PREAMBLE AND SUMMARY
This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Brazil, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs).
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Brazil.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
At the end of the 1990s, Brazil’s energy sector faced deep changes, evolving privatization of state owned electric companies and the restructuring of the electric sector. The government has decided to focus the role of the state on policy making and market regulation, phasing out its previous involvement as owner of the major economic agents.
In that context, the federal Government created two agencies responsible for regulation and inspection of the electricity sector — Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL) — and of the oil and gas sector — Brazilian Agency for Oil, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP). In the power sector it also created the Brazilian System Operator (ONS) and the Chamber of Electric Energy Commercialization (CCEE). In 2004, the federal Government decided to establish the Energy Research Office (EPE), which heads energy planning according to the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) policies.
In the power sector, a new regulatory framework was set up in 2004, after energy rationing in 2001–2002. This regulatory framework represented significant fine tuning of the power sector in Brazil, particularly in energy planning, juridical security and regulatory stability, energy auctions and universal access programmes.
As stated in the first article of federal law No. 9,478, Brazil’s energy policy is composed of 18 objectives, shown below:
Preserve the national interest.
Promote development, expand the labour market and enhance energy resources.
Protect the interests of consumers with regard to price, quality and availability of products.
Protect the environment and promote energy conservation.
Ensure the supply of petroleum products throughout the national territory, in accordance with the Constitution.
Increase the use of natural gas in economic bases.
Identify the most appropriate solutions for the supply of electricity in different regions of the country.
Use alternative energy sources, through the economic use of inputs available and applicable technologies.
Promote free competition.
Attract investment in energy production.
Increase the country’s competitiveness in the international market.
Increase the use of biofuels in the energy matrix, considering economic, social and environmental bases.
Ensure the supply of biofuels throughout the national territory.
Encourage power generation from biomass and its by-products, owing to its clean, renewable and complementary character to hydraulic sources.
Promote the country’s competitiveness in the international biofuels market.
Attract investment in infrastructure for transport and storage of biofuels.
Promote renewable energy research and development.
Mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants in the energy and transport sectors, including the use of biofuels.
According to Brazilian Energy Balance 2020, Brazil’s energy mix has 46.1% renewables, among the highest rates globally (average 13.9% in 2017). The share of renewable energy in electricity generation is 83%, while the global rate is only 22%. According to ANEEL the installed generation capacity in 2020 was slightly above 172 GW, with over 63% hydro, 26% thermal energy (including natural gas, biomass, nuclear, etc.), 9% wind and 2% solar energy.
According to the 2030 Brazilian Energy Expansion Plan (PDE 2030), the energy required to boost the economy will reach 328 million toe in 2030 (in 2019, this consumption was 259 million toe). The installed generation capacity will reach over 204 GW in 2030. Transmission lines will reach slightly above 200 000 km (compared to 158 892 km in 2020).
In December 2015, during COP21 (21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change — UNFCCC), Brazil committed to reducing, by 2025, its greenhouse gas emissions by 37% compared to 2005 levels and, as a subsequent indicative contribution, reducing, by 2030, greenhouse gas emissions by 43% under the same comparison basis. It is worth mentioning that Brazil’s intended nationally determined contribution comprises its whole economy and is based on flexible ways of achieving these objectives. In other words, these objectives can be achieved in different manners, with different contributions from various economic sectors.
According to Brazilian Energy Balance 2018, Brazil’s electricity sector has, on average, a very low carbon index when establishing comparisons with countries of the European Union, United States of America and China.
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
Table 1 shows estimated available energy sources in Brazil.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Solid (106 t)||Liquid (10³ m³)||Gas
|Uranium (t)||Hydro (GW)||Other|
|Total amount in specific units||
|4 729 440||703.267||309 370||
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||
Note: Solid = coal; liquid = oil; gas = natural gas.
—: data not available.
1.1.3. Energy Consumption Statistics
Table 2 shows energy statistics in Brazil.
TABLE 2. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
|Final Energy consumption [PJ]||2000||2005||2010||2015||2019||Compound
rate 2000–2019 (%)
|Total||6 557||7 366||9 003||9 683||9 611||2.03|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||371||393||469||488||454||1.07|
|Oil||3 347||3 302||3 925||4 298||4 093||1.06|
|Bioenergy and Waste||1 474||1 953||2 490||2 587||2 726||3.29|
|Electricity||1 155||1 300||1 574||1 765||1 844||2.49|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Total energy derived from primary and secondary generation sources. Figures do not reflect potential heat output that may result from electricity co-generation.
—: data not available.
Source(s): United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
According to ANEEL, the installed generation capacity in 2020 was slightly above 172 GW, with over 63% hydro, 26% thermal energy (including natural gas, biomass, nuclear, etc.), 9% wind and 2% solar energy. According to PDE 2030, which is an indicative plan, the installed generation capacity will reach over 204 GW in 2030, with over 56% hydro, 20% thermal energy, 16% wind, 4% solar and 4% ‘peak alternative’ (for instance, thermal, storage or demand side management).
According to PDE 2030, transmission lines will reach slightly above 200 000 km (compared to 158 892 km in 2020).
Considering the regulatory framework of the power sector in Brazil established in 2004, new generation competes for long-term contracts in auctions to supply the regulated market or bilaterally negotiate their contracts to supply free (eligible) consumers.
Regulated auctions are periodic and organized every year for future delivery (named ‘A-x’, where ‘A’ is the delivery year: A-3, A-4, A-5, A-6, etc.). The main aspects of these auctions are the following:
Meet the regulated consumers’ demand in the long term (as declared by their respective distribution utilities) and serve as price-hedging mechanisms for consumers;
Provide exclusivity for new generation capacity and technology specific products and contracts;
Provide long term energy contracts for power generators;
Contracts are denominated in BRL and indexed to inflation;
For thermal power plants, fuel purchase instalments can be indexed to a collection of international fuel prices and foreign exchange rates.
According to Chamber of Electric Energy Commercialization (CCEE) and Energy Research Office (EPE), from 2005 to 2018, Brazil organized almost 40 generation auctions, contracting more than 90 GW (over 1200 power generation projects). The main energy sources in this expansion are: hydro (47%), wind (18%), natural gas (15%), biomass (8%) and solar (3%). Regarding transmission auctions, Brazil has contracted more than 70 000 km in 13 years.
In 2012, companies owned by Brazilian states and private companies, along with companies of Eletrobrás Group, were responsible for electricity generation, transportation and distribution in different regions, satisfying all of Brazil’s demand. Today, 80% of these distribution companies, previously owned by Brazilian states, is owned by the private sector owing to a privatization programme. About 75% of the generating capacity in the country is still government owned.
Additionally, it is important to mention that another round of policy innovation is ongoing, mainly in the fields of renewables, distributed energy resources, consumer empowerment and digitalization. Capacity expansion has occurred in Brazil in recent years, but it is important to recheck the model, with the objective to adapt it to the power system of the future (for instance, this recheck aims to increase incentives for efficient, decentralized decision making, improvements on spot price formation, removal of legal and regulatory barriers to innovation, and separation of products in the area of energy, reliability and ancillary services).
