BELARUS

(Updated 2017)

PREAMBLE

This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Belarus, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operation of nuclear power plants.

The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Belarus.

Belarus has two nuclear power reactors under construction.

1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW

1.1 Energy Information

1.1.1 Energy Policy

The Republic of Belarus experiences a deficit in its fuel and energy resources. The share of its own resources in the national fuel and energy balance is about 18%. More than 80% of the fuel and energy resources are imported, mainly from the Russian Federation. Natural gas is the dominant component in the national fuel and energy balance. The relative weight of natural gas in the domestic electricity power industry reached 95–96%. This factor significantly affects the energy security of the Republic of Belarus.

The main directions of the development of the national fuel and energy sector are determined by the Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus approved by the Ordinance of the President of the Republic of Belarus in September 2007.

Implementation of the provisions of the Concept in 2007–2009 resulted in reduction of the wear rate of the energy production facilities by 9.6%, reconstruction and modernization of the three largest hydropower and heat electrical power stations, and construction of a number of small hydropower stations and seven module power plants working on local fuels.

These activities, as well as implementation of energy saving programmes, made it possible to save more than a million tons of coal equivalents per year during 2007–2009. In 2009, the use of renewable energy sources amounted to 1.5% of annual consumption of fuel in the electric energy sector. Emissions of the greenhouse gases were reduced by 1.7 million tons in 2006–2009.

Within the framework of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, eight project proposals aimed at reducing emissions by the electric energy facilities were developed.

1.1.2 Estimated Available Energy

TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES

  Estimated available energy sources
   Fossil fuels Nuclear  Renewables
  Solid Liquid Gas Uranium Hydro Other renewable
 Total amount in specific units* 15150** 58 3.43 - 0.0023 ***
Total amount in exajoule (EJ)

* Solid, Liquid: Million tons; Gas: Billion m3; Uranium: Metric tons; Hydro, Renewable: TW.

** Lignite.

*** Biomass reserves in forests are estimated at 1.43 billion m3. Belarus has considerable potential for increase in biomass use for energy purposes, rising to 11 million m3 wood use (3.1 million tce) per year by 2020.

Source: Ministry of Energy.

1.1.3 Energy Statistics

TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS

Average annual growth rate (%)
1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2009* 2000 to 2009 (%)
 Energy consumption**
       - Total 0.07 0.17 0.23 0.29 0.31 0.32 1.12
- Solids*** n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
- Liquids n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
- Gases n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
- Nuclear n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
- Hydro n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
- Other renewables n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Energy production
       - Total 0.22 0.48 0.56 0.35 0.4 0.38 0.95
- Solids*** 0.10 0.03
- Liquids 0.09 0.42 0.23 0.03 0.02 0.08 18.52
- Gases 0.03 0.03 0.33 0.32 0.38 0.30 -0.7
- Nuclear n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
- Hydro n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
- Other renewables n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
 Net import (Import - Export) n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.026 0.018 0.016 -4.27
       - Total 0.376 0.418 0.396 0.59

* Latest available data.

** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import - Export) of secondary energy.

*** Solid fuels include coal, lignite.

Source: Ministry of Energy.

1.2 The Electricity System

1.2.1 Electricity Policy and Decision Making Process

The development of the national energy sector is implemented in accordance with the Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus, which covers the time period up to 2021.

In order to ensure national energy security, the Concept considers the introduction of nuclear energy into the national energy mix by constructing one nuclear power plant with two reactors with total output electric capacity of 2000 MW before 2020.

Also, the Concept outlines priorities of the development of the national energy sector, which include the following:

Development and modernization of energy sources by introducing efficient combined cycle technologies for steam power plants in use, and constructing new steam power plants;

  • Increase in performance by modernizing turbines and adding generating equipment to boiler plants, thus transforming them into mini-heat and electrical power stations;

  • Diversification of the fuel and energy balance by the use of nuclear power and coal, and by introduction of local fuels and renewable energy to the maximal feasible extent;

  • Increase of the capacity of underground storage of natural gas;

  • Development of the network infrastructure and enhancement of export and transit capacities;

  • Organization of energy equipment production within the country;

  • Introduction of modern energy saving technologies in all the branches of the national economy.

The fuel diversification approach presumes that in 2020 Belarus will introduce generating capacities based on alternative energy sources, including coal (about 1000 MW), hydropower plants (290 MW), and heat and electrical power stations using local fuels (up to 265 MW).

1.2.2 Structure of Electric Power Sector

Management of the Grid

The electric power sector of Belarus is an intensively automated complex consisting of regional energy systems combined into the national system with integrated operation and control management.

Presently, the national electric power sector is integrated under the State Industrial Association “Belenergo”, which includes the operation and control management facility. It integrates six regional electric power enterprises, and various companies performing maintenance, production and reconstruction of electrical facilities, as well as research, design and technological activities and construction of new electric energy facilities.

Production

As of 1 January 2010, the total established capacity of the “Belenergo” thermal power plants amounted to 7 974.398 MW, and the total installed capacity of all power plants in Belarus was 8 386.158 MW.

Transport, Transmission and Distribution Structure

The electrical network of the national electric power sector includes 0.4–750 kV transmission facilities with total length of 269 245 kilometres, transformer stations with 35–750 kV voltage and total installed capacity of 33 389.7 MVA and transformer stations with 6–10/0.4 kV voltage and total installed capacity of 14 558.3 MVA.

The 220–750 kV power transmission lines are the backbone of the electric energy system and provide connections with the electric energy systems of Lithuania, Poland, Russian Federation and Ukraine. The total length of these lines amounts to 6 971 kilometres.

