in rural areas is very poor: frequent outages, voltage fluctuations and unreliable and erratic supply. Biomass has a large contribution in the total primary energy consumption of Bangladesh, at around 60%.
Natural gas is currently the only indigenous non-renewable energy resource of the country and this has been continuously produced and consumed in significant quantities since 1970. Gas, the main source of commercial energy, plays a vital role in the economic growth of Bangladesh. The major consumers of gas are the power and fertiliser (using gas as feedstock) sectors, which account for 46.65% and 21.71% respectively.
Bangladesh gas sector started its journey in the 1960s, but its rapid expansion and integration and integration started to accelerate in the early 1970s spurred by the rising oil prices. Until now, 24 gas fields have been discovered. Natural gas fills about 75% of the total fuel consumption of the country.
Because of the increasing demand of gas, the exploration of new gas field and the development of the discovered gas fields are very important. During the financial year 2011-12, a total of 29 projects are being implemented by Petro Bangla and its companies in the oil, gas and mineral sector.
According to the present development data, the coalfields in Bangladesh are divided into five coalfields, all of which occur in the north western area that is sandwiched between the Jamuna River and the Padma River in north western Bangladesh.
At present, foreign companies, including Indian and South Korean companies, are aggressively engaged in coal development in the country. In particular, since Godwin coal is a kind coke of good quality with limited global availability, it has drawn much attention from concerned parties in many parts of the world.
Low-income developing countries like Bangladesh are very much susceptible to the setbacks arising from the on-going energy crisis. Natural gas lies at the heart of the country’s energy usage, accounting for around 72% of the total commercial energy consumption and 81.72% of the total electricity generated. Such an overwhelming dependence on bio fuel has brought into focus the substantial amount of renewable energy resources available in the country. The potential non-exhaustive sources of energies, available in the form solar, biomass, biogas, hydropower and wind, can be harnessed to provide an environmentally sustainable energy security, as well as affordable power supply to the off-grid rural areas of the country. To this end, effective utilization of renewable energy resources has been adopted as a policy of the Government of Bangladesh (GOB). Different government, semi - government and non-government organizations (NGOs) have been working separately or jointly to disseminate renewable energy technologies (RET) throughout the country over a significant period.
At present, the different categories of renewable energy that are being used in limited ways in Bangladesh are solar, wind, hydro, waste biogas, and biomass gasification.
The Karnafuly Hydro Power Station is the only hydropower plant in the country with a capacity of 230 MW. It is operated by BPDB (Bangladesh Power Development Board). BPDB is considering increasing production up to 330MW.
Bangladesh is an agricultural country so biomass is available in huge amount. Cattle dun g, agricultural residue, poultry dropping, water hyacinth, rice husk etc. used for biomass power generation are available in Bangladesh.
Biogas production plays an important role in Bangladesh since the necessary resources are plentiful. The Government along with several NGOs are working together for development of power production from Biogas. Grameen Shakti is one of the most uttered NGO in field of biogas and has completed several works.
Infrastructure Development Company limited (IDCOL) has supported NGOs in installing solar home systems (SHSs); a total of 1,320,965 SHSs having capacity of approximately 36.5 MW have been installed up to February 2012.
Bangladesh is in the midst of a severe energy and power supply crisis; one of the worst in South Asia. However, the government is now looking to explore the potential of wind energy, particularly along the country’s 724 km long coastline. Wind energy can potentially generate more than 2000 megawatts of electricity in the coastal regions. The growth of wind energy in the underdeveloped, coastal areas of the country holds hope for poor, isolated communities that are not connected to the national electricity grid and who are also unlikely to receive grid connection in the near future due to the high cost of establishing infrastructure, and growing scarcity of traditional energy inputs. The Bangladesh Power Development Board has estimated that wind energy can contribute to 10% of the energy needs of the country. The Board has also calculated the cost to generate one kWh from wind energy to be about half the cost of generating an equivalent unit of power from solar energy. The expansion of the potential of wind energy will be crucial in order for Bangladesh to achieve its national vision of providing electricity to all of its population by 2020.
Source: “Current Status of Renewable energy sector of Bangladesh and a proposed grid connected hybrid renewable energy system”, International Journal of advanced renewable energy research, Md. Habib Ullah, et al., Vol. 1, Issue 11, pp 618-627, 2012
Table 1. ESTIMATED ENERGY RESERVES (2014)
(in billion barrels)
(in million tons)
(in TWh per year)
* Net Remaining Reserve
Source: Energy Information Administration, Official Energy Statistics from the US Government,
Web site of Energy and Mineral Resource Division.
Annual Report 2014, PetroBangla, Bangladesh Oil, Gas and Mineral Corporation.
1.1.3. Energy Statistics
Table 2: ENERGY STATISTICS (All energy values are in Exajoule)
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1980||1990||2000||2008||2012||2000 to 2012*|
|Net import (Import – Export)|
** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import - Export) of secondary energy.
*** Solid fuels include coal, lignite
Source: Energy Information Administration, Official Energy Statistics from the US Government, FORUM: A monthly publication of “The Daily Star”, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2010, Official web site of Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation, The Financial Express, 18th January 2013, Bangladesh Economic Review, 2012, BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012.
1.2. The Electricity System
1.2.1. Electricity System and Decision Making Process
The Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) was created in 1972, a public sector organisation. The Rural Electrification Board (REB) was established in 1977, as a semi-autonomous government agency.
As Dhaka grew in population and became a metropolitan city, the need for its own electricity grid led to the creation of the Dhaka Electric Supply Authority (DESA) in 1991. It was created to operate and develop the distribution system and bring improvements in customer service, revenue collection and lessen the administrative burden of BPDB. The Dhaka Power Distribution Company Ltd. (DPDCL) took over DESA activities in 2008 as part of an overall power sector reform, to unite the energy system, and produce a more competitive, reliable and efficient system. The Power Grid Company of Bangladesh (PGCB) was created in 1996 to own, operate and expand the national power grid. In 2003, PGCB completed the takeover and began the operation of all the transmission assets of BPDB and DESA. The PGCB is a public limited company, and is 76.25 % owned by BPDB; the remaining 23.75% is owned by the general public.
The creation of the Dhaka Electric Supply Company (DESCO) was also part of the reforms. It is a public sector company, and a subsidiary of DESA. However, in the future, its shares will be offered to other power sector entities and the general public.
The REB has 70 operating rural electric cooperatives called Palli Bidyuit Samity (PBS). These cover more than 90% of the area for rural electrification. These cooperatives bring service to approximately 7,200,000 new connections, and are constructing more than 14,000 km of new transmission and distribution lines each year.
The oil and natural gas market is primarily operated by the Bangladesh Oil, Gas and Mineral Corporation, which holds the shares of all state-owned companies involved in oil and gas production and exploration, and the Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC) is responsible for the refining, distribution and import of crude oil and petroleum products.
The electricity sector of Bangladesh has undergone reform since the mid-1990s, including unbundling of the state-owned energy supplier, the BPDB, into separate companies responsible for power generation, transmission and distribution. At present BPDB is functioning as a single buyer, except for some direct power purchase from small IPPs. Multi buyer/competitive pools may be adopted when the market becomes mature and stable.
Since 1996, responsibility for the operation and expansion of the entire electricity transmission grid has lain with the PGCB, a subsidiary of the BPDP. Since the start of the power reform process in 1996, the DPDCL (formally the DESA) has shared electricity distribution operations in the capital with the DESCO. In addition, a further power distribution company, the West Zone Power Distribution Company (WZPDC), was established in 2003 as a BPDB subsidiary, and is responsible for the country’s southwest.