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
The present model establishes a number of measures to be followed by the agents, such as a requirement for distributors and free consumers to contract for their entire demand, a new methodology to calculate physical coverage of power sale contracts, a way of contracting for hydro and thermal energy so that a better balance between supply cost and safety is assured, and a permanent supply safety monitoring structure to detect possible imbalances between supply and demand.
Distributors have to purchase electricity at the regulated contracting environment through least price auctions, in order to minimize the acquisition costs of electricity that are passed on to the tariffs of consumers.
The model also includes social insertion initiatives, by promoting the universalization of access and use of electricity for those citizens who do not enjoy this benefit yet, as well as by ensuring subsidies to low income consumers so that they can bear the costs of their power bills. These initiatives are to be funded by the Energy Development Account (CDE).
Generation: wholesale energy market in place and auctions of long term (20+ year) energy contracts for new capacity.
Transmission: central planning and auctions for 30 year concessions of new transmission facilities.
Institutions in place and regulatory framework: independent (and federal level) regulator, ISO and market operator; current framework established in 2004.
1.2.3. Main indicators
Table 3 shows Brazil’s installed capacity, electricity production and consumption, and Table 4 shows energy related ratios (some of the following information should be available in PRIS).
TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
|Electricity production (GWh)||2000||2005||2010||2015||2019||Compound
rate 2000–2019 (%)
|Total||348 538||402 228||515 362||581 262||625 921||3.13|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||11 006||10 742||11 338||27 468||24 089||4.21|
|Oil||15 169||11 678||16 065||28 696||10 224||-2.05|
|Natural gas||4 068||18 812||36 475||79 490||60 448||15.26|
|Bioenergy and Waste||7 844||13 591||31 495||49 446||54 514||10.74|
|Hydro||304 403||337 457||403 289||359 743||397 877||1.42|
|Nuclear||6 046||9 855||14 523||14 734||16 129||5.30|
|Wind||2||93||2 177||21 626||55 986||71.42|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
—: data not available.
Source: United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Electricity consumption per capita (kW·h/capita)||1 899.59||2 373.98||2 568.32||2 585.78|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||19.6%||17.5%||17.5%||16.7%|
|Nuclear/total electricity (%)||1.5%||2.6%||2.4%||2.5%|
*Latest available data.
Source: RDS-1 and RDS-2
—: data not available.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
In 1970, a decision was made to build Brazil’s first nuclear power station through an international bid. The contract of a turnkey project for a 626 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR), Angra 1, was awarded to Westinghouse Electric Corporation of the United States of America. The construction of Angra 1 started in 1971, and first criticality was achieved ten years later.
In 1975, in an effort to become self-sufficient in nuclear power generation, Brazil signed an agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany to build eight 1,300 MW(e) reactors (PWR Biblis B type) over a period of 15 years. Under this agreement, two of these units (Angra 2 and Angra 3) were scheduled for construction on the following year, with most of their components imported from Kraftwerk Union’s (KWU) shops in Germany. According to this agreement, the rest of the plants were to contain 90% Brazilian-made components. The Brazil–Germany agreement created the Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras (Nuclebrás) as Brazil’s stated owned nuclear holding company. Additionally, several subsidiaries (joint companies) were established to achieve nuclear technology transfer from Germany, as shown below.
|NUCLEP*||Heavy components manufacture|
|NUCLEI*||Enrichment by jet-nozzle process|
|NUCLEN*||NPP architecture and engineering|
|FEC||Fuel elements manufacture|
|CDTN||Nuclear technology R&D centre|
|NUCLEMON||Rare earths production|
|CIPC||Mining and yellow cake production|
*Joint Brazilian–German companies.
Brazil’s nuclear regulatory body is the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), responsible for licensing NPPs and nuclear facilities, performing regulatory activities, and training and organizing personnel, according to Law 4.118 of 1962. In the early 1980s, the Brazilian Navy embarked on a nuclear propulsion programme. The Navy’s main activity was the development of uranium enrichment by the ultracentrifuge process, which was achieved by the end of the decade and continued through the 1990s.
Owing to several factors, especially financial, the Brazilian–German technology transfer programme stalled. The construction of Angra 2 and Angra 3 was interrupted several times, resulting in further delay in Brazil’s nuclear programme. Owing to Brazil’s foreign debt and high inflation, with added pressures from the privatization programme and budget cuts, Brazil’s nuclear programme was reorganized at the end of the 1980s.
In 1988, a new company, Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil SA (INB), replaced Nuclebrás and its subsidiaries, with limited authority. INB became responsible for rare earths, mining of nuclear minerals, and yellow cake and nuclear fuel production, assuming the activities of FEC, NUCLEMON and CIPC. FEC, renamed as Nuclear Complex of Resende, was transformed into an INB Directorate. Both INB and NUCLEP, responsible for heavy equipment fabrication, became CNEN’s subsidiaries. However, both companies report directly to the Ministry of Science and Technology and are administratively independent from CNEN. Responsibility for the construction of nuclear power stations was transferred to the state owned utility, FURNAS/Eletrobrás, incorporating NUCON activities. NUCLEN maintained responsibility as NPP architect and engineer. In 1997, the architecture and engineering company NUCLEN merged with the nuclear directorate of FURNAS, a utility responsible for the bulk supply of electricity to most developed regions of Brazil. The new company, named Eletronuclear – Eletrobrás Termonuclear S/A, is responsible for the design, procurement and follow-up of Brazilian and foreign equipment and the management of construction, erection and commissioning of NPPs, and is the sole owner and operator of NPPs in the country. Siemens sold its 25% holding in NUCLEN to Eletrobrás when Eletronuclear was formed. NUCLEI and NUCLAM were disbanded.
Currently, Eletronuclear is focused on its Top 10 Corporate Goals, which include the construction of the Spent Fuel Dry Storage Facility, the licence renewal for long term operation of the Angra 1 NPP, and the resumption of the construction of Angra 3 NPP, among other projects of strategic importance for the company.
The Business and Management Plan also follows the directives from the Business and Management Plan PDNG 2018–2022 of the Eletrobrás System, with the goals of the five year period being monitored through operational performance and management, governance and socio-environmental indicators. These strategies also cover the maintenance of the safe and high performance operation of Angra 1 and Angra 2, and for the resumption, according to higher definitions and in the shortest possible time, of the Angra 3 NPP project.
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
The current organizational structure of Brazil’s nuclear sector and the relationships among different organizations, since January 2019, is shown in Figure 1. CNEN is the regulatory body, which reports to the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications (MCTI).
Eletrobrás, responsible for planning and coordinating all activities of the electrical sector at national level, is under the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The remaining organizations are discussed in the following sections.
FIG. 1. Organizational structure for nuclear energy development in Brazil.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
The ANGRA 1 nuclear power plant located between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, has a net capacity of 626 MW(e). It started commercial operation in December 1984. During the period 1985-1989, the plant experienced two unscheduled outages due to problems on the main condenser and main electric generator.