The 110 kV power transmission lines with a total length of 16 642 kilometres provide both transmission and distribution of electric energy.

The 0.4–35 kV electric network serves for distribution purposes. Its length is 245 617 kilometres.

1.2.3 Main Indicators

TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY

              Average annual growth rate (%)
  1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2009 2000 to 2009
 Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)              
       - Thermal 2.5 5.9 6.7 7.6 7.8 7.7 0.13
       - Hydro 0.01 0.07 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 0
       - Nuclear  n.a. n.a.   n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.
       - Wind  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.
       - Geothermal  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.
       - Other renewable  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.
       - Total 2.51 5.97 6.75 7.61 7.81 7.71 0.13
 Electricity production (TWh)              
       - Thermal 14.8 33.8 39.2 25.6 30.1 28.6 1.17
       - Hydro 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 5
       - Nuclear  n.a. n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.
       - Wind  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.
       - Geothermal  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.
       - Other renewable  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.
       - Total 1 14.83 33.82 39.22 25.62 30.12 28.63 1.17
 Total Electricity consumption (TWh) 14.8 33.8 39.2 33.2 34.7 34.5 0.39

1 Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.

Source: Belenergo.

2 NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION

2.1 Historical Development and Current Organizational Structure

The need to develop a nuclear power programme results from the following factors:

Scarcity of available fuel and energy resources;

  • A significant share of natural gas in the fuel and energy balance;

  • High expenditures for import of energy resources;

  • Domination of one country supplier of fuel and energy resources;

  • Difficulties in creating considerable reserves of natural gas.

On 17 September 2007, the President of the Republic of Belarus approved the Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus, which considers the introduction of a nuclear option into the national energy mix. The Concept assumes the construction of a nuclear power plant consisting of two reactors with total output electric capacity of 2000 MW before 2020.

On 31 January 2008, the Security Council of the Republic of Belarus made a decision to construct the nuclear power plant by commissioning the first 1000 MWe unit in 2016 and the second one in 2018.

On 30 July 2008, the Law of the Republic of Belarus “On the use of atomic energy” was adopted. The Law sets up conditions and normative and legal bases for safe development of the nuclear energy sector, and for the use of nuclear technologies in various sectors of the national economy, as well as for conducting research activities.

A modern, enhanced security project based on serial NPP-2006 Generation 3+ with a WWER reactor of a unit power of 2 × 1194 MW was selected for the construction of a nuclear power plant in Belarus, and underwent examination on 27 May 2013 (expert’s report of the Glavgosexpertiza of Russia No. 435-13 / GGE-8551/02 for the preliminary design).

In 6 September 2017, the competent authorities of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of the Russian Federation on cooperation for the construction of the nuclear power plant on the territory of the Republic of Belarus made a decision to extend the startup facility commissioning time of the Belarusian NPP Unit 1 from November 2018 to December 2019.

2.1.1 Overview

The necessary infrastructure was developed for the NPP construction project:

The Department of Nuclear Energy of the Ministry of Energy prepared for implementation of the national policy in the field of nuclear power development.

  • The Department of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Ministry for Emergency Situations prepared for the implementation of state supervision in the area of nuclear and radiation safety.

2.1.2 Current Organizational Chart(s)

In accordance with the Decree No. 583 of the President of the Republic of Belarus dated 30 December 2013, “On the reorganization of the state enterprise Directorate for the Construction of the Nuclear Power Plant” and Order No. 1 of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Belarus dated 10 January 2014, Republican Unitary Enterprise “Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant” was established as a result of the reorganization of the state enterprise “Directorate for the Construction of the Nuclear Power Plant” through its reconstruction into a republican unitary enterprise. It is defined as the customer of the NPP and the operating organization.

The objectives of the enterprise are to ensure the construction and commissioning of the nuclear power plant, its safe operation, uninterrupted output of electric power, other activities aimed at fulfilling the reported indicators, and making a profit.

The organization which carries out the scientific support for the construction of the nuclear power plant is the State Scientific Institution “The Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research — Sosny” of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus.

2.2 Nuclear Power Plants: Overview

Not applicable.

2.2.1 Status and Performance of Nuclear Power Plants

Not applicable.

2.2.2 Plant Upgrading, Plant Life Management and Licence Renewals

On 14 February 2014, the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus issued a licence for the operating organization to carry out activities in the area of atomic power use and sources of ionizing radiation. In accordance with paragraph 56 of the Regulation on the licensing of certain types of activities approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus No. 450 dated on 1 September 2010, the licence is valid from the date of issue and is not limited.

2.3 Future Development of Nuclear Power

Not applicable.

2.3.1 Nuclear Power Development Strategy

The State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” is defined as a strategic partner in the development of the national nuclear power programme.

In accordance with the structure of the State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom”, the organization of construction for the Belarusian NPP is as follows:

The general designer is JSC “Nizhny Novgorod Engineering Company Atomenergoproekt” — the managing organization of JSC “Atomstroyexport” (JSC “NIAEP”).

  • The scientific coordinator of NPP and reactor installation (RI) projects is SRC “Kurchatov Institute”.

  • Holders of key technology elements:

    • Chief designer of the reactor installation (RI); — JSC OKB “GIDROPRESS” (Podolsk);

    • Turbogenerator installation — JSC “Power Machines” (St. Petersburg).

Responsible for the development of the project, design and detailed documentation:

  • With regard to the main buildings and structures — JSC Atomproekt (St. Petersburg);

  • With regard to the automated process control system — VNIIAES JSC (Moscow).