Although generation, transmission and distribution have been opened to foreign and private sector involvement, these sectors remain dominated by state-owned entities. BPDB accounts for over 70% of the electricity generated in Bangladesh. This share also includes the first BPDB-founded subsidiaries, such as the Ashuganj Power Company (APS), which originated with the transformation in 2002 of the state-owned Ashuganj Power Station into a joint stock company. IPPs have been allowed to enter the market since 1996. Between 1998 and 2005, seven power plants belonging to IPPs started operation, providing an installed capacity of more than 1,290 MW, mainly fired by natural gas. These plants represent a 26% share in the country’s total electrical generating capacity. Actual planning envisages the construction of further power plants by non-state-run producers, or joint state and private providers, for a total output exceeding 1,590 MW. Self-generators account for 1.1 GW of installed capacity in Bangladesh.
Moreover, the government declared its vision “Twenty-Twenty,” suggesting government would ensure electricity for all by the year 2020.
Source: Retrieved from the website http://www.reegle.info/policy-and-regulatory-overviews/BD, dated 23rd April, 2012.
Perspective Energy Plan of Present Government
The Perspective Plan of the Planning Commission of the government of Bangladesh for the period 2010 – 2021 has recommended an energy mix to achieve the generation of 20,000 MW by 2021. Targets of electricity production by 2013 and 2015 are 7,000 MW and 8000 MW, respectively. According to the Perspective Plan, the energy mix for power generation is as follows.
ENERGY MIX OF THE PERSPECTIVE PLAN 2010 – 2025 FOR POWER GENERATION
|Energy Sources||Target Period|
Source: The Perspective Plan for Bangladesh 2010-2021.
ROLE OF INDIGENOUS FUEL IN POWER GENERATION
Due to the low current state of primary energy resources, demand is not being met. In this context, the Government is formulating the “Five-Fuel strategy,” of which the priorities are given below.
1. Undertake immediate exploration of hydrocarbon and identify additional reserves that can meet the growing demand of gas by all consumer sectors.
2. Develop alternative commercial energy supplies suitable for power generation, especially coal, to ease the burden of fast-growing electricity demand on gas resources. Thus, a two-fuel (gas and coal) strategy is required for both resource diversification and energy security.
3. Ensure efficient use of energy by using energy–saving appliances, plants and equipment in order to effectively increase the stock of available energy supplies.
4. The resource potential of renewable energy is significantly larger than its present consumption and is a promising source of clean, convenient energy supply, especially in rural areas.
5. Considering the limitation of fossil fuel supplies, nuclear fuel could be a potential energy option for the country, as it is a proven technology for economic, reliable and sustainable electricity generation.
1.2.2. Structure of Electric Power Sector
In Bangladesh, MoPEMR Power Division manages the electricity business. Under its control, power is generated by the BPDB, power plants that are departments and subsidiaries of BPDB, IPPs, and private power generation companies. Power is supplied through PBCB’s power transmission facilities to customers in local cities by BPDB, in the metropolitan area by DPDC and DESCO, and in rural areas by PBS. Note that distribution departments in local cities are being separated one by one. Fig. 1 shows the structure of the electric power sector in the country.
FIG1. Structure of Electric Power Sector of Bangladesh
In order to mitigate the demand-supply gap, an aggressive plan has been prepared by the Government for new generation addition. As part of the plan, 31power generation projects of 9361MW capacity are now under construction. Current generation capacity is over 12,000 MW as of 2016 and plan envisages add more than 8,000 MW by 2021.
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
Total length of 132 kV transmission lines is 6283.228 c-km. The total length of 230 kV transmission lines is 3044.446 c-km. The total capacity of 132/33 KV sub-stations was 11520 MVA, 230/132 KV sub-stations was 8775 MVA and 400 kV substation was 500 MVA as of June 2015.
1.2.3. Main Indicators
Table 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND INSTALLED CAPACITY
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1980||1990||2001||2008||2012||2014||2001 to 2014|
|Capacity of electrical plants(GWe)|
|Total Electricity consumption
(1) Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
Source: Annual Report 2009-2010, Bangladesh Power Development Board
Annual Report 2011-2012, Bangladesh Power Development Board
Annual Report 2013-2014, Bangladesh Power Development Board
Table 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||2||3||3.8||10.5||10.8||11.5|
|Electricity per capita (kWh/capita)||22.07||44.04||106.08||176.87||231.65||251|
|Electricity Production/Energy production (%)||9.55||12.11||14.21||8.68||9.77||7.86|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)(1)||44||29||25||14.41||21.00||17.24|
|Load factor of electricity plants|
|- Total (%)||31||72||51||69.91||62.85||62.53|
(1) Net import / Total energy consumption.
Source: Annual Report 2013-2014, Bangladesh Power Development Board, Energy Information Administration, Official Energy Statistics from the US Government, FORUM: A monthly publication of “The Daily Star”, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2010. Annual Report 2011-2012, Bangladesh Power Development Board, BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014. Year: 2014 – Calculation from total energy consumption and total population.
The average annual growth in peak demand of the national grid was not up to the level of projected demand. The gap between projected demand and supply is increasing day by day. If the consumption present trend of continues, the gap will increase sharply in the future. As a consequence, the socioeconomic development will tremendously be hampered.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical Development and Current Organizational Structure
Peaceful uses of Nuclear Technology were initiated in Bangladesh in early 1960's under the framework of the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). After independence, Bangladesh became a Member State of the Agency in 1972. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) was formed in 1973 by Presidential Order No. 15 with the goal of utilization of Nuclear Science & Technology for national development. The nuclear establishment in the country existed and carried out related activities even before its independence from Pakistan. The Commission was entrusted with the following charter of duties: "Promotion of the peaceful uses of atomic energy in Bangladesh, the discharge of International obligations connected therewith, the undertaking of research, the execution of development projects involving nuclear power stations and matters incidental thereto." Since then, the Commission pursued various R&D projects, established a number of research and service providing centres with necessary laboratory facilities and equipment, trained working scientists and developed supporting facilities that can be used to meet the fast changing trends of scientific and technological pursuits of the modern world.
The Law on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control was enacted in 1993. Considering that BAEC was the only national institution that has expertise and trained human resources needed for the enforcement of the law, it was also given nuclear regulatory responsibility. On 12 February 2013, a separate regulatory organization was set in order to separate promotional responsibilities from the regulatory ones, in order to attain the required transparency in nuclear safety and radiation control especially in all stages of licensing and inspection of nuclear facilities and radiation sources.
Some of the key milestones of Bangladesh national Nuclear Power program:
BAEC was established in February 1973 through the promulgation of the Presidential Order 15 of 1973. Since then BAEC has been keeping itself engaged in the planning and development of acquiring nuclear technology for possible peaceful applications in the fields of Food, Agriculture, Health, Industry and Environment ensuring nuclear safety and radiation protection. Accordingly, BAEC has undertaken a good number of R&D programs in its various research establishments and developed indigenous expertise to achieve self-reliance through national efforts and international cooperation.