Construction of ANGRA 2 nuclear power plant began in January, 1976, but due to financial problems the construction of the unit was slowed down and was halted several times. The economic recovery of the second half of the 90's led to the acceleration of the unit's construction. This reactor became critical on July 14, 2000. On July 21st, 2000, at 10:16 pm, ANGRA 2 was synchronized for the first time to the Brazilian interconnected electrical grid. ANGRA 2 trial operation (a test phase of continuous operation at a 100% power level) was successfully completed on December, 2000. In February, 2001 Angra 2 started commercial operation.
The third nuclear station (ANGRA 3), a 1,405 MW(e) PWR reactor, and similar to ANGRA 2, was acquired from Siemens/KWU together with ANGRA 2. ANGRA 3 has about 70 per cent of the design work completed and 70 per cent of the imported major equipment already manufactured and stored on site. The civil works and electro-mechanical assembly activities were postponed in 1991. ELETRONUCLEAR and several independent consulting firms developed technical and economic feasibility studies for ANGRA 3, which were submitted to government authorities. Finally, on July 1st 2010, the construction of ANGRA 3 was resumed with the first concrete pouring in the Reactor Building. So far 43% of the engineering work has been completed. It is expected that Angra 3 will be connected to the grid early of the next decade, by which time it will add 1405 MW to the Brazilian electrical output.
ANGRA 1, since December 1984, has operated at full capacity, on several occasions, when it was necessary. In March 1993, the plant experienced problems with some fuel rods. It resumed energy production in December 1994. From 1994 on, the performance of ANGRA 1 followed a more reliable path, reaching its generation record in 1999, 3,976.9 GWh, with an availability factor of 96%. However, due to the restriction to operate at a maximum of 80% capacity, to ensure the safe operation of its Steam Generators, ANGRA 1 had unsatisfactory performance until 2009, when the steam generators were replaced. Since then the plant has operated at a level of excellence, having broken its generation records, consequently, in 2010, 2011 and 2012.
In July, 2002, the National Electric Power Agency approved the new installed capacity value of 1,350 MW for ANGRA 2. ANGRA 1 and ANGRA 2 play an important role in the reliability of the southeast electric system (predominantly of hydro origin), assuring continuous electric power supply to the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, where local water resources are virtually exhausted and power supply depends on long transmission lines. In 2012, ANGRA 1 and ANGRA 2 generated 16,040,790.5 GWh, with load factors of 96.0 and 89.8%, respectively.
According to the 38th Annual Operation Report of Angra 1, covering the period from 1 January to 31 December 2020, the plant operated for 304 days in 2020 synchronized to the National Interconnected System (SIN), producing a total of 4 603 623.430 MW·h of gross electric energy, reaching an availability factor of 82.39% and a capacity factor of 81.26%.
Regarding Angra 2, according to its 20th Annual Operational Report, issued in 2021 on similar normative bases to those of Angra 1, the plant operated for 309.3 days in 2020 synchronized to the SIN, and its scheduled refuelling, maintenance and periodic testing outage lasted 56.7 days. The unit produced 9 448 896.17 MW·h of gross electric energy with a capability factor of 80.18% and a load factor of 79,44%.
All the nuclear safety indicators suggested by the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), the IAEA and others to assess the safe and reliable operation of the plant and to measure and monitor the effectiveness of the operation and maintenance programmes, as well as all the indicators related to nuclear safety generation and availability, have met the established targets.
In July 2018, Angra 1 and Angra 2 underwent an international evaluation, WANO Peer Review. In the final report of the evaluation, the areas of chemistry, radiological protection and training were highlighted and had no area for improvement detected, compared to the last WANO evaluation of 2014.
Table 5. STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
In 2018, Eletronuclear created an organizational structure to implement the Angra 1 Life Extension Programme, one of the company’s priorities in the coming years. The purpose of this new structure is to accelerate and integrate the activities carried out so far by several areas of the company. As part of this work, in 2018 Angra 1 received a Pre-SALTO mission (Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation), composed of experts from the IAEA, which evaluated the unit’s life extension programme.
The plant’s operating licence expires in 2024, and Eletronuclear is developing plant ageing management programmes and plant modernization and upgrade projects to allow the renewal of the current licence of Angra 1 by CNEN. A licence renewal application according to USNRC 10 CFR 54 and CNEN NT-007/18 was submitted to CNEN in October 2019. A Periodic Safety Review (PSR) according to IAEA SSG 25 will be submitted to CNEN in December 2023 as part of this licensing process.
Eletronuclear is negotiating plant modernization and safety upgrade projects with companies like Westinghouse and others to manage ageing and obsolescence issues (for instance, for instrumentation and control (I&C) systems) and ensure safe and stable long term operation. To support this effort for long term life extension of Angra-1, an investment partnership negotiation is being conducted with the Export–Import Bank of the United States with support from the United States Department of Energy and in cooperation with Westinghouse and other companies from the United States of America.
2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning processes
Eletronuclear does not have reactors in the process of decommissioning in the short term.
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
With the support of Brazilian National Development Bank (BNDES), a business model for the completion of Angra 3 has been developed and approved by the Government. This model foresees two partners: one is a financial consortium for debt restructuring and the other is a common engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) service provider. Furthermore, the new long term National Energy Plan 2050 foresees new nuclear capacity between 8 and 10 GW. However, no decision regarding sites or business models for this expansion has been announced yet.
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The prospects for the construction of new NPPs in Brazil are currently being considered in the long term.
2.3.2. Project management
The prospects for the construction of new NPPs in Brazil are currently being considered in the long term.
2.3.3. Project funding
The prospects for the construction of new NPPs in Brazil are currently being considered in the long term.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
2.3.6. Public awareness
Regarding information to the public, SIPRON norm NG-05 establishes the requirements for public information campaigns about emergency plans. The first public information campaign was conducted by FURNAS in 1982 before the first criticality of Angra 1. Several other campaigns have been conducted on a regular basis.
The campaigns combine information on both on-site and off-site emergency plans, including the population living in the 15 km area around the plant. These campaigns include training courses for community leaders and public school teachers, guided tours of the NPP for students from public schools, educational lectures in community associations and the distribution of informative material on a house to house basis, to local newspapers, radio, TV broadcasts, buses and bus stations, schools, community associations, churches and administrative offices.
In addition, visitors to the Site Information Center (almost 11 000 in 2018) receive general information covering, among others, nuclear energy generation, the Angra site, the operation of the plants, as well as the site emergency plan.
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
Two companies related to NPP engineering and component supply are active in the nuclear sector: NUCLEP and Eletrobrás Termonuclear S/A.
NUCLEP was established to design and fabricate heavy NPP components, especially those used in the reactor primary circuit. NUCLEP is specialized in the fabrication of large components made from steel, nickel and titanium alloys. It maintains modern quality control laboratories, outfitted with precision instruments, qualified and certified according to international standards, for mechanical, chemical and metallurgical testing. NUCLEP assembled the replacement steam generators for Angra 1.