The partnership is carried out under the general contract with CJSC Atomstroyexport and the main documents were signed with Russia:

  • 28 May 2009, the intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the area of peaceful use of atomic energy;

  • 15 March 2011, the intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the construction of the nuclear power plant on the territory of the Republic of Belarus;

  • 15 November 2011 the intergovernmental agreement to extend the Government of the Republic of Belarus a state export credit for construction of the nuclear power plant.

TABLE 4. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Station name Type Capacity Construction date Expected commercial year
WWER 1110 08.12.2013 2019
WWER 1110 27.04.2014 2020

2.3.2 Project Management

In order to implement preparatory activities for nuclear power plant construction in the Republic of Belarus, the Inter-Agency Commission chaired by the First Deputy Prime Minister was established. The Commission is comprised of representatives of the National Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Finances, Ministry of Energy, Ministry for Emergencies, Ministry of Natural Resources and Protection of the Environment, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education and several other governmental bodies and organizations. The Commission holds regular meetings to discuss various issues related to the development of the national nuclear power programme.

To perform the functions of a customer for the package of preparatory and design and planning work required to construct the NPP, the State Enterprise “Directorate for Nuclear Power Plant Construction” was established. The Directorate is also responsible for coordination of the development of design and budget documentation for NPP construction, coordination of activities related to NPP construction and creation of the required infrastructure, information support, training of personnel, etc.

The Department of Nuclear and Radiation Safety was established within the Ministry for Emergencies and was given responsibilities to exercise the state supervision over nuclear and radiation safety issues, and to ,monitor observation of the relevant legislation.

The Department of Nuclear Energy of the Ministry of Energy was established with the aim to implement the national policy in the area of nuclear energy sector development. The main functions of the Department include coordination of activities related to construction and operation of the NPP, development and monitoring of implementation of nuclear energy programmes, organization of activities aimed at ensuring nuclear safety, and information and communication activities.

Organizational Structure of the Project Management

Decree No. 583 of the President of the Republic of Belarus dated 30 December 2013, defines the state enterprise “Directorate for the Nuclear Power Plant Construction”, which through its reconstruction was reorganized into the Republican Unitary Enterprise “Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant” (hereinafter referred to as the Customer).

Annex 11, “Project Management”, regarding the General Contract on the construction of the Belarusian NPP No. 77-598 / 1110700 dated 18 July 2012 outlines the implementation of the project of the Belarusian NPP construction in the Republic of Belarus, where the General Contractor provides the Project Management.

Within the framework of the scheme “management — the function of the General Contractor”, the Customer devolves the functions of management to the General Contractor, retaining control of individual intermediate results. The General Contractor independently forms the organizational structure of the Project Management, allocates permanent resources and implements all functions for the Project Management, while engaging on a temporary basis subcontractors and their own units for the implementation of individual project work packages.

Allocation of Functions for Project Management Between the General Contractor’s Office and the General Contractor’s Branch on the Site

The central office of the General Contractor is responsible for:

Development and implementation of the methodology activity network;

  • Development and support of level 1–3 construction schedules for NPP units (development of technological order and assignment of resources);

  • Development and introduction of software under the tasks of activity network and course scheduling;

  • Staff training in activity network;

  • Methodological assistance to the branches for the development of the 4th level schedules.

The Branch of the General Contractor on the site is responsible for:

Schedules of the 4th level and the schedule of the 3rd level development;

  • Distribution of 4th level schedules between subcontractors;

  • Issuance and control of weekly and daily targets;

  • Collection of actual data on the NPP construction schedule activity and updating of 4th level schedules;

  • Reporting to the General Contractor’s office on work actually completed for updating the 3rd level schedules and normative database;

  • Development and support of thematic plans for the construction of nuclear power plants.

Organization of Project Management Department of General Contractor’s Office

Figure 1 shows the organization of the project management department of the General Contractor’s office.

FIG. 1. Organization of the project management department of the General Contractor’s office.

Organization of Project Management Department of General Contractor’s Branch at the Site

Figure 2 shows the organization of the project management department of the General Contractor’s branch at the site.

FIG. 2. Organization of the project management department of the General Contractor’s branch at the site.

Control and Improvement of the Project Management System Operation

In order to control over the progress of the Belarusian NPP construction, the parties organize tripartite coordinative meetings at the site.

The parties participating in the tripartite coordination meetings at the site to monitor the progress of the Belarusian NPP construction are: the Customer, the General Contractor and the General Contractor’s branch at the site.

Coordination meetings should be held at least once every three months.

The main task of the coordination meetings should be control over the progress of work and decision making on identified problems, as well as to verify the implementation of decisions of previous meetings.

In order to improve the project management system, it is necessary to organize bilateral meetings at the nuclear power plant construction site.

The parties participating in the coordination meetings for the improvement of the project management system are: General Contractor and General Contractor’s branch on the site.

The main tasks of coordination meetings on the improvement of the project management system should be:

Optimization of the planning system (timing, budget);

  • Implementation and improvement of innovative approaches in the area of project management;

  • Implementation and improvement of methodological support for construction management;

  • Operational analysis and updating of construction data, making necessary allowances.

Coordination meetings on the improvement of the project management system can be thematic (conducted at the initiative of one of the parties, if necessary) or organizational (should be conducted as required by the General Contractor).

2.3.3 Project Funding

The agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of the Russian Federation extends the Government of the Republic of Belarus of a state export credit for the construction of the nuclear power plant, and provides for a loan of US $10 billion to finance 90% of the cost of the contract for the construction of a nuclear power plant.