2.1.2. Current Organizational Structure
FIG2. Current BAEC Organizational Structure
2.2. Nuclear Power Plants: Overview
Table 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station||Type||Net Capacity||Operator||Status||Reactor Supplier||Construction Date||Grid
|Commercial Date||Shutdown Date||UCF
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PROJECT IN BANGLADESH
The proposal for building a nuclear power plant (NPP) in the western zone of the country was first mooted in 1961. Since then, a number of feasibility reports had been prepared which established that the plant was technically and economically feasible. The Rooppur site was selected in 1963 and 292 acres of land was acquired for the project. Physical infrastructures like residential quarters, site office, rest house, internal road, electric sub-station, pump house etc. were established in the project area. The then Pakistan government gave formal approval for a 70 MW, 140 MW and 200 MW NPP in 1963, 1966 and 1969, respectively. Following liberation, the ECNEC had approved the plan for a 125 MW NPP in 1980. A number of suppliers had submitted proposals for the project both before and after liberation. However, the project could not be implemented due to several problems, with financing as the main obstacle.
Considering the changed circumstances in national and international level the Government of Bangladesh expressed its firm commitment to implement the Rooppur nuclear power project Rooppur NPP. It may be mentioned that the inordinate delay in project implementation has brought about a number of changes in the planning process. For example, since grid size is growing, it will eventually grow to a size where accommodation of a larger plant consisting two units with each unit of 1200 MW with advantage of economy of scale would be required. The growth of the grid to such a size incidentally matches the time needed for implementation of such a plant. Such changes would necessitate updating data, information and some of the past studies.
DECISION MAKING PROCESS
The Government has recognized the need for a proper institutional framework with adequate financial and administrative power, accountability and transparency that can either itself and/or through a joint venture with others, build and operate NPPs. In 2000, a Nuclear Power Action Plan (BANPAP) was approved by the government. The BANPAP proposed a Nuclear Power Authority of Bangladesh (NPAB), which at the national level shall be responsible to an apex body named National Nuclear Power Council (NNPC) headed by the Prime Minister.
Before establishment of the formal institutional framework of NNPC and NPAB, the government has decided to execute the responsibility of those institutions by high-level national committees. Recently, the Government has formed a Cabinet Committee on implementation of Rooppur NPP headed by the Prime Minister. The Ministers and Secretaries of relevant ministries are the members of the Cabinet Committee. The Cabinet Committee will review the implementation progress of the project, determine the ownership and project execution approach of the Rooppur NPP, finalize the financing and purchase of the Rooppur NPP and finalize the contractual agreement(s) with supplier. The Cabinet Committee will also identify the barriers in implementing Rooppur NPP and provide recommendations/directions for overcoming the barriers. At this point, the Cabinet Committee has been assigned with the functional responsibilities of the NNPC.
The government has formed a Technical Committee on the Rooppur NPP headed by the Minister of the Ministry of Science & Technology (MOST). The secretaries, head of the relevant organizations, academicians, chairman and representatives of BAEC are the members of the Technical Committee. This committee will take necessary steps to establish the organizational structure of the project implementation phase of Rooppur NPP. The committee will take initiatives to prepare comprehensive documents for consideration of the Cabinet Committee on Rooppur NPP taking into account various issues, namely the project implementation mode, technology transfer, project implementation period, financing mechanism, and regulatory issues. The Technical Committee is taking the responsibilities of the proposed NPAB. Presently, this committee is executing the project decision making phase activities of the IAEA Milestone Documents.
During the 2008 National Parliament elections, a declaration to implement the nuclear power project was made by all major parties, and a decision for immediate implementation of the NPP was taken by the national parliament in 2010.
The Government has also formed a Working Group for accomplishment of various activities to take preparation for Rooppur NPP construction. The Working-Group is responsible for identifying various activities for materializing the government decision on implementation of the Rooppur NPP. The Working Group will identify the required areas of cooperation from the supplier source(s) for the project. To accelerate the activities for starting construction of Rooppur NPP, the Government has formed eight Working Sub-Groups each of which consists of the representatives from the relevant ministries, organizations, academic institutions and the representatives of BAEC.
A road map is formulated to carry out the responsibility of the NEPIO through formation of the above-mentioned Cabinet Committee, Technical Committee and Working Group and Sub-Groups for implementation of Rooppur NPP. The Committees on Rooppur NPP and Working Group have a built-in-mechanism for linkages with relevant ministries and government agencies for R&D support, HRD, regulatory aspects, nuclear safety, security, safeguard, T & D and integrate Rooppur NPP into the overall electricity generation planning and Power purchase.
PRESENT STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME OF BANGLADESH
The Government policy document outlined the programme to be taken to implement 4000 MWe from NPPs by 2030. The Perspective Plan of the government of Bangladesh for the period 2010 – 2021 has recommended an energy mix to achieve the generation of 20,000 MW by 2021, of which nuclear power accounts for 10% of overall generation.
Present National Nuclear Power Programme and preparatory stage 'Rooppur NPP' Build
Due to limited resources and competencies, Bangladesh is considering building the Rooppur NPP through an Inter-Governmental arrangement (IGA). On 2 November 2011, Bangladesh signed an IGA with the Russian Federation for cooperation on construction of a NPP with two units, as well as in the establishment of necessary infrastructure to ensure the proper operation. BAEC is appointed as the customer for IGA on behalf of Bangladesh government. To implement the provisions of the IGA, a General Contract for construction of Rooppur NPP needs to be concluded. At the present stage of the programme, one of the major undertakings is to develop national capabilities to become a knowledgeable customer.
Prior to the mission, the INIR mission team reviewed the self-evaluation report and supporting materials. Input was sought from IAEA staff members with relevant experience. Several INIR mission team meetings were conducted prior to the mission, including full team meetings in Vienna on 4 November 2011 and Dhaka on 8 November 2011, to discuss the team’s initial views on the infrastructure status.
The mission was conducted from 9-15 November 2011. Given the long history of the Bangladesh nuclear power programme planning and the conclusion of IGA for the NPP, the team reviewed conditions for both Phases 1 and 2.
The mission was coordinated on the Bangladesh side by the Secretary of the MOST. A detailed presentation of the preliminary mission results was given to senior officials in an exit meeting on 15 November 2011.
The mission team recognized that the Bangladesh nuclear power program and associated infrastructure is progressing. A few notable developments have taken place, including the signing of the IGA on 2 November 2011 and preparation of the organizational framework of the new Regulatory Body.
The INIR mission team concluded that the Government has made a clear commitment to a nuclear power programme, which is important to sustaining the planning process and to implementing the project. The mission team noted, however, that in the last decade several draft policies and action plans that have not been fully updated or approved. The mission team observed that once the project is initiated, sustained policies, and sustained leadership would be necessary to complete the negotiations and implement the project.
The INIR mission team concluded that Bangladesh reached Milestone 1, having “made a knowledgeable decision” regarding its nuclear power program. There are two open issues that still require attention from Phase 1, namely management and funding/financing. The INIR mission team concluded that the Bangladesh nuclear power program in general has progressed into Phase 2, being in the stage of preparation to negotiate the agreement(s)/contract(s) with selected NPP Vendor.
To assist Bangladesh in making progress in its infrastructure development, the Mission team made 50 recommendations. The key recommendations are summarized as follows:
Preparations for contract negotiations should be made. To become a “knowledgeable customer” and to be ready to negotiate with the vendor, the BAEC will need to develop specifications for the contract, which cover technical, economic, commercial and training aspects for the fuel supply, the reactor units, supporting infrastructure and spent fuel take-back and waste disposal. Bangladesh should have a clear understanding of the two options—Government ownership (turnkey) or BOOT and prepare analysis of options for decision-makers (including risk analysis), as well as have the capabilities within BAEC to negotiate and prepare the contract. The coordination among the Government committees overseeing the programme and with the implementing organizations (the future owner and the regulatory body) will need to be strengthened to allow for timely decisions to be taken and implementation to be facilitated.