Eletronuclear is responsible for the design, procurement and follow-up of Brazilian and foreign equipment and management of construction, erection and commissioning of NPPs, and is the sole owner and operator of NPPs in the country.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
Eletronuclear is the only company responsible for the construction and operation of Brazil’s NPPs. The Angra site has a PWR simulator of Angra 2, in operation since 1985. In 2015, a simulator for Angra 1 was inaugurated. The Angra 2 simulator has provided operator training services for utilities that operate NPPs supplied by KWU (including those in Spain, Switzerland, Germany and Argentina).
During 2012, Eletronuclear finished a PSR, in compliance with condition No. 20 Authorization Operation Permanent of Angra 2 issued by CNEN Resolution No. 106 of 14 June 2011. This work was conducted from August 2011 to October 2012 by a multidisciplinary team from Eletronuclear. Based on the results of the PSR, Angra 2 has operated in a safe manner during the last 10 years, without any safety issue of great relevance. The few deficiencies found, as well as the set of opportunities for improvement identified, should be integrated into the continuous improvement programme through plant action plans, prioritized as to their relevance to safety.
The second PSR for Angra 1 was concluded in July 2014, covering the period 2004–2013. Strong points, including some deficiencies and opportunities for improvement were identified, for which action plans have been developed. Deficiencies identified were related to documentation updating, full completion of the environmental qualification programme, completion of the planned PSA scope and timing for the conclusion of the evaluations of the operational experience programme — none of which are of high safety significance. The main conclusion of the PSR was that in these 10 years, Angra 1 continued to operate within the safety standards and to maintain current important functions for operational safety, meeting the operating conditions to complete its lifetime. For the scope evaluated, no deficiencies that could hinder the continued safe operation of the plant were identified.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
Brazil’s NPPs are fully operational. The decommissioning standard was issued in 2012 and correlated activities are in the planning stage. Funds for these activities are being consolidated.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
INB, the state owned company that succeeded Nuclebrás, has as its main goal the implementation of industrial units related to the nuclear fuel cycle for NPPs. At present, in Brazil there are industrial units for uranium mining and milling, isotopic enrichment, reconversion, pellet production and fuel element assembly. The mineral exploration programme carried out in recent decades resulted in the discovery of new deposits that projected Brazil to be the seventh geological resource in the world, responsible for 11% of the global total. It should be noted that only 50% of favourable areas of the Brazilian territory have been prospected.
Mining and milling
Systematic prospecting and exploration of radioactive minerals in Brazil began in 1952. The exploration was accelerated by the availability of funds for this purpose from 1970 onwards. There has been active exploration and many occurrences have been identified through the use of geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys, and related research. From 1974 to 1991, the total amount spent in uranium exploration was equivalent to US $150 million. With changes in nuclear policies and, consequently, uranium requirements, investments have fallen sharply. Since 1991, uranium prospecting has been limited to the surroundings of the Caetité production plant.
Brazil’s uranium resources occur in a number of geological environments and, consequently, belong to several deposit types, some of them hosted near the surface. In addition to known resources, there is a high potential for further discovery of uranium deposits.
Brazil has been producing uranium since 1982. Between 1982 and 1995 the cumulative uranium production was 1030 t U from the Poços de Caldas Unit, and since March 2000 the cumulative production has been 3761 t U from the Caetité Unit, the only commercial plant currently in operation, for which the short term uranium concentrate production capability has been 340 t U/year.
Expansion of the milling capacity of Caetité to 670 t U/year has been studied. After the planned expansion of Caetité, INB will concentrate on the development of Santa Quiteria deposits. However, because at this new site uranium will be a coproduct of phosphate, the feasibility of the project depends mainly on the phosphate market. Direct employment in Brazil’s uranium industry is rising. Losses caused by the closure of the Poços de Caldas unit were offset by increases associated with the beginning of operation and planned expansion of the Caetité unit.
Uranium production in Brazil is only for domestic use. All uranium concentrate produced is shipped to other countries for conversion and enrichment and then returned to Brazil for fuel fabrication.
Brief information on the main uranium sites is given below:
Poços de Caldas site
The Poços de Caldas site is located at one of the biggest alkaline intrusions in the world. Discovered in 1948, this deposit was developed into an open pit mine. The Poços de Caldas unit started production in 1982 with a design capacity of 425 t U/year.
Since the exploration of the uranium deposit was no longer economically feasible, the Poços de Caldas unit ceased operations in 1995. After two years of standing by, it was finally shut down in 1997. The closure planning and rehabilitation actions are still under development.
The closure of the Poços de Caldas unit in 1997 brought to an end the exploitation of a low grade ore deposit, which produced vast amounts of waste rock. Studies for proper decommissioning are being conducted by INB. The operational costs of collecting, pumping and treating acid drainage were estimated to be US $610 000 per year. With the end of the mine exploitation, in the first half of the last decade INB used the industrial facilities for other projects such as monazite chemical processing and rare earth production. The project was aborted some years later owing to market reasons.
Lagoa Real site (Caetité unit)
Caetité is currently the only operating uranium site in Brazil. The deposits were discovered in 1977 and its known resources were estimated to be 85 000 t U in the below US $80/kg U cost category, averaging 0.30% U3O8. There have been 35 occurrences detected, 12 of which were considered uranium ore deposits. Cachoeira deposits were mined by open pit methods. Surface acid heap leaching methods were used. The plant has a design capacity to produce 400 t/year of uranium concentrate (which is enough to meet the needs of both Angra 1 and Angra 2), and there are plans for expansion.
Mining activities, decommissioning planning, and area rehabilitation are done simultaneously. Monitoring programmes are implemented to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. As part of the regulatory licensing process, INB has conducted an independent hydrogeological assessment of the local aquifer.
Feasibility studies and basic planning for expansion of the Caetité unit have been carried out. The expansion will increase its annual production capacity, which will double current production levels. The cost of expansion is estimated to be US $90.0 million.
Since the Cachoeira mine is exhausted as an open pit and awaits the commissioning of an underground mine, the new project for an open pit mine at the Engenho deposit is underway.
Santa Quiteria site
Discovered in 1976, Itataia uranium/phosphate deposits account for almost 50% of the total known low recovery cost resources. After signing a partnership agreement with a Brazilian fertilizer producer, the project applied for construction licence in 2012, but the environmental licence has not yet been granted. The estimated nominal uranium production capacity of the Santa Quitéria project is 1600 t U/year.
As part of its nuclear propulsion programme, Brazil’s Navy installed in Iperó (100 km from Sao Paulo) a demonstration enrichment centrifuge pilot plant. Subsequently, the Government of Brazil decided to start an industrial plant in Resende, Rio de Janeiro, using the technology developed by the Navy. The first cascade was inaugurated in May 2006. In December 2008, the second cascade of the first module of the industrial plant began operation. The operation of the third and fourth cascades, completing the first module, began in June 2010. The construction of the second module of the industrial plant, with a new set of cascades, began in 2011. Today, a total of three modules have been built, with the commissioning of eight cascades, accounting for 50% of the fuel used in the nuclear reactor of Angra 1.