2.3.4 Electric Grid Development

The State Program on Development of the Electric Power Industry for 2011–2015 includes the modernization of 400 kilometres of 220-330-750 kV transmission line backbone to ensure power output of the first unit of the NPP, as well as conversion of 220 kV power transmission lines to 330 kV ones.

Decree No. 583 of the President of the Republic of Belarus dated 30 December 2013, stipulates “reorganization of the state enterprise Directorate for the Construction of the Nuclear Power Plant.” Order No. 1 of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Belarus dated 10 January 2014 established Republican Unitary Enterprise “Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant”, as a result of the reorganization of the state enterprise “Directorate for the Construction of the Nuclear Power Plant” through its reconstruction. It is defined as the customer of the NPP and the operating organization.

Also, the project “Electricity Generation System Analysis for Integration of Nuclear Power” was implemented within the framework of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme. As a result of the project, potential influence of integration of the NPP with 2000 MW capacity on the national energy system was evaluated and a feasibility study of the use of nuclear energy as compared to alternative methods of electric power generation was performed.

The outcomes of this study demonstrated that based on the demand, technology cost and fuel import price assumptions for the period 2005 to 2035, the policy of the Government of Belarus of introducing 2000 MW of nuclear power by 2020 is economically viable and attractive from both an economic and energy security perspective. Sensitivity tests proved that nuclear power can be a competitive electricity generating option for Belarus over a wide range of nuclear investment cost, alternative fuel price, competing technology and discount rate assumptions.

No.
Organization
Type of activity
1
Republican unitary enterprise “Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant”
Carry out functions of the customer for the construction and the operator (operating organization) for commissioning, operation, limiting performance, life extension and decommissioning of a nuclear power plant
2
Republican unitary enterprise “Grodnoenergo”
The customer for the construction of engineering and transport infrastructure (external power supply networks)
3
State Association “Belarusian Railways”
The customer for the construction of engineering and transport infrastructure (railway line to the nuclear power plant)
4
Department “Belavtodor” of the Ministry of Transport and Communications
The customer for the construction of engineering and transport infrastructure (access roads to the nuclear power plant)
5
Project Research Republican Unitary Enterprise “Belnipienergoprom”
General designer for the design and survey work on the construction of industrial facilities for the construction of nuclear power plants
6
Regional unitary project enterprise “Institute Grodnograzhdanproekt”
General designer for design and survey work on the construction of housing facilities and housing infrastructure
7
Rented enterprise “Minsk Promtransproekt”
General designer for the design and survey work on the construction of a railway line to the nuclear power plant
8
Open Joint-Stock Company “Grodnopromstroy”
General contractor for the construction of housing stock, housing infrastructure, railway line to the nuclear power plant
9
Open Joint Stock Company “Belenergostroy”
General contractor for the construction of industrial facilities for the construction of a nuclear power plant
10
Scientific research rented enterprise “Stroyeconomika”
Evaluation of financial and economic indicators contained in the draft agreement (contract) for the construction of a nuclear power plant, provisions of the parties responsibility, assessment of the performance of such an agreement (contract)
11
Department of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus
State supervision in the area of nuclear and radiation safety
12
State Scientific Institution "The Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research — Sosny"
Scientific support for NPP construction work

2.3.5 Site Selection

Initially, 74 prospective sites for NPP construction were identified. At the first stage, 20 sites were excluded from the list as having eliminatory factors as determined by the main criteria and requirements for site selection. The remaining 54 sites were subject to analysis based on available library and archive information.

To reduce the amount of survey work, a special expert commission analysed hydrological, seismotectonic, environmental, aerometeorological, radiological, and engineering–geological factors and land use conditions, as well as the results of additional reconnaissance field studies. This analysis made it possible to single out 3 best perspective areas for detailed examination.

In 2006–2008, three sites were identified in these areas:

Krasnopolyanskaya (Bykhov area);

  • Koukshinovskaya (Shklovsko-Goretskiy area);

  • Ostrovetskaya (Ostrovets area).

On these sites, research and survey work was conducted to select the priority site for NPP construction. In December 2008, based on the results of this work, the specially established State Commission defined the Ostrovetskaya site as the priority; the two others were approved as reserve sites.

The research and survey activities on the priority site were completed in 2009, and the environmental impact assessment report was prepared. The report is now being finalized taking into account the results of consultation and public hearings conducted within the framework of Espoo Convention mechanisms.

2.4 Organizations Involved in Construction of NPPs

The State Enterprise “Directorate for Nuclear Power Plant Construction” is appointed as a customer for the package of preparatory and design and planning work required to construct the NPP.

“Atomstroyexport” (Russian Federation), the state engineering company, which is subordinated to “Rosatom” and implements intergovernmental agreements on NPP construction outside the Russian Federation, is defined as general contractor.

State Scientific Institution “Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research — Sosny” conducted a review of possibilities for using industrial, construction, raw material and scientific bases — as well as human resources — of the Republic of Belarus in the NPP construction. The review demonstrated that Belarus has sufficient reserves of building materials for construction of the NPP and required infrastructure.

The Ministry of Economy developed the Perspective Plan of the Development of the Region of the NPP Construction. The Plan determines participation of national and local industries in creating the industrial base for NPP construction and developing the required infrastructure (transport, communication, power transmission lines, housing, new enterprises, social objects).

2.5 Organizations Involved in Operation of NPPs

Not applicable.

2.6 Organizations Involved in Decommissioning of NPPs

Not applicable.

2.7 Fuel Cycle Including Waste Management

The strategy for the nuclear fuel cycle will be defined after the signing of the contract documents on construction and operation of the NPP, concluded on the basis of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of the Russian Federation on cooperation in the construction of the nuclear power plant on the territory of the Republic of Belarus (see Section 2.3.1).