The regulatory body should be strengthened. The draft Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulations Act of 2011 should be promulgated as soon as possible to establish an independent regulatory body. The regulatory body should be prepared to issue the site license. An agreement with the Russian regulator for training and technical support during the licensing of the first NPP in Bangladesh is in process and should be finalized. Eighteen needed regulations identified during the mission, eight of which have already been drafted, should be finalized and issued.
Management of the nuclear infrastructure development should be strengthened. As the programme progresses into the next stage after the IGA and prepares to negotiate with the vendor, BAEC is undergoing significant changes. BAEC should be prepared to carefully manage these changes: NPED, as the future owner, should become a knowledgeable customer for the Russian vendor and its organization inside BAEC should grow accordingly. The NSRCD has become an independent organization and will move to a separate building that has already been constructed. Bangladesh should commit to ensure appointment of leaders (especially in future owner and regulatory body) with appropriate training and experience for leadership and management of safety. Integrated management systems (including quality management) should be planned and implemented in both BAEC and the regulatory body that define the organizational goals and key processes in sufficient detail.
A national project plan should be developed. The project plan should include the relevant actions from other national authorities responsible for infrastructure activities necessary for the NPP. The project plan should include timeframes and financial evaluations. The BANPAP should be updated, which could serve as an outline for such a project plan.
On-going activities should be completed. Siting studies should be completed as soon as possible in conjunction with the NPP vendor. Roles and responsibilities for nuclear power infrastructure should be clarified with other national authorities (e.g. Ministry of the Environment). A national level human resource plan should be developed covering the regulatory body, the future owner-operator and the future waste management organization. Where appropriate, integrated training should be provided. A strategic plan for stakeholder management and public information should be implemented. A policy for the fuel cycle including take-back of spent fuel should be developed. A policy for long-term management of Low and Medium level radioactive waste (RW) that will not be sent back should be developed which would include a financing scheme.
In addition to these recommendations, the INIR mission team made 20 specific suggestions to support continued improvement and strengthening of the Bangladesh program.
The INIR mission team further recognized two good practices, which are worthy of the attention as a model in the drive for excellence in infrastructure development: the preparation of a safeguards policy paper and the ranking of the nuclear facility as a key protected infrastructure for the purposes of physical protection.
The mission helps to identify issues and gaps needing further attention for construction of the first NPP and provided recommendations to address different infrastructure issues to progress into phase 3 through achievement of the IAEA milestone 2. An Integrated Work Plan (IWP) for Bangladesh nuclear infrastructure building for the period 2012-2015 has been prepared with the consultation of IAEA and its bilateral partner, the Russian Federation. All possible activities/programmes correspond to each recommendation/suggestion and each of the 19 infrastructure elements are included in the IWP focusing on future areas for bilateral assistance of the IAEA and Russian Federation. A follow-up INIR mission was conducted during 10-14 May 2016, to assess the progress of Bangladesh in the requirements and suggestions provided previously. The mission report concludes that Bangladesh has recognized and addressed all the recommendations and suggestions provided by the INIR mission. Out of 50 recommendations, Bangladesh has already completed 26 and for the rest necessary activities are going on.
2.3. Future Development of Nuclear Power Sector
2.3.1. Nuclear Power Development Strategy
Bangladesh is evolving an energy-mix diversification, where nuclear energy is assumed as one of the choices to meet the growing energy needs. The IAEA milestone approach could be the best methodology and guiding tool for the development of nuclear power infrastructure of Bangladesh. In addition, international cooperation is required.
Bangladesh Nuclear Power Action Plan
In 2000, the government of Bangladesh adopted the National Nuclear Action Plan (BNPAP) for meeting the purposes mentioned below for early implementation of the nuclear power project in the country. The main purpose of this document is to identify:
Various activities needed for implementation of the nuclear power programme;
The agencies responsible for each of these activities;
Enabling measures like funding, for conducting the activities.
Presently, Bangladesh is revising and updating the BANPAP according to national and International aspects of the nuclear power programme.
Table 6.PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/ Project Name||Type||Capacity||Expected Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial Year|
|1. Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant (Unit-I)||VVER||1200 MWe||2017||2023|
|2. Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant (Unit-II)||VVER||1200 MWe||2018||2024|
2.3.2. Project Management
The plan for implementation of management system within Operator, Regulator and TSOs has been developed through promulgation of Nuclear Power Plant Act-2015, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Act-2012. BAEC recognizes the importance of implementation of management system and it has clear policy statement. A separate division, quality management division (QMD) has been established and assigned the responsibility. Management Systems of Project Management Unit (PMU) is established based on Annual Development Program (ADP) Project of Bangladesh government, which includes- Execution, monitoring, reporting, control and risk management, Communication.
For Rooppur NPP Project Management (present):
Project management unit of Rooppur NPP (organization structure);
Project implementation process of Rooppur NPP (PSC, PIC);
Project monitoring process of Rooppur NPP (National Committee, Technical Committee, Working Group, Sub-group, fast track monitoring committee, fast track task force etc.);
Risk management system;
MS Project based PM and;
Document Control System (Documents and works acceptance and approval procedure);
Project management capability of PMU is being gradually updated;
Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been appointed as the Owner Organization of NPP by
the Presidential Order 15, 1973;
Bangladesh Nuclear Power Action Plan, 2000,
IGA between Russian Federation and Bangladesh, 2011,
Nuclear Power Plant Act, 2015 and
All other relevant policy documents
Nuclear Power Company of Bangladesh Limited (NPCBL) is the Operating Organization which clearly reflects in NPP Act 2015;
Organization Structure is in place;
NPCBL Service Rule 2016;
Description of Project Management System
Service Regulation: Implementing Organization of Rooppur NPP Project is BAEC;
Project Document: Development Project Proposal (DPP) for Construction of Rooppur NPP (First Phase) is being implemented and DPP for main stage of Rooppur NPP Construction is being developed;
The present Project Management structure is given below.
FIG 3. Current Project Management Structure for Rooppur NPP Construction
Quality Management System:
General Quality Assurance (QAP (G)
Quality Assurance (QAP (S)
Quality Assurance (QAP (D)
Document Approval Procedure
Work Acceptance Procedure
Equipment Acceptance Procedure
The Project Management Committee consists of the following members:
|1.||State Minister, Ministry of Science and Information & Communication Technology||Advisor|
|2.||Secretary, Ministry of Science and Technology||Convener|
|3.||Secretary, Economic Relations Division/Nominated Joint Secretary||Member|
|4.||Secretary, Legislative and Parliamentary Affairs Division/Nominated Joint Secretary|
|5.||Secretary, Power Division/Nominated Joint Secretary||Member|
|6.||Additional Secretary, Finance Division, Ministry of Finance (Treasury and Debt Management) ||Member|
|7.||Chairman, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC)||Member|
|8.||Joint-Chief, PAMSTEC Wing, Planning Commission||Member|
|9.||Member, Planning and Development, BAEC||Member|
|10.||Member, Engineering, BAEC||Member|
|11.||Dr. Mohammad Shawkat Akbar, Director, Nuclear Power and Energy Division, BAEC||Member|
|12.||Joint-Secretary, Ministry of Science and Technology||Member-Secretary|
2.3.3. Project Funding
It is necessary to prepare a financing plan, which includes necessary infrastructure, all site studies and the construction of the plant, in the light of the signed agreement with Russian Federation, in order to estimate the actual cost of the implementation of Rooppur NPP Project. The terms and condition of the financial contract shall be drafted for the State Credit from the supplier’s country. In this case, the interest rate should be kept to a minimum. Apart from the State Credit, the part, which the Bangladesh Government will carry, shall be explored from different sources, e.g. Annual Development Project (ADP), soft loan, etc.