Whereas full capacity in the enrichment process at national level has not yet been achieved, the goal of INB continues to be self-sufficiency, as is already the case in the subsequent phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. The plans point to an installed capacity capable of fully meeting the needs of Angra 1 and Angra 2 by 2033, and encompassing the needs of the future reactor Angra 3 by 2037. The future increase of the capacity will depend on technical evaluations and availability of financial resources.
The Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN) is located at Resende, state of Rio de Janeiro, and comprises three units (i.e. UO2 powder reconversion, pellet manufacturing and nuclear fuel assembly). The annual capacity for each plant is 160 metric tonnes for UO2 powder, 120 tonnes for the pelletizing units and 240 tonnes for fuel manufacturing. The reconversion and pelletizing units started commercial operation in 2000, while the assembly plant has been in operation since 1982. The FCN plant also produces components for nuclear fuel, such as top and bottom nozzles, for its own needs and for export. The fuel engineering capacity for supporting the activities of INB has been developed and culminated in the design of a new advanced fuel for the Angra 1 reactor, in a joint programme with KNFC from the Republic of Korea and Westinghouse from the United States of America.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
In Brazil, all nuclear R&D activities are developed by governmental institutions. They are carried out mainly by CNEN’s six R&D institutes, which are under the Ministry of Science and Technology, Innovations and Communications, and by military technology institutes, which are under the Ministry of Defence. These ministries are responsible for the establishment of the country’s nuclear R&D policies and strategies, as well as for the provision of the necessary budget and financing mechanisms to make the corresponding R&D projects feasible.
Six nuclear research centres have been established for carrying out R&D in nuclear sciences, technology and engineering. Research reactors, accelerators and several R&D laboratories, including pilot plant facilities, have been progressively set up in these centres. These research centers belong to the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) of CNEN and are listed below:
IPEN (São Paulo, SP) — Nuclear and Energy Research Institute
Research reactors: two pool type reactors, one of 5 MW power and the other of 100 W power. Cyclotron: radioisotope production (99mTc, 131I, 123I, 18F, etc.). Research on fuel cycle and materials, reactor technology, safety, nuclear fundamentals, radiation and radioisotope applications, biotechnology, environmental and waste technologies.
IEN (Rio de Janeiro, RJ) — Nuclear Engineering Institute
Research reactor: 1 (100 kW, Argonaut type nuclear reactor). Cyclotron: radioisotope production (123I, 18F, etc.). Research on I&C and man–machine interfaces, chemistry and materials, safety, and reactor technology.
CDTN (Belo Horizonte, MG) — Nuclear Technology Development Centre
Research Reactor: 1 (250 kW power, TRIGA pool type nuclear reactor). Research on mining, reactor technology, materials, safety, chemistry, environmental and waste technologies.
IRD (Rio de Janeiro, RJ) — Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute
Research on radiation protection and safety, environmental technology, metrology and medical physics.
CRCN-NE (Recife, PE) — Nuclear Sciences Regional Centre of the Northeast
R&D on radiation protection, dosimetry, metrology and reactor technology.
CRCN-CO (Goiânia, GO) — Nuclear Sciences Regional Centre of the Central-West Region
R&D on underground water and environmental technologies.
Brazil has an ongoing project to build a multipurpose research reactor (RMB). With a maximum power of 30 MW and powered by uranium silicate enriched up to 20%, it will have a neutron flux of over 2 × 1014 neutrons/(cm2·s). Upon completion of its conceptual project, the reactor’s site was chosen and environmental impact assessments were conducted.
RMB is intended to provide the country with a science, technology and innovation infrastructure of fundamental importance to the nuclear sector. The project comprises a 30 MW research reactor as well as several associated facilities and laboratories to perform the following functions: radioisotope production, with emphasis on molybdenum 99 (Mo-99); irradiation tests of nuclear fuels and materials; and scientific research using neutron beams. The reactor’s site has been chosen to be in the state of São Paulo, and environmental impact assessments have been conducted. Local approval and a preliminary environmental licence have been issued to RMB by the corresponding nuclear and environmental regulators. The basic engineering design has been concluded and the detailed engineering design is in progress. Both designs were contracted in cooperation with Argentina.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies
Brazil participated actively on the Generation IV International Forum from its beginning until the conclusion of the roadmap in 2003. From that point on, the country became a non-active member.
Since 2002 Brazil has been a member of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), coordinated by the IAEA. Brazil contributed to the project by performing two nuclear system assessment studies using INPRO methodology, and participating in three INPRO collaborative projects and some INPRO dialogue forums. The country also took part in the consortium for the development of the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) nuclear reactor, a small to medium power (335 MW(e)) integral type PWR. CNEN’s R&D institutes participated in specific design activities and some matching research.
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
Brazil is an active member of the international community for promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. Its role is both as recipient and as donor. Under the sponsorship of the IAEA, roughly 100 trainees come to Brazil annually for fellowships, training courses and scientific visit programmes and 50 nationals go abroad for the same purpose.
In the Latin America and Caribbean region, the main fields of cooperation are human health and food safety. Special attention is given to cooperation in radiation protection, as Brazil has one of the best infrastructures in the region and is setting up a medical facility for acute radiation syndrome treatment in cooperation with France and the IAEA. Brazil is also cooperating with Portuguese speaking countries in Africa to raise their radiation protection profiles and training regulators to increase safety in the use of ionizing radiation in those countries.
In the region, only Brazil, Argentina and Mexico have nuclear power programmes. Although the technological bases of the three programmes are different (heavy water reactors in Argentina, PWRs in Brazil and boiling water reactors in Mexico), good cooperation in emergency planning and preparedness and safety culture are in place. Through the IAEA technical cooperation programme, Brazil also participates in the activities for NPP newcomers or those countries that are planning to increase their existing fleet.
Technical cooperation with the European Union, Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) and FORO Iberoamericano on operational and regulatory issues has been established, including probabilistic safety assessment, digital I&C systems, new fuels, emergency preparedness, severe accident management, long term operation, Fukushima peer review, and regulatory competences in the nuclear area.
Appendix 1 presents the list of international multilateral and bilateral agreements signed by Brazil.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
The human resources development programme for Brazil’s nuclear sector aims to meet the needs of human resources for the sector. A few universities offer graduate, specialization and post-graduate courses in the nuclear area, and these activities complement the specialization and graduate courses offered by the technical/scientific units of DPD/CNEN. The demand for this type of education and training depends on the level of implementation of the Brazilian nuclear programme and the expansion of the use of nuclear techniques in industry, health and agriculture.
Presently, the human resources of CNEN are about 1700 persons, working mostly on nuclear R&D activities. CNEN staff involved in R&D work are highly qualified, with half of them holding MSc or PhD degrees. More than 1000 professionals work in the power generation and fuel cycle nuclear industries (Eletronuclear and INB). Currently the main concern in the area of human resources is related to the ageing of experts. Efforts in knowledge management and capacity building are focused on facing the current scenario. Recruitment of new staff has also taken place, although in a moderate way.