This strategy will assume that fresh fuel as ready to use fuel assemblies, produced in the Russian Federation in amounts required for initial load and all successive loads of power units, will firstly enter the fresh fuel storage.

Then, in accordance with the existing international practice, the spent nuclear fuel, after conditioning over the course of three years in the fuel pool, can be transferred from the reactor building to the Russian Federation for regeneration or long term technological storage.

In August 2005, the rules for radioactive waste management “?????-2005”, issued by the Ministry of Health, entered into force. These rules include classification of radioactive waste, basic principles of radioactive waste management, criteria of radiation safety in radioactive waste management, and requirements for safety of personnel and population at all the stages of radioactive waste management (collection, storage, transportation, processing and disposal). Transportation of radioactive materials is regulated by the rules titled “Requirements for ensuring radiation safety and safety of population in transportation of radioactive materials (substances)”. This document covers dispatch, transportation, transit storage, unloading and receipt of radioactive materials, including radioactive waste, by all transport means.

The NPP design will indicate the following systems of radioactive waste management:

System of gaseous radioactive waste management;

  • System of collection and decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, system of processing and storage of liquid radioactive waste;

  • System of solid radioactive waste management.

At present, a draft strategy of spent nuclear fuel management is being developed.

2.7.1 Nuclear Fuel Cycle Management

The strategy for the nuclear fuel cycle management is based on the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of the Russian Federation on cooperation in the construction of the nuclear power plant on the territory of the Republic of Belarus (hereinafter — the Intergovernmental Agreement), as well as on a number of design decisions on fresh and spent nuclear fuel management at the Belarusian NPP.

The nuclear fuel cycle of the Republic of Belarus consists of the following stages:

1. “Front end”, which includes:

Measures for the supply of fresh nuclear fuel;

  • Fresh nuclear fuel management at a nuclear power plant.

    2. “Back end”, which includes:

Spent and irradiated nuclear fuel management at a nuclear power plant;

  • Spent nuclear fuel management outside the nuclear power plant.

Measures for the supply of fresh nuclear fuel are written into the Intergovernmental Agreement, according to which “the Russian Party provides supplies by Russian executing organizations, and the Belarusian Party provides procurement by Belarusian executing organizations during the entire period of operation of the nuclear power units which are built in accordance with this Agreement on a contractual basis.”

At the same time, the short term supply of fresh nuclear fuel (for the first load and the first refueling) is set forth in the Amendment to the General Contract on the construction of the Belarusian NPP, and for the long term (for the rest of the operation period) it is set forth in the Contract on the supply of fresh nuclear fuel with the Russian organization JSC TVEL. In accordance with the contract obligations, fresh nuclear fuel is supplied to the nuclear power plant in the form of fuel assemblies.

Further, after the delivery of fresh nuclear fuel to the nuclear power plant, it is managed in accordance with the technical and organizational solutions adopted in the NPP project, including:

Fresh nuclear fuel is stored in the 1st class new fuel storage facility on the site of the nuclear power plant.

  • It is transported through the site of the nuclear power plant by special purpose vehicles.

  • It is operated in the reactor core of units 1 and 2 (within 3–4 years each fuel assembly).

After the fuel exhaustion in the reactor core, the spent nuclear fuel is kept under the protective layer of water in the fuel storage ponds specially designed by the NPP project. Thus, for a minimum of 3 years, the decay heat is removed and the radiation characteristics are reduced to values that ensure safe transportation of SNF.

The further procedure for spent nuclear fuel management after its spent fuel decay at the site of the Belarusian NPP will be covered in the Strategy for the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Currently, the Strategy for the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel is under development. In the development of the strategy, various options for SNF management are being considered. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account that according to the Agreement “on cooperation in the construction of the nuclear power plant on the territory of the Republic of Belarus”, spent nuclear fuel purchased from Russian executing organizations should be returned to the Russian Federation for reprocessing under terms determined by the Parties in a separate agreement.

The approximate timeframe for the development of the strategy for SNF management is 2019.

2.7.2 The Strategy for RW Management

“Law on the Use of Atomic Energy” No. 426-3 of 30 July 2008 states the national policy of the Republic of Belarus in the area of the use of atomic energy. Among other aspects, this law governs the relations associated with the management of operational radioactive waste and empowers the state bodies to act in this area.

Health norms and rules, including “Requirements for ensuring radiation safety of personnel and the population when radioactive waste management”, were approved by Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus No. 142, dated 31 December 2015, and set the criteria and characteristics for qualification of waste as radioactive. Radiation safety requirements for RWM have also been established.

The Strategy for Radioactive Wastes Management of the Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant, approved by Resolution No. 460 of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus, dated 2 June, identifies the tasks and the main directions of its implementation, describes the system of radioactive waste management at the Belarusian NPP and identifies sources of funding for the implementation of the strategy. This strategy has been developed taking into account the principles of radioactive waste management recommended by the IAEA. The project of the Belarusian NPP provides for the radioactive waste management system operation and the RW storage in the on-site spent fuel storage for ten years, followed by their transfer to the radioactive waste disposal facility, the construction of which is not provided for by the project. The RW management system includes the collection, partitioning, remediation, reprocessing, conditioning, transportation and storage of radioactive waste generated during the operation of the nuclear power plant. Storage of RW containers is provided at a nuclear power plant in specially equipped surface storage facilities, one for each power unit. High level radioactive waste will be stored at the nuclear power plant throughout its lifetime, and very low level, low level and medium level radioactive waste for ten years of the NPP operation.