On 2 November 2011, the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh signed Agreement on cooperation for the construction of a NPP on the territory of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. An agreement was signed on 15 January 2013 between the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh and the Government of the Russian Federation on the extension of a state export credit to the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh for financing of the preparatory stage for construction of a NPP in the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. The credit shall be used by Bangladesh during 2013 – 2016.
Bangladesh has a plan for a two-stage construction approach. The stages are as follows.
(i) Siting assessment to First Concrete
(ii) Construction and commissioning
The siting assessment to first concrete pouring for unit-1 will be finished at the end of 2016 and this will be done under a turn-key package. The first stage has four sub-phases.
- Feasibility Evaluation, Environmental Impact Assessment, site engineering survey
- Permit of the site license & detailed project report
- Design & Documentation (e.g. preparation of PSA, PSAR etc.)
- Excavation, Priority civil construction, erection
Bangladesh has analysed the funding and financing issues. Considering the size of national economy, a financing instrument consisting of a state export credit by the government of the vendor country for financing construction of the NPP must be considered. The national strategy on the level of intended borrowed amount has been planned and implemented. Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Bangladesh on the extension of a state export credit to the Government of Bangladesh for financing of the preparatory stage and construction of NPP has been concluded and the main terms and conditions for export credit for construction of Rooppur NPP has been agreed by both the countries.
Recently the General Contract for main stage construction and commissioning of Rooppur NPP was signed between Bangladesh and Russian Federation. The contract price is 12.65 Billion USD, 90% of which is supposed to be sanctioned by the Russian side through a state credit agreement, is also going to be signed very soon.
The members of the Working Sub Group are as follows:
|1.||Secretary, Ministry of Science and ICT||Convener|
|2.||Prime Minister’s Office-01(one) representative ||Member|
|3.||Legislative and Parliamentary Affairs Division-01 (one) representative||Member|
|4.|| Finance Division-01 (one) representative||Member|
|5.||Economic Relations Division-01 (one) representative||Member|
|6.||Ministry of Industries-01 (one) representative||Member|
|7.||Ministry of Commerce-01 (one) representative||Member|
|8.||CPTU, IMED-01 (one) representative||Member|
|9.||Representatives from Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission||Member|
|10.||Deputy Technological Adviser, Ministry of Science and ICT||Member|
|11.||Deputy Scientific Adviser, Ministry of Science and ICT||Member|
|12.||Dr. Md. Shawkat Akbar, Project Director, “Accomplishment of Essential Activities to Implement Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant Project”||Member Secretary|
2.3.4. Electric Grid Development
The power generated at different power stations is transmitted through a national grid system (230 kV & 132 kV) operated and maintained by Power Grid Company of Bangladesh Limited (PGCB). At present, the national grid system has the capability to handle a maximum load of about 10,000 MW. The grid-map of Bangladesh power sector is shown in the following figure.
FIG 4. Bangladesh Electricity Grid Map
The grid system of Bangladesh has a National Load Dispatching Centre (NLDC) located in Aftabnagar, Rampura, Dhaka. According to the plan, 400 kV transmission lines are going to be hooked up with the grid system in the near future. The 400 kV lines will mainly be used to import electric power from India. Some of the key parameters of the above grid system are given below:
As per the present power system expansion plan, the dependable generation capacity of the country will be about 12 000 MW against a maximum demand of about 11 000 MW in 2017. The installed capacity is projected to increase to about 33 000 MW by 2030. It is expected that by 2020, the contribution from nuclear generation will be about 2000 MW and by 2030, it will be increased to about 5 000 MW. Keeping all the above in mind the PGCB needs to take up measures to upgrade the national grid so as to make it compatible with the generation capacity of the country and in particular, make the grid ready for accommodating the upcoming NPP by 2023 and a second unit by 2024. For this purpose, detailed power system studies including load flow studies, transient stability studies, long duration system dynamics studies involving loss of generation, etc., have already been conducted and PGCB is going to make necessary modifications and renovations in the grid system to make it compatible for the Rooppur NPP.
SITE SAFETY REPORT OF THE PROPOSED ROOPPUR NUCLEAR POWER PROJECT
Bangladesh prepared a draft site safety report on Rooppur NPP in 2000. Recently, the Government of Bangladesh has taken steps to carry out several new site specific studies and also review/update the previous studies/data to finalize the site safety report. BAEC has conducted the following site specific studies of the proposed Rooppur NPP to estimate the specific safety parameters required for designing and constructing the NPP.
Site Specific Geological, Geophysical and Geotechnical Study of Rooppur Nuclear Power Project
Review of geology and fault information; Compilation of earthquake database; Analysis of seismic source and seismicity characteristics; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (200, 475, 975, 2475 years);
1D Site response analysis (Site specific) study; Development of site specific response spectrum;
Determination of liquefaction resistance by cyclic triaxial test;
Assessment of liquefaction potential of the site;
Supervision of Geophysical Investigation by P-S logging and
Analyses of Soil Stabilization and Slope Stability.
BAEC had made agreements with the Bureau of Research, Testing and Consultation (BRTC), Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), and Ground Water Hydrology Division (GWH), Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB), to perform services in respect of above-mentioned study.
Summary of the Study:
Tectonically Bangladesh is divided broadly into three (3) divisions :
Stable Shelf (in the northwest),
Bengal Foredeep (in the centre), and
Chittagong-Tripura Belt (in the east).
In addition, there is a SW-NE trending 25 km wide Hinge Zone separating the Bengal Foredeep from the Stable Shelf. The proposed NPP site at Rooppur is located near this Hinge Zone in the Stable Shelf part.
During the last decade, the occurrence and damage caused by a number of earthquakes (magnitude between 4 and 6) inside the country or near the country’s border, has raised the awareness among the general population and the government. These earthquakes are located far away from the Rooppur site.
There is no indication of surface faulting around the site;
Study on Site related hydrological and morphological characteristics of Ganges River in the vicinity of the site, and flooding effect due to global climate change impact and man-made major interventions
BAEC has taken steps to finalize a report on hydrological and morphological characteristics of the site area in collaboration with the Institute of Water Modelling IWM).IWM has already conducted the requisites of the site study, whose summary is given below.
Global climatic change has significant impact at the project area from hydrology and hydraulic points of view (depth & extent of flood).
There is no impact of tsunami at the power plant site.
Due to construction of the proposed Ganges Barrage, the water level will be up to 17m PWD. The crest level of existing embankment and pakshey bridge guide bund is 16.5 m PWD and 16.7m PWD respectively.
There is no hydraulic impact at the Rooppur NPP site due to the Gorai river restoration project.
With a global warming scenario, it is found that the computed water level is over 18mPWD in the vicinity of Rooppur NPP site, while the existing embankment height is 16.5m PWD.
Possibility of left bank erosion of Ganges River at Rooppur NPP site is insignificant.
The recommended location for the intake point is 401177.95m easting and 659569.00m northing.
The recommended location for the outfall point is 403952.90 m easting and 659543.00m northing.