Eletronuclear currently has 1647 employees, of whom 609 have university degrees, 808 are middle level technicians of high school level, and 230 are support technicians of fundamental degree level.
Eletronuclear invests in its employees. Knowledge management is considered a strategic process for the company. Today, the current and future priority knowledge in each area of ??the company is being mapped to define the most efficient strategies for retention or acquisition of this knowledge. In addition to the mapping, a knowledge management policy has been developed to guide the process within the company.
In recent years, the human resources sector has had the opportunity to participate in several international events held by the IAEA, which has enabled a rich and very important exchange of experience with professionals from the area and experts from several countries.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
Since 2018, Eletronuclear has strengthened its communication efforts in order to engage its internal and external stakeholders. In that year, the company launched its new intranet and created a Facebook page for the company’s information centre, inspired by a Laguna Verde initiative in Mexico.
The information centre is an important tool to disseminate correct information about nuclear energy to the population in towns surrounding the Angra NPP. It reaches not only local residents but also schools, teachers and universities from various parts of Brazil with its visitation programme. Starting in 2018, Eletronuclear temporarily closed the centre, which is located near the plant site, for extensive modernization. When the centre was closed the company received planned visits in another space. After the eight month refurbishment, the centre reopened in 2019 with a new name — Nuclear Observatory — and equipped with the latest technology, including a video wall and interactive screens. That year, the Nuclear Observatory broke its visitation record, registering 21 434 visitors, even while operating for just one semester. The plan is to double the number of annual visitors to around 40 000 after the end of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The health crisis caused by COVID-19 forced Eletronuclear to close the Nuclear Observatory for a number of months as a preventive measure to stop the spread of the virus in the Angra dos Reis region. The visitor centre has since reopened, with a limited capacity and following all the recommendations from national and international health organizations, such as WHO.
Another thing worth mentioning is that since 2019 a new scope for contracting communication services for the company (Internet, intranet, extranet and social media) has been established under the administration of the Superintendence of Institutional Communication, allowing for a broadening of its activities.
The Superintendence has also conducted two public opinion polls in the last years to assess the acceptance of nuclear energy in Brazil. In 2019, the consultation concerned the state of Rio de Janeiro. The result showed that 85% of the respondents were neutral. Positive perceptions represented only 1% and negative ones accounted for 14%.
Another poll, this time in 20 Brazilian state capitals, was carried out in 2020. The results showed that 54% of the respondents feared nuclear energy, while 43% did not. However, 84% expressed knowing little or nothing about this energy source, which reveals that there is an opportunity to reach out to the country’s population with correct information. Moreover, 45% showed support for the use of nuclear energy for electricity production in Brazil, while 37% were against it.
Eletronuclear’s presence in social media has experienced continued and increased success starting in 2019, when the organization started investing more heavily in those outlets. The company is present on Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and LinkedIn. At the end of 2020, it had 4 346 followers on Instagram (95% growth over the previous year), 8 964 on YouTube (16% growth), 12 893 on Facebook (9.5% growth) and 15 581 on LinkedIn (43% growth). These media outlets have proved to be important channels for communicating with the organization’s staff and the public. The importance of social media in Eletronuclear’s communication strategy will continue to grow.
The Superintendence of Institutional Communication aims to strengthen even further the relations with the local press in Angra dos Reis, where the Angra NPP is situated, and adjacent areas. One of the actions planned is the promotion of a number of events directed towards journalists from the regional media with the presence of the company CEO and directors. This movement started prior to the COVID-19 pandemic but suffered a setback owing to the ongoing health crisis. It will be prioritized again when the situation has improved.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Brazil has established an extensive structure for emergency preparedness and response under the Brazilian Nuclear Program Protection System (SIPRON). The first legal framework of SIPRON is Decree No. 1.809, issued on 7 October 1980, which assigns the objective of “ensuring integrated planning, joint action and continuous execution of measures aiming to meet safety and security needs of Brazil’s nuclear programme and its personnel, as well as the related population and the environment”. In this context, SIPRON integrates federal, state and sunicipal public bodies and entities, private companies and foundations, which have attributions related to the safety and security of Brazil’s nuclear programme. On 21 November 2012, the President of Brazil sanctioned Law 12.731, which revokes Decree No. 1.809 and institutes the new structure of SIPRON.
More recently, SIPRON was restructured by the creation new coordination and collegiate bodies. The new configuration provides better conditions for compliance with Law 12.731 in terms of preparedness and response to nuclear emergency situations and nuclear security events. This new structure allows these activities to be carried out with greater efficiency, as SIPRON is a direct and immediate advisory body to the Chief Minister of the Institutional Security Cabinet of the Presidency of Brazil, in addition to facilitating stakeholders’ involvement.
Brazil’s nuclear protection system is now organized as follows:
Central body: GSI/PR — Institutional Security Cabinet of the Presidency of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
Three nuclear emergency response centres: CNAGEN — National Nuclear Emergency Response Center, in Brasília/DF; CESTGEN — State Nuclear Emergency Response Center, in Rio de Janeiro/RJ; and CCCEN — Local Nuclear Emergency Response Center, in Angra dos Reis/RJ.
Five planning collegiate bodies: COPRON — Coordination Commission for the Protection of the Brazilian Nuclear Program; COPREN/AR — Planning Committee for Response to Nuclear Emergency Situations in the Municipality of Angra dos Reis (Eletronuclear NPP); COPREN/RES — Planning Committee for Response to Emergency Situations in the Municipality of Resende (INB Fuel Fabrication Plant); CASLON — Articulation Committee in the Security and Logistics Areas of the Brazilian Nuclear Program; and COPRESF/AR — Planning Committee for Response to Nuclear Security Event in the Municipality of Angra dos Reis (Eletronuclear NPP).
Both the nuclear response centres and the collegiate bodies include organizations at the federal, state and city levels involved with nuclear emergency preparedness and nuclear security activities, as well as those involved with public safety, security and civil defence. Moreover, SIPRON performs annual exercises and drills to test the system response structure, where procedures and response plans are checked, as well as the coordination of actions during a nuclear emergency or nuclear contingency situation.
The planning basis for on-site and off-site emergency preparedness in case of an accident with radiological consequences in the Angra nuclear power station is based on the emergency planning zone (EPZ) concept.
EPZ encompasses the area within a circle with a radius of 15 km centred at the Angra1 NPP. This EPZ is further subdivided into four smaller zones with borders at approximately 3, 5, 10 and 15 km from the power plants.
The on-site emergency elan covers the area of the property of Eletronuclear and comprises the first zone (EPZ-1, up to ~1 km from the center of the Angra 1 reactor). For these areas, planning and all actions and protection countermeasures for control and mitigation of the consequences of a nuclear accident are under the responsibility of Eletronuclear.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
The governmental organization responsible for the licensing of NPPs and other nuclear installations in Brazil is CNEN. CNEN, created in 1956, comprises three functionally independent directorates with the following responsibilities:
Directorate of Radiation Protection and Safety (DRS): radiation protection, safety, control and licensing of NPPs and other nuclear and radiation installations, safeguards and normalization.