For the purpose of constructing the RW disposal facility, the Strategy provides for the implementation of the following measures:

Carrying out, not later than 2023, survey work for choosing the location of the RW disposal facility in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents;

  • Preparation in 2023 of a petition (declaration) about plans for design and construction of a radioactive waste disposal facility with submission to a local executive authority for its consideration and approval in accordance with the established procedure;

  • The development of design documentation for the RW disposal facility up to 2026 in accordance with the requirements of regulatory legal acts;

  • Construction of the first stage RW disposal facility by 2028 for the disposal of radioactive waste generated at the nuclear power plant for ten years of its operation.

2.8 Research and Development

The nuclear research capacities were laid down in Belarus when the Institute of Nuclear Energy was founded in 1965. Research activities conducted by the Institute were concentrated in the areas of development of gas cooled nuclear reactors and the use of ionizing radiation sources. Another important programme run by the Institute was the development of a mobile nuclear power plant, which could be used as an autonomous energy source in difficult to reach regions.

After the Chernobyl accident, some of the Institute’s activities were stopped and it provided scientific support to the measures taken by the Government aimed at minimizing consequences of the accident.

2.8.1 R&D Organizations

According to the State Program “Scientific support to the development of nuclear energy in the Republic of Belarus for 2009–2010 and for the period up to 2020”, the main organization responsible for the implementation of the programme is the State Scientific Institution “Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research — Sosny” of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.

The main goal of the programme is the development and introduction of scientific and technical proposals aimed at optimizing technological processes, enhancing nuclear, radiation and environmental safety, improving physical protection and increasing efficiency of the nuclear power sector.

The implementation of the programme will make it possible to effectively use the existing industrial and human capacities of Belarus, to minimize negative impact of nuclear facilities on the environment and population, and to develop measures aimed at increasing NPP efficiency. An emphasis is also put on human resources development.

The programme is funded from the national budget.

2.8.2 Development of Advanced Nuclear Technologies

The “Sosny” Institute conducts research in the following areas:

Analytical and numerical methods for description of chaos associated tunneling and applications in micro- and nanoelectronics based on these methods;

  • Conditions of stable work of quantum computers;

  • Physics and kinetics of accelerator driven systems and accelerator driven transmutation technologies;

  • Methods of nondestructive control of radioactive materials, etc.

2.8.3 International Cooperation and Initiatives

The “Sosny” Institute has being actively cooperating with International Scientific and Technical Center, IAEA, leading research centres of western Europe and the United States of America. The Institute continues to implement joint activities with leading nuclear research centres of the Russian Federation and Ukraine.

Special interest is given to research on new technologies of energy generation, transmutation of radiotoxic elements of the nuclear fuel cycle, physics of reactors and subcritical systems with external sources, and creation of nuclear data libraries in the broad range of mass numbers and energies. This work is carried out in cooperation with nuclear research institutes in Republic of Korea and Japan, Federal Nuclear Center (Germany), Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation), Research Center on Energy and Technologies (Spain), Royal Technological Institute (Sweden), Institute of Nuclear Research (Ukraine), and the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

Studies in application of ionizing radiation are performed in cooperation with the Institute of Applied Radiochemistry and Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Poland) and the Scientific and Research Institute of Nuclear Reactors (Russian Federation).

Cooperation of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Belarus and the state enterprise “Belarusian NPP” with the International Atomic Energy Agency is carried out on the basis of agreed plans within the framework of which seminars, training courses, expert missions, and technical and scientific visits to nuclear power plants all over the world are conducted.

Already completed IAEA technical cooperation projects include:

2010–2011: BYE/006, “Developing Human Resources and a Training System for the Nuclear Power Programme”.

  • 2012–2013: BYE/2/004, “Developing Nuclear Power Infrastructure and a Staff Training System for a Nuclear Power Programme”. Within the framework of this project, the INIR mission “Integrated mission for assessing the readiness of the national nuclear power infrastructure of the Republic of Belarus” was conducted.

  • 2014–2015: BYE/2/005, “Supporting Human Resources and Infrastructure Development for the Nuclear Power Programme”.

  • 2016–2017: BYE/2/006, “Supporting Human Resources and Infrastructure Development for the Commissioning of the First Nuclear Power Plant”.

An IAEA technical cooperation project for 2018–2019 has been developed and approved: BYE/2/007 “Improving Capacity of Operating Organization for Ensuring Safe and Reliable Nuclear Power Plant Operation”.

2.9 Human Resources Development

In 2008, the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus approved the State Program of Human Resources Development for the Nuclear Energy Sector for 2008–2020. This programme is aimed at establishing a comprehensive system of human resources development, which will ensure knowledge and skills required for construction and safe operation of the NPP; nuclear and radiation safety; and safety of NPP personnel, population and the environment.

In accordance with the programme, new specializations were opened in the following higher education institutions:

Belarusian State University;

  • Belarusian State Technical University;

  • Belarusian State University of Information Technologies and Radio Electronics;

  • Sakharov International Ecological University.

Belarus receives significant assistance from the IAEA in the area of human resources development. Presently, Belarus is implementing the national IAEA Technical Cooperation project BYE/006 “Developing of Human Resources and a Training System for the Nuclear Power Programme”.

The operational personnel of the Belarusian NPP are being trained according to the General Contract on the construction of the Belarusian NPP, and encompass about 600 people. Expatriate experts who have working experience at operating foreign nuclear power plants are also invited to work at the Belarusian NPP.

Since 2016, the training centre of the Belarusian NPP has been equipped with computer training systems, where a full scope simulator has been installed, and the centre has its own staff of instructors for the training of the personnel of the Belarusian NPP.