The issue of Safety and Security of the Site
The issue of safety and security in siting, designing, construction and operation phases of Rooppur NPP has to be given top priority. The selection of nuclear technology is crucially important for Bangladesh. Since the Rooppur NPP Project site was selected earlier, the essential characterization of the selected site includes items that will impact cost. Moreover, it has become necessary to obtain an authorization or siting license from Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority. Recently, Government approved a development project for completion of preparatory construction of Rooppur NPP. Initiatives have been taken for the development of technical and economic feasibility evaluation of the site for the NPP location and substantiation of the basic design solutions for the Rooppur NPP construction. The assessment of the Rooppur NPP environmental impact has been undertaken. Steps have been taken for finalizing comprehensive engineering and environmental studies for developing documentation for the NPP construction and assessment of Rooppur NPP site to confirm the acceptability of the site and development documents for the site license for NPP construction. Bangladesh has decided to involve the NPP design institute of the vendor country in the site characterization of Rooppur NPP so that the reactors must be complimented with the latest safety codes for severe accident prevention and capable of tolerating any severe man-made or natural events, namely earthquakes, floods, etc.
2.4. Organizations Involved in Construction of NPPs
It is planned that a core group will be formed before the construction of the plant and that group will be involved in the construction of the plant with the main Russian contractor JSC Atomstroyexport.
In case of the Rooppur NPP, the scope of the participation of the national industry in the project will be limited to items that do not have safety implications and such works, if undertaken by local parties, will be coordinated under the supervision and total responsibility of the General Contractor from the supplier side. However, the local participation is maximized in the preliminary site preparation works as sub-contractors under close supervision of the Russian main contractor.
2.5. Organizations Involved in Operation of NPPs
Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission is the owner of the proposed Rooppur NPP. Nuclear Power Plant Company of Bangladesh (NPCBL) has recently been formed to perform as the operator of Rooppur NPP along with other future NPPs set-up in the territory of Bangladesh. The company has a ten-member Board of Directors and an MD who are currently in the process of developing the company rules and regulations to appoint and train required manpower for the successful takeover of Rooppur NPP after commissioning.
2.6. Organizations Involved in Decommissioning of NPPs
Similar to the construction and operator core groups, a separate group will also be formed for decommissioning who will obtain training and skill from the main contractor’s country in due course of time.
2.7. Fuel Cycle Including Waste Management
Existing Waste Management Facility
Bangladesh is not operating any NPP. Radioactive wastes are being generated through the operation and maintenance of 3MWt TRIGA MARK-II Research Reactor, Radioisotope production labs, 14 MeV Neutron Generator, research and commercial irradiators, and from different industries, research labs (such as INST, AECD, IFRB, ICDDRB, etc.), universities, agricultural applications, etc. In addition, several isotope production and use facilities in medicine produce various sorts of LLW. The waste management program is focused on the research reactor and industrial uses of radiation/nuclear sources.
BAEC has established the Central Radioactive Waste Processing and Storage Facility (CWPS) in the campus of AERE, Savar under the Government Annual Development Project and the IAEA Technical Co-operation Project (BGD/4/022, 2001-2004). The functions of this facility are collection, segregation, packaging, conditioning, treatment, and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes from different nuclear facilities.
The design of the facility was based on the IAEA generic reference design. The main building is a single storey building (total area 1163 m2; size: 40 m x 35 m), divided internally into a number of rooms and areas for different purposes. The main building consists of a suitable combination of mainly two areas: one for receiving and processing waste from the generators, including the necessary equipment, machinery and support services for treating and conditioning the waste, and the second one for storing radioactive wastes.
Approximately 6.61m3 of LILW have been collected and safely stored at CWPSF. CWPSF is expected to serve the waste management needs in the country and, in the course of time, it may be turned into an International level training centre in the field of radioactive waste management. The facility is expected to be helpful in piloting waste management tasks in large scale in the near future. The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of the facility has recently been prepared in collaboration with the IAEA and it is expected that the facility will be licensed very soon.
Approach to Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Bangladesh believes that a healthy market exists at the front end of the fuel cycle. Currently, all reprocessing plants are state owned and any guarantee from a supplier would have the implicit or explicit agreement with the corresponding government. Based upon the existing nature of the nuclear business worldwide, Bangladesh is considering a long-term contract and transparent suppliers' arrangements with supplier(s) through backing of the respective government in order to ensure availability of fuel for the nuclear power reactor of the country. Examples would be fuel leasing and fuel take-back offers, commercial offers to store and dispose of spent fuel, as well as commercial fuel banks. On the other hand, at present there is no international market for spent fuel disposal services. Storage facilities for spent fuel are in operation and are being built in several countries. There is no international market for service in this area, except for the readiness of the Russian Federation to receive Russian supplied fuel.
Bangladesh is considering accessing detailed technical descriptions of the nuclear fuel assemblies offered from the supplier side, including physical, thermo-hydraulic, thermodynamic and mechanical data as well as calculations for batch planning (short term and long term). The supplier shall provide the QA programme, Handling and inspection methods for new and spent fuel and Tools for fuel and control rod manipulation and the scope of supply and services. The first core as well as the first reload should be included in the scope of supply for the plant. The bidders should include the supply of further reloads as an option.
The general concerns of Bangladesh about the nuclear fuel cycle are as follows.
The owner/operator of the nuclear plant in Bangladesh needs to ensure availability of fuel for the NPP from supplier(s) covering its entire life cycle.
The above life cycle supply assurance shall include all services related to the front end of the fuel cycle. “Fuel leasing-fuel take-back” model (full or partial) is conceivable for Bangladesh.
Alternate sources of services and supply of the front end of fuel cycle should be identified to accommodate any unforeseen circumstances.
Depending on the size of the nuclear power programme, efforts will be made to acquire the technology of fabrication of fuel elements based on imported raw materials and enrichment services in order to ensure security of fuel supply.
Pending a final decision on the back-end of the fuel cycle, the NPPs will have provision for on/ off -site spent fuel storage, the size of which shall be sufficient to store the spent fuel generated over their respective life cycles.
Sufficient security and physical protection and safety of the fuel storage on-site will be provided in accordance with the relevant provisions of the non-proliferation regime, as well as national law and regulations on nuclear safety and radiation control.
Bangladesh will consider any suitable model of nuclear fuel cycle under the responsibility of the IAEA as the guarantor of service and supplies, e.g. as administrator of a fuel bank.
Bangladesh opines that as far as assurances of supply are concerned, the proposed multilateral approaches to nuclear fuel cycle could provide the benefits of cost-effectiveness for developing countries with limited resources. Bangladesh is strongly supporting the Agency’s approach of developing and implementing international supply guarantees with IAEA participation.
For Rooppur NPP, a strategy for fuel cycle has been established through the IGA between the Russian Federation and Bangladesh. Under the IGA, the Russian Federation will cooperate with Bangladesh on long-term supply of nuclear fuel and take back of spent fuel, cooperation in the management of radioactive waste and decommissioning of NPP units.
2.8. Research and Development
2.8.1. R&D Organizations
BAEC has been engaged in R&D in various fields of peaceful applications of nuclear techniques since the early 1960s. Introduction of nuclear power in the country has always been a priority area. Development of human resources for the programmes was initiated in the 1960s with the assistance of the IAEA, which is still on going. However, since it was not possible to implement the nuclear power project for different reasons, activities of the organisation were diversified to make them responsive to the development needs of different sectors of national economy. Activities now encompass the following areas.
Medicine: One Institute and nine Nuclear Medicine Centres have been established in different parts of the country.
Food and Medical Products
Radiation Processing Technology
Vulcanization of Rubber Latex
Development of nuclear analytical science
Research reactor: A 3 MW research reactor has been installed for conducting research, training of personnel and production of short-lived radioisotopes for medical uses. It may be mentioned that in spite of its being the first major nuclear facility in the country, the local participation in its implementation was significant. Appropriate research laboratories based on the reactor facilities, such as radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography, neutron spectrometry for elemental and structural analysis of materials are being developed.