DPD: fuel cycle and materials; reactor technology; radiation utilization and radioisotope application in health, industry, agriculture and the environment; radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production; I&C systems and man–machine interfaces; nuclear safety; nuclear physics and chemistry, etc.
Directorate of Institutional Management (DGI): human resources, administration and information management, financial reporting and control.
In August 1962, with the enactment of Law No. 4118, the National Policy on Nuclear Energy was established, with Government monopoly of nuclear materials and nuclear minerals.
In 1989, the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA) was created and designated to conduct the environmental licensing of all installations, including nuclear facilities. CNEN is the co-authority on radiation aspects related to environmental licensing of nuclear facilities. This co-authority role means that a CNEN assessment has to be considered in the final decision by IBAMA.
3.1.2. Licensing process
In the early 1970s, owing to the needs of Brazil’s nuclear power programme, nuclear safety standards started to be used. An extensive set of rules and standards, as listed in Section 3.2, regulate nuclear activities in Brazil. CNEN regulatory staff amounts to more than 300 qualified professionals. The regulatory process involves the issuance of licences or authorizations as listed below:
Nuclear material utilization authorization;
Initial operation authorization;
Permanent operation authorization;
Authorization for decommissioning;
Withdrawal of regulatory control.
Standards CNEN-NE-1.04 and CNEN-NE-9.01 establish the requirements for the licensing process of nuclear installations. The initial operation authorization is issued after safety analysis approval and for a limited period of time to complete the initial tests and to evaluate the preliminary operational experience. The permanent operation authorization is limited to 40 years. A periodic safety reassessment is conducted every ten years of operation, when the conditions of authorization can be modified or extended. A programme of inspections and audits is implemented and regular meetings with operators are held.
During the operational phase of nuclear facilities, periodic safety reports are required. Regulatory safety evaluation is conducted by CNEN through the review of the licensee’s reports as well as through periodic inspections. On-site resident inspectors are assigned for permanent supervision of operational safety.
In January 1999, a law establishing fees and taxes for licensing and operating authorization was approved by the National Congress and signed by the President of Brazil (Law 9.765/99). It establishes the fees for all phases of the licensing process as well as annual fees for operating units. These fees are directed to a special account to be used by CNEN in its licensing and inspection activities.
In 1981, the Environmental Policy Law was promulgated, and from 1983 to 1989 CNEN was also responsible for the environmental licensing of nuclear installations.
Concerning public communication, CNEN listens to public concerns and makes available information and standards through the internet, distributes printed material, responds to emails and participates in professional association exhibits, meetings and events. CNEN is permanently open for interviews with the media. CNEN has an internet channel open for all kinds of question asked by the population. It also participates in public hearings and meetings whenever invited. Public representatives, such as parliamentarians and officers of the Public Prosecutor’s Office, receive timely and factual answers to all questions.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
Decree No. 9.828 of 10 June 2019 restructured the Development Committee of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (CDPNB), created by the decree of 2 July 2008, and resumed by the decree of 22 June 2017, which assigned its coordination to the Chief Minister of the Institutional Security Cabinet of the Presidency of the Republic. Pursuant to Decree No. 9.828, this committee is an advisory body to the President of the Republic aimed to establish guidelines and goals for the development of Brazil’s nuclear programme and supervise their enforcement.
In this context, a technical group was set up in 2018, under CDPNB, with the purpose of elaborating Brazil’s nuclear policy, consolidating the major directions for the development of this sector.
The document produced within the scope of this technical group was the basis for Decree No. 9.600 of 5 December 2018, which consolidates the guidelines of Brazil’s nuclear policy. This policy is intended to provide guidelines for: the development of Brazil’s nuclear industry; building of qualified human resources capacity; and the maintenance of the domain and the use of nuclear technology in various fields. In addition, it outlines nuclear and radioactive activities in order to ensure the safe and secure use of this technology, and reinforces Brazil’s position in favour of disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Thus Decree No. 9.600 provides coherence to infraconstitutional legislation with the objectives of the Brazilian State, is aligned with the international commitments assumed by the Government and, above all, contributes to national development and the promotion of the well-being of Brazil’s society.
Main laws in nuclear power
The Brazilian National Congress approves legislation related to nuclear activities. CNEN’s regulations and standards are based on IAEA standards, commonly used by many countries. The main laws and standards in Brazil are:
Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1988;
Decree No. 40.110/1956: establishes CNEN;
Law No. 4118/1962: National Policy on Nuclear Energy;
Law No. 5.740/1971: authorizes CNEN to establish Companhia Brasileira de Tecnologia Nuclear (CBTN);
Law No. 6189/1974: CNEN’s set-up as regulatory and licensing federal authority;
Law No. 6453/1977: civil nuclear liability;
Decree No. 1.809/1980: establishes SIPRON (revoked);
Decree No. 1.865/1981: provisional occupation of real state to allow research and mining of mineral substances that contain nuclear elements;
Law No. 2464/1988: nuclear sector reorganization;
Law No. 7781/1989: revision of Law No. 6189/1974;
Decree No. 8/1991: enacts the Convention on the Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency;
Decree No. 9/1991: enacts the Convention on the Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident;
Decree No. 95/1991: enacts the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material;
Decree No. 1.065/1994: enacts the Quadripartite Agreement (Safeguards Agreement);
Decree No. 1.246/1994: enacts the Treaty of Tlatelolco;
Law No. 9112/1995: export of sensitive goods and services;
Decree No. 2.210/1997: regulates Decree No. 1.809/1980 (related to SIPRON’s roles);
Decree No. 2.648/1998: enacts the Convention on Nuclear Safety;
Decree No. 2.864/1998: enacts the Treaty on Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT);
Law No. 9765/1999: licensing, control and inspection tax for nuclear and radioactive materials and utilities;
Decree No. 3.976/2001: related to the implementation of UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1373 (2001) in Brazil;
Law No. 10.308/2011: management and regulation of radioactive waste deposits;
Decree No. 4.394/2002: enacts the International Convention on the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings;
Decree No. 4.899/2003: authorizes some alterations in the Eletronuclear Statute;
Decree No. 5.935/2006: enacts the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and Radioactive Waste;
Decree of 2 July 2008: establishes the Committee for the Development of the Brazilian Nuclear Programme;
Decree No. 7.722/2012: related to the implementation of UNSC Resolution 1540 (2004) and UNSC Resolution 1977 (2011) in Brazil;
Law 12.731/2012: establishes SIPRON and revokes Decree No. 1.809/1980;
Decree of 22 June 2017: makes changes to the decree of 2 July 2008;
Decree 9600/2018: consolidates the guidelines on the Brazilian Nuclear Policy;
Medida Provisória No. 870/2019: establishes the organization of the bodies linked to the Presidency of the Republic of Brazil;
Decree No. 9.828/2019: on the Committee for the Development of the Brazilian Nuclear Programme.
