PREAMBLE AND SUMMARY
As of 31-December-2021, China has 51 operational nuclear power units and 20 nuclear power units under construction. Nuclear power accounted for 5.02% of the total electricity mix in 2021.
This report provides information on the status and development of the nuclear power programme in China, including factors related to effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs).
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in China.
1 COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1 ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1 Energy policy
China adheres to the strategic policy of "conservation, cleanliness and security" in energy development, insists on developing non-fossil energy and efficient and clean fossil energy, gradually reduces the proportion of coal consumption, increases the proportion of natural gas consumption, and significantly increases the consumption proportion of renewable energy sources such as wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and nuclear power.
During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, China's energy structure continued to be optimized and its low-carbon transformation was effective. The proportion of non-fossil energy consumption reached 15.9%, while the proportion of coal consumption dropped to 56.8%, with the installed capacity of conventional hydropower, wind power, solar power and nuclear power reaching 340 GW, 280 GW, 250 GW and 50 GW respectively. The installed capacity of non-fossil energy generating units is the largest in the world. The 14th Five-Year Plan period is a crucial period to lay the foundation for achieving carbon peaking by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060. It is necessary to promote the low-carbon energy transformation and supply security, accelerate the adjustment of the energy system to adapt to the large-scale development of new energy sources, and promote the formation of green development methods and lifestyles.
Notes: The statistics in this report do not include nuclear power and other relevant data in Taiwan, China.
1.1.2 Estimated available energy
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Coal (1)||Crude Oil (2)||Natural Gas (3)||Uranium (4)||Hydro (5)||Wind (6)|
|Total amount in specific units*)||1622.88||36.19||7.00||34.4||5.42||9.5|
Specific units*: Coal and crude oil are measured in 100 million tons; natural gas are measured in trillion cubic meters; uranium ore is calculated in 10,000 tons; hydropower and others are measured in 100 GW; wind energy is measured in 100 GW.
Coal: refers to the remaining technically recoverable reserves, with data as of the end of 2020.
Crude oil: refers to the remaining technically recoverable reserves, with data as of the end of 2020.
Natural gas: Natural gas, coalbed methane, and shale gas, refer to