Exploration of nuclear and other related minerals: Prospecting of nuclear and related minerals is included in the overall programme of the BAEC. Surveys were conducted in the past in various regions of the country to ascertain the possibilities of finding Uranium and Thorium. This survey helped identify some areas where such materials are available at various levels of concentration. Extensive surveys, including drilling, are needed to ascertain the extent of reserves and the prospects of their mining on a commercial scale.
Tissue Banking and Bio-materials
Element analysis by Van de Graaff and Tandem Accelerator facilities
BAEC's overall R&D programs are formulated in two distinct trains, namely (a) problems addressing the needs of national development and (b) basic R&D. Of these, the first group of projects is now being given higher priority. This will also be evident from the fact that vertical linkage of BAEC is provided through the Ministry and the Planning Commission, which ensures that national goals and development targets are featured in its programs and projects.
Over the years, the IAEA has been a partner-in-development in most of the leading BAEC institutes. This has meant a continuing relationship with various institutes at Savar and at AECD. Broadly speaking, the program at Savar covers research reactor commissioning and its utilization for isotope production, 1.85 PBq Co-60 irradiator, neutron activation analysis, and neutron radiography. Nuclear analytical facilities, and laboratories for repair and maintenance of nuclear instruments, have been established both at Savar and at AEC, Dhaka. Utilization of Van de Graaff accelerator at AECD was also supported by the Agency. NDT program at AECD and isotope hydrology at Savar, and food preservation, pest control, radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals, tissue banking and agrochemical residue analysis at the Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, have also been well supported.
2.8.2. Development of Advanced Nuclear Technologies
Bangladesh has not yet engaged with advanced nuclear technologies.
2.8.3. International Co-operation and Initiatives
MEMBERSHIPS IN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
Bangladesh became a Member State of the IAEA in 1972. It also became the 40th Member of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) in 2014.
Bangladesh is a party to a whole range of commitments to the international nuclear non-proliferation and verification regime, such as NPT, Bilateral Safeguard Agreement with the IAEA, the Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreement, and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Please see Appendix 1.
PAST TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION WITH IAEA
BAEC operates under the MOST, and is thus an integral part of the scientific network of the country. BAEC has been the national focal point for the IAEA including its Technical Cooperation (TC) program, which so far has covered almost the entire range of BAEC activities, especially those, which have direct relevance to the national development agenda. The total assistance provided during the last 10 years (1991-2000) amounted to approximately US$6.885 million. More than half of this assistance (53.87%) was devoted to the human resources development areas, namely experts, fellowships, training courses, and scientific visits. The reminder was provided in the form of equipment and subcontracts. Area-of-activity wise, 88% of the assistance was provided in five areas, namely, agriculture (24.2%), application of isotopes and radiation in medicine (21.2%), nuclear engineering and technology (20.3%), nuclear safety (13.1%), and industry and hydrology.
ONGOING TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION WITH IAEA
The list of on-going IAEA TC Projects is as follows:
|SI. NO.||Project Code||Project Title|
|1||BGD/5028||Assessing crop mutant varieties in saline and drought prone areas using nuclear techniques|
|2||BGD/8/018||Strengthening oncology department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University |
|SI. NO.||Project Code||Project Title|
|3||BGD/1012||Implementing an Ageing Management Programme for the TRIGA Research Reactor of Bangladesh|
|4||BGD/6022||Production of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals|
|5||BGD/9012||Strengthening occupational radiation protection |
|6||BGD/2012||Establishing Nuclear Power|
|SI. NO.||Project Code||Project Title|
|7||BGD/2014||Infrastructure Development for the First Nuclear Power Plant in Bangladesh: Preparatory Stage Construction and Erection Phase|
2.9. Human Resources Development
Necessary Manpower for managing, operating and maintaining the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant:
In the last 25th December 2015, a General Contract was signed between Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission on behalf of Bangladesh and JSC Atomstroyexport of Russian Federation with the objective of the main phase construction work of Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant. According to the Feasibility Evaluation of Rooppur NPP, about 2100 personnel shall be required for managing, operating and maintaining the Nuclear Power Plant in different phases. Among them, 1750-personnel are technical and 350-personnel are non-technical.
Since Nuclear Power Plant is a very complex and sensitive establishment, therefore well-trained and educated manpower is required for its operation and maintenance. In the light of this, the matter related with the higher training in Russian Federation within 2017 of about 1100 personnel among 1750 technical personnel specified in the Feasibility Evaluation of Rooppur NPP is provided in the different phases of the signed General Contract. Besides this, the rest of the manpower shall be prepared through local training.
In the scope of the General Contract signed on 25th December 2015, there is provision for 1052 personnel in order to manage, operate and maintain the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant through training in Russian Federation. In the meantime, 40 personnel will be sent for training on operation of Nuclear Power Plant within September 2016. Another, 20 instructors shall be sent for training within December 2016. The rest of the manpower training time bound work plan shall be carried out within May 2016.
Work plan for higher education in Russian Federation for Nuclear Power Plant
In the scope of special grant, there is provision for attaining higher studies in Nuclear Engineering of MEPhI University for 50 students in the design and security arena of Nuclear Power Plant. In the 2015 academic year, 20 students have been sent to Russian Federation for higher education. In the meanwhile, the first and second instalment of their deserved money has been dispatched. 10 students studying in the same university since 2014, have also been included in the special grant. Another 20 students shall be sent to Russian Federation in 2016 academic year.
The members of the Working Sub Group are as follows:
|1.||Secretary, Ministry of Science and ICT||Convener|
|2.||Prime Minister’s Office-01(one) representative ||Member|
|3.||Ministry of Establishment-01 (one) representative||Member|
|4.||Finance Division -01 (one) representative||Member|
|5.||Ministry of Education-01 (one) representative||Member|
|6.||Dhaka University (DU)- representative||Member|
|7.||Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET)- representative||Member|
|8.||University Grants Commission (UGC)- representative||Member|
|9.||Representatives from Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission||Member|
|10.||Dr. Md. Shawkat Akbar, Project Director, “Accomplishment of Essential Activities to Implement Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant Project”||Member Secretary|
2.10. Stakeholder Involvement
Planning for nuclear power at the Roopur site has been ongoing for nearly 50 years with no public opposition and with support of the local community. A recent newspaper poll showed 65% of the public in favour, and a poll of students in Dhaka and around the site showed 60% in favour. The BAEC website has information on the Rooppur NPP project, including the national justification.
The Ministry of Information will develop a plan for public communication on behalf of the government once the contract is signed. Bangladesh informed the team that the draft BAER 2011 contains provisions for the responsibilities of the regulatory body for stakeholder involvement. BAEC’s scientific information office responds to questions and inquiries regarding the Rooppur NPP.
Outreach to neighbouring countries has been done in a variety of contexts, including through cooperation agreements, consultations and assistance in the area of regulatory development. The National Parliament and local officials are involved and consulted in the planning. For example, representatives from the local community participated in the ceremony for the IGA signing.
At the local site, BAEC maintains an office. The local residents were resettled long ago from the land, which has been preserved for the Rooppur NPP use. IAEA and FNCA training has been provided to the BAEC and Ministry technical officials. While many elements of a public information programme in different organizations exist, an interagency plan and strategy for each organization was not evident. A stakeholder management system in the future owner and the regulatory body should be developed in order to track inquiries and follow-up. Now that the IGA has been signed, additional information regarding the national criteria and technology selected should be developed.