Main regulations in nuclear power
CNEN’s national standards are available at www.cnen.gov.br. Among these standards, the following can be mentioned:
CNEN-NE-1.01: Licensing of nuclear reactors operators;
CNEN-NE-1.04: Licensing of nuclear installations;
CNEN-NE-1.13: Licensing of uranium and thorium mining and milling facilities;
CNEN-NE-1.14: Operating reports of nuclear power plants;
CNEN-NN-1.16: Quality assurance for nuclear power plants;
CNEN-NE-1.25: In-service inspections in nuclear power plants;
CNEN-NN-1.26: Safety in operation of nuclear power plants;
CNEN-NE-1.27: Quality assurance in acquisition, designing and manufacturing of fuel elements;
CNEN-NN-1.28: Qualification of independent technical supervisory organization;
CNEN.NE-2.01: Physical protection of operational units of nuclear installations;
CNEN-NN-2.02: Nuclear material control and safeguards — Regulation for establishing an authorization system, responsibilities of the operator, inspection and enforcement in nuclear material accounting and control and safeguards;
CNEN-NE-2.03: Fire protection in nuclear power plants;
CNEN-NE-2.04: Fire protection in fuel cycle nuclear installations;
CNEN-NE-3.01: Basic guidelines for radiological protection;
CNEN-NE-3.02: Radiation protection services;
CNEN-NE-5.02: Transport storage and handling of nuclear fuels;
CNEN-NN-7.01: Certification of qualification of radiation protection officers;
CNEN-NN-8.02: Licensing of waste repository for low and medium radioactivity levels;
CNEN-NE-9.01: Decommissioning of nuclear power plants.
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
|AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA|
|IAEA Statute||Signature:||26 October 1956|
|Amendments to the Article VI and XIV of the IAEA Statute||Acceptance of amendment of Article VI||01 June 1973|
|Agreement on privileges and immunities ||Entry into force:||13 June 1966|
|Quadripartite safeguards agreement INFCIRC/435 ||Entry into force:||4 March 1994|
|Safeguards agreement Brazil–Germany INFCIRC/237||Suspension signed:||16 October 1998|
|Safeguards agreement Brazil–United States of America INFCIRC/110||Entry into force:||31 October 1968|
|Amendment to the safeguards agreement Brazil–United States of America||Signature:||27 July 1972|
|Technical assistance agreement between the UN, its specialized agencies and the IAEA||Signature:||29 December 1964|
|Supplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA||Entry into force:||27 February 1991|
|ARCAL (The Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean) (||Entry into force:||September 1984|
|New ARCAL agreement||Signed:||4 August 1999|
|MAIN INTERNATIONAL TREATIES|
|NPT||Entry into force:||18 September 1998|
|Tlatelolco Treaty||Signed:||29 January 1968|
|Amendment of Tlatelolco Treaty||Ratified:||30 May 1994|
|OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL TREATIES|
|Nuclear suppliers group||Member|| |
|Nuclear export guidelines||Adopted|
|Missile Technology Control Regime||Member||1995|
|Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water (Partial test ban treaty)||Signature:||5 August 1963|
|Partial Test Ban Treaty||Entry into force:||15 December 1964|
|International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention||Signature:||7 April 1964|
|Treaty on the prohibition of the installation of nuclear weapons and other lethal weapons in the seabed, deep ocean floor and sub-seabed.||Signature:||3 September 1971|
|Convention on civil liability in the field of maritime carriage of nuclear material||Signature:||17 December 1971|
|Convention on prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other materials||Signature:||29 December 1972|
|International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings ||Entry into force:||23 August 2002|
|Antarctica Treaty||Signature:||1 December 1959|
|Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||Entry into force:||8 February 1987|
|Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||Entry into force:||4 January 1991|
|Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||Entry into force:||4 January 1991|
|Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||Entry into force:||26 June 1993|
|Convention on Nuclear Safety||Entry into force:||2 June 1997|
|Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.||Signature:||31 October 1997|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Use of Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy||Argentina||1980|
|Agreement for Scientific, Technological and Industrial Cooperation||Belgium||1985|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Bolivia||1966|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Canada||1996|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Chile||2002|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||China||1984|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Ecuador||1970|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Development of Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy||France||2002|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Germany||1975|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy||Italy||1958|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Paraguay||1961|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Peru||1981|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Republic of Korea||2001|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Russian Federation||1994|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Spain||1983|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||United States of America||1997|
|Cooperation Agreement on Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Uses||Venezuela||1983|
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY (CNEN)||Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN)|
Address: Rua General Severiano 90, Botafogo
22290-901 - Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil
Phone: +55 21 2173 2101
|CNEN’s research institutes|
|Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear|
|Address: Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6.627|
Campus da UFMG - Pampulha - CEP 31270-901 - Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil
Phone: 55 31 3069 3261
|Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares (CRCN)||Address: Av. Professor Luiz Freire, n. 200, Cidade Universitária, Recife – PE, Brazil|
Phone: +55 81 3797 8000
|Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN)||Address: Rua Hélio de Almeida, 75 - Cidade Universitária - Ilha do Fundão |
CEP. 21941-972 - Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
Caixa Postal 68550
Phone: + 55 21 2173 3702
|Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN)||Address: Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242|
Cidade Universitária - Pinheiros
CEP. 05508-000 - São Paulo - SP, Brazil
Phone: + 55 11 3133 9000
|Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD)||Address: Av. Salvador Allende, S/No, Recreio dos Bandeirantes|
CEP. 22780-160 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ, Brazil
Phone: 55 21 2173 2701
|Amazônia Azul Tecnologias de Defesa S.A. (Amazul)||Address: Av. Corifeu de Azevedo Marques, 1847|
CEP. 05581-001 – Butantã – São Paulo/SP, Brazil
Phone: + 55 11 3206 1600
|Associação Brasileira de Energia Nuclear (ABEN)||Address: Rua da Candelária, 65, 14º andar – Centro – Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil|
Phone: + 55 21 2266 0480
|Agência Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC)||Address: Av. Rio Branco, 123 – Gr 515, Centro – Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil|
Phone: +55 21 3171 1200
|Associação Brasileira para Desenvolvimento de Atividades Nucleares (ABDAN)||Address: Av. Nilo Peçanha, 50 Gr 2016, Centro – Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil|
Phone: +55 21 2262 6587
|Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA)||Address: Avenida Centenário, 303 - São Dimas – Piracicaba, São Paulo/SP, Brazil|
Phone: +55 19 3429 4600
|Eletrobrás Termonuclear S/A (Eletronuclear)||Address: Address: Rua da Candelária, 65, Centro – Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil|
Phone: + 55 21 2588 7000
|Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB)||Address: Av. República do Chile, 230 - 24º e 25º andares - Centro – Rio de Janeiro/RJ – Brazil|
Phone: +55 21 3797 1600
|Nuclebrás Equipamentos Pesados S/A (NUCLEP)||Address: Av. Rio Branco, 1 - Edifício RB1, sala 1610 – Centro, Rio de Janeiro/RJ – Brazil|
Phone: +55 21 2262 4033
Viviane da Silva Simões
National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN)
Phone: + 55 21 2173 2121