2.10 Stakeholder Communication 

In Belarus, the information support activities are performed within the framework of stakeholder communication plans, which deal with continuous provision of information related to the development of the nuclear power programme to the public.

Under the leadership of the Ministry of Information, a working group was established which consists of representatives of governmental bodies and organizations involved in nuclear power programme, as well as representatives of mass media.

In the press centre “House of Mass Media”, an information centre for nuclear energy was set up. The centre conducts roundtables to discuss issues related to the development of the nuclear power programme in Belarus on a regular basis.

The information centre was established in the republican unitary enterprise “Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant”. The information centre provides information on NPP operation principles and safety measures applied thereto, and informs people on various issues of nuclear energy and Belarusian NPP construction. Information on the construction of the nuclear power plant is distributed on the web sites of the enterprise and the Ministry of Energy, as well as in popular social networks.

On a regular basis, press tours for journalists of foreign and Belarusian mass media are organized to the construction site of the Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant. The construction of the Belarusian NPP is constantly covered in print and electronic media, including television, both in Belarus and abroad.

Annually, the information centre of the Belarusian NPP is visited by over 100 delegations from all over the world. Among them are schoolchildren, students, journalists, representatives of state bodies and public associations, and employees of enterprises and institutions. In 2017, the information centre was visited by 119 delegations (2 455 people), and from the beginning of the centre’s work, it has been visited by 14 000 people. The information centre provides services on a free basis only. The Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences conducts opinion polls among the general public related to the introduction of nuclear power.

The Department of Nuclear Energy cooperates with “Atomexpo” (Russian Federation), which acts as the exhibition operation of “Rosatom” and as the provider of information support in the nuclear power industry in Russian Federation. The International Exhibition “Atomexpo-Belarus” is held in Minsk annually in collaboration with this organization.

In accordance with the Espoo Convention, consultations and public hearings to discuss the environmental impact assessment report of the planned Belarusian NPP were conducted in Austria, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine.

3 NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS

3.1 Regulatory Framework

3.1.1 Regulatory Authority(s)

Presently, the Ministry for Emergencies is the state administration body in the area of nuclear and radiation safety. Within the Ministry, the Department of Industrial Safety is responsible for industrial safety at nuclear energy facilities and the Department of Nuclear and Radiation Safety (Gosatomnadzor) is the competent authority for safety of ionizing radiation sources and nuclear energy facilities.

In 1993, the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus conferred the responsibilities of competent national authority in the area of nuclear and radiation safety to the State Committee on Supervision of Industrial and Nuclear Safety. In 1995, this body was transformed into the Committee under the Ministry for Emergencies and Protection of Population from the Consequences of the Chernobyl NPP Catastrophe with transfer of responsibilities to this Ministry.

The list of governmental bodies responsible for various aspects of nuclear safety and security includes the Ministry of Emergencies, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Interior and Committee of State Security (Article 7 of the Law “On the Use of Atomic Energy”).

State administration in the area of radiation safety is exercised by the Ministry of Emergencies, Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Health in accordance with the Law “On Radiation Safety of the Public”. Their responsibilities are set up by the two above mentioned laws and the Law “On Sanitary-Epidemic Welfare of the Public”.

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Protection is responsible for observation of the pollution level of the atmospheric air, surface water, soil, atmospheric precipitation and snow cover with the aim of identifying radioactive contamination of these environmental components resulting from the emission (discharges) of pollutants and their transboundary migration. The information about the environmental pollution is provided to the state authorities, local executive and administrative bodies and the public in order to prevent and mitigate the impact of potential radiological emergency situations.

3.1.2 Licensing Process

The licensing process in the area of the use of nuclear energy and sources of ionizing radiation is regulated by the following legislation:

Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus No. 450 of 1 September 2010 “On Licensing of Certain Types of Activities”;

  • Resolution No. 1781 of 7 December 2010 of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus “On Approval of the Clause about the Procedure of Examining Documents Ensuring Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Sphere of Atomic Power Use and Ionizing Radiation Sources”;

  • Norms and rules concerning assurance of nuclear and radiation safety “Requirements to the composition and content of documents providing nuclear and radiation safety in the sphere of atomic power use and ionizing radiation sources” approved by Decree No. 58 of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus of 5 November 2010.

The process of licensing activities in the area of industrial safety is regulated by the following legislation:

Regulations “On the Licensing of Certain Types of Activities” approved by Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus No. 450 of 1 September 2010;

  • The Law of the Republic of Belarus “On Industrial Safety” of 5 January 2016 No. 354-?;

  • Resolution No. 614 of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus “On some issues of industrial safety expertise” of 5 August 2016.

The licensing process in the area of security activities is regulated by the following legislation:

  • Regulations “On the Licensing of Certain Types of Activities” approved by Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus No. 450of 1 September 2010;

  • The Law of the Republic of Belarus No. 175-Z “On security activities in the Republic of Belarus” of 17 November 2006.

The process of licensing activities in the area of motor transport is regulated by the following legislation:

  • Regulations “On the Licensing of Certain Types of Activities” approved by Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus No. 450 of 1 September 2010;

  • Law of the Republic of Belarus No. 278-Z “On motor transport and transportation” of 14 August 2007.

3.2 Main National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power

Nuclear Law:

The Law of the Republic of Belarus “On the use of atomic energy” of 30 July 2008.

Radiation Protection:

The Law of the Republic of Belarus “On Sanitary-Epidemic Welfare of the Public” (adopted in 1993 and amended in 2000);

  • The Law of the Republic of Belarus “On radiation safety of public” (adopted in 1998);

  • Ordinance of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus No. 561 of 30 April 2009 “On the National Commission on Radiation Protection”.