2.10.1. Public Acceptance
In Bangladesh, the acceptance of nuclear power is in general favourable, especially in and around the site. This is evident from the fact that, in spite of the inordinate delay and land being a precious commodity for the villagers, it has been possible to retain the land for the project for about four decades. The general perception is that construction of a NPP would create job opportunities and have other spin-off benefits for the residents. Moreover, back in the 1960's, the families affected by eviction were offered attractive compensation packages. Nevertheless, it is apprehended that opposition groups may be encountered as soon as construction work starts. An effective public acceptance programme has to be designed and implemented in order to enhance public acceptance. A well-equipped nuclear information centre is already fully functional in capital Dhaka, process of setting up of another one in the site is currently going on. Several public awareness programs have been conducted by BAEC and the Russian contractors, which include:
Opining sharing with media people on 30 January, 2013 in Dhaka.
Organization of an international seminar on “Nuclear Power: A Chance of Successful Economic and Socio-political Development” at the Hotel Ruposhi Bangla, Dhaka, inaugurated by the Hon’ble Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina.
View exchange meeting with the reporters and local respectable and talent people 7 September, 2013.
Arrangement of several opinion Sharing meetings in different times at Rooppur among the Hon’ble State Minister for Science & Technology, Science & Technology Secretary, Chairman and Scientists of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and the local people.
Children’s art competition and information booklet distribution program on 27 March, 2016
Site visit and press briefing with media people and journalists on 9 April, 2016 in Rooppur site.
Several committees have been formed involving relevant stakeholders to formulate the emergency management system during the operation of Nuclear Power Plant in the territory of Bangladesh. These committees have already held several meeting with national and international experts. The Government is also very much eager to develop a standard emergency preparedness system for the densely populated country.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory Framework
3.1.1. Regulatory Authority(s)
Presently, the BAER Act 2012 was passed in the National Parliament on 19 June 2012 to develop the capacity of the nuclear regulatory body. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority was formed as a separate entity on 12 February 2013. This authority is responsible to regulate the use of atomic energy, radiological practices and relevant activities under the provision of the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act, (No. 21 of 1993) and the NSRC Regulations 1997.
3.1.2. Licensing Process
Based on INIR recommendations, initiatives for an appropriate nuclear infrastructure have been taken, including, among others, establishment of a competent and effectively independent regulatory authority with adequate legal provisions on nuclear safety, radiation protection, authorization, transportation and waste safety, nuclear security, handling and safeguarding of nuclear material and nuclear liabilities for transporting of nuclear material. The issuance of licenses for the different phases on NPP activities and regulatory supervision of the NPP will be the most critical factor. BAER Authority is preparing safety regulations and guides for issuance of individual permits or licenses for site, construction and operation of NPP, as well as import, transport, storage, export goods and services.
In order to obtain other nuclear related licences, an entity, shall apply for a licence to the Regulatory Authority in the prescribed form applicable for the specific class and practice, furnishing all pertinent information required by the applicable standard and guide.
3.2. National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power
The "Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Act, 1993" was passed by the National Assembly of Bangladesh in July 1993, and is in force since then. According to this law, BAEC was empowered to work as the nuclear regulatory body. The Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Rules were formulated for that purpose in 1997. Presently, the Regulatory Body has been separated from BAEC. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Act 2012 was passed in the National Parliament on 19 June 2012. The Contents are as follows.
Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory (BAER) Act, 2012
Chapter One: Preliminary
1. Short title and Commencement
2. Definitions and Interpretation
3. Overriding effect of the act
Chapter Two: Regulatory Authority
4. Establishment of the Authority
5. Office of the Authority
6. Constitution of the Regulatory Authority
7. Tenure of office, resignation etc. of the Chairman and Members
8. Qualifications, Disqualifications etc. of the Chairman and Members
9. Resignation, Discharge/ Removal and Incapable of performing duties of Chairman and Members
10. Meeting of the Authority
11. Responsibility and function of the Authority
12. Financial Advisor and Secretary
13. Appointment of Employees of the Authority
Removal of Chairman or Members of the Authority
14. Delegation of Power
15. Funds of the Authority
16. The Advisory Council
17. Expert Committee
Chapter Three: Authorization Process
18. Restrictions on certain activities
19. Authorization procedures of nuclear, radiation and radioactive waste disposal facility
21. Procedures for issuing authorization
23. Responsibilities of the Authorization holder
24. Authority to control import and export of nuclear and radioactive material
25. Authorization for import and export
26. Import Authorization Criteria
27. Export Authorization Criteria
28. Suspension and cancellation of authorization
Chapter Four: Safety & Security of radioactive materials, nuclear safety, quality assurance, physical protection and safeguards
29. Safety & Security of radioactive materials
30. Nuclear Safety
31. Radiation Protection
32. Quality Assurance
33. Physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities
34. Safeguards and import & export control
35. State system of accounting for and control of Nuclear Material (SSAC)
36. Information requirements additional to material accounting and control
37. Illicit trafficking
Chapter Five: Transport and Waste Safety
38. Management of Radioactive waste and spent fuel
39. Transport of Radioactive materials
Chapter Six: Emergency Preparedness and Response
40. Emergency planning and response
41. Emergency rectification measures
42. Nuclear and radiological emergency planning
Chapter Seven: Liability for nuclear damage
43. Liability of the operator
44. Liability during transportation
45. Amount of Liability
46. Financial Guarantee
47. Extinction of Rights of Compensation
50. Exception to Liability
Chapter Eight: Inspection and enforcement
Chapter Nine: Offence, Penalty and Trial
53. Offence and Penalty
55. Information about the offence
56. Bail-ability and Non-Cognizability of the offence
57. Cognizance of offences for trial
58. Offence committed by a company
60. Civil Remedy
Chapter Ten: Miscellaneous
61. Power of receiving loan
62. Recovery of Arrear
63. Annual Budget Statement
64. Audit and Account
66. Cooperation and Agreement with National, International, Regional and Foreign Organization or agency, etc.
67. Laboratory and other technical services
68. Power to formulate rules
69. Power to formulate regulations
70. Publication of translated English text of the Act
71. Savings and repeal
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
BILETERAL COOPERATION AGREEMENT
Bangladesh has bilateral agreements on nuclear cooperation with the Government of the USA, France and China. Recently, Bangladesh made a bilateral Cooperation Agreement with the Russian Federation and India on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.
Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) on 15 November 2006.
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|Name of the Owner Organization:||Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC)|
Web site address:
|E-12/A, Agargaon, Sher-E-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207|
|Name of the Operator Organization:||Nuclear Power Plant Company Bangladesh Limited (NPCBL)|
Web site address:
|Rooppur NPP Bhaban, 4 KaziNazrul Islam Avenue, Karwan Bazar, Dhaka-1000|
CNPP REPORT COORDINATORS:
|Name of the report coordinator:||Dr. Md. Shawkat Akbar|
|Institution:||Nuclear Power & Energy Division (NPED), BAEC|
|Contacts:||Phone (Office): 880-2-8120343|
Personal phone: 880-01715012416
Residence phone: 880-2-8124398
E-mail address: email@example.com
|Name of the associate to the coordinator:||Mahmud Hossain, Principal Engineer|
|Institution: ||Nuclear Power & Energy Division (NPED), BAEC|
|Contacts:||Phone (Office): 880-2-8120343|
Personal phone: 880-01818425219
Residence phone: 880-2-7211530
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Name of the associate to the associate-coordinator:||Jubair Sieed, Engineer|
|Institution: ||Nuclear Power & Energy Division (NPED), BAEC|
|Contacts:||Phone (Office): 880-2-9664635|
Personal phone: 880-01977582247
Residence phone: 880-2-9111185
E-mail address: email@example.com