Site Selection:

Technical Code of Established Practice (TCEP) 097 — 2007 Placement of nuclear power plants. Main criteria and safety requirements.

  • TCEP 098 — 2007, Placement of nuclear power plants. Main requirements for researches and surveys in the process of area and site selection.

  • TCEP 099 — 2007, Placement of nuclear power plants. Guidelines on development and content of justification of environmental safety of nuclear power plants.

  • TCEP 102 — 2007, Placement of nuclear power plants. Procedure for development of quality assurance program for nuclear power station.

Transportation, storage and processing of nuclear and radioactive materials:

Safety rules for transportation of hazardous commodities by railroad transport on the territory of the Republic of Belarus;

  • Rules of transportation of hazardous commodities by automobile transport in the Republic of Belarus;

  • Rules of safe transportation of hazardous commodities by civil aircrafts of the Republic of Belarus;

  • Safety rules for storage and transportation of nuclear fuel;

  • Nuclear safety rules for storage and transportation of nuclear fuel at the nuclear energy installations.

Physical Protection:

Ordinance of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus No. 338 of 24 May 1993 “On measures for physical protection of nuclear materials”.

Radioactive Waste Management:

  • TCEP 170 — 2009, General provisions for nuclear power plant safety;

  • “Sanitary rules for radioactive waste management”.

Emergency Preparedness:

The Law of the Republic of Belarus “On Protection of the Public and Territories in Emergency Situations of Natural and Technogenic Character” (adopted in 1998);

  • Ordinance of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus No. 495 of 10 April 2001 “On State system of prevention and liquidation of emergencies”.

APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

Cooperation Agreements with IAEA in Area of NP

Title
In force
Status
Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the IAEA
1966-12-02
Acceptance: 1966-12-02
Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage
1998-05-09
Signature: 1997-05-27
Ratification: 1998-02-09
Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
1993-06-14
Succession: 1993-09-09
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident
1987-02-26
Signature: 1986-09-26
Ratification: 1987-01-26
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency
1987-02-26
Signature: 1986-09-26
Ratification: 1987-01-26
Convention on Nuclear Safety
1999-01-27
Accession: 1998-10-29
Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management
2003-02-24
Signature: 1999-10-13
Ratification: 2002-11-26
Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage
2003-10-04
Signature: 1998-09-14
Ratification: 2003-07-04
Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the IAEA (RSA)
1990-06-29
Signature: 1990-06-29
Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the NPT
1995-08-02
Signature: 1995-04-14
Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons


Signature: 2005-11-15

Bilateral Agreements

  1. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of Russian Federation on cooperation and mutual assistance in prevention of large-scale man-made catastrophes and natural disasters and liquidation of their consequences of 18 December 1993;

  2. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of the Republic of Poland on prompt notification about nuclear accidents and cooperation in the area of radiation safety of 26 October 1994;

  3. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of Austrian Republic on exchange of information in the area of nuclear safety and protection against ionizing radiation of 9 June 2000;

  4. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Ukraine on cooperation in prevention of emergencies and liquidation of their consequences of 7 July 2000;

  5. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of Kyrgyz Republic on cooperation in the area of civil defence, prevention and liquidation of emergencies of 30 May 2001;

  6. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Ukraine on prompt notification about nuclear accident and cooperation in the area of radiation safety of 16 October 2001;

  7. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of the Republic of Latvia on cooperation in the area of prevention of catastrophes, natural disasters and other emergencies and liquidation of their consequences of 8 July 2003;

  8. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of the Republic of Latvia on cooperation in the area of prevention of catastrophes, natural disasters and large-scale accidents and liquidation of their consequences of 16 December 2003;

  9. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Federal Council of Swiss Confederation on cooperation in the case of natural disaster, crisis or large-scale accident of 12 September 2004;

  10. Agreement between CIS Member States on the main principles of cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy of 26 June 1992;

  11. Agreement between CIS Member States on cooperation in the area of prevention and liquidation of consequences of man-made and natural disasters of 22 January 1993;

  12. Agreement between CIS Member States on control over transboundary movement of dangerous and other waste of 12 April 1996;

  13. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of the Russian Federation on cooperation in the area of peaceful use of atomic energy (approved by Ordinance of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus No. 1125 of 29 August 2009);

  14. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on cooperation in the area of peaceful use of atomic energy (approved by Ordinance of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus No. 518 of 23 April 2009).

APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES

Department of Nuclear Energy

of the Ministry of Energy

Address: 14, K.Marksa Str., 220030, Minsk, Belarus

tel.: (+375 17) 218 21 02

fax: (+375 17) 218 24 68

Department of Nuclear and Radiation Safety (Gosatomnadzor)

of the Ministry of Emergencies

Address: 33, Betonny Proezd, 220036, Minsk, Belarus

tel./fax: (+375 17) 209 96 05

email: gosatomnadzor@tut.by

Directorate for Nuclear Power Plant Construction

Legal address: 2, Naberezhnaya Str., 231201, Ostrovets, Grodno area

Post address: office 90, 64, Volodarskogo Str., 231201, Ostrovets, Grodno area

tel./fax: (+375 1591) 26 0 03

email: dsae@tut.by

web site: http://www.dsae.by/en

State Scientific Institution “Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research — Sosny”

Address: 99, Akademika Krasina Str., 220109, Minsk, Belarus

tel.: (+375 17) 299 45 75

fax: (+375 17) 299 43 55

email: jipnr@sosny.bas-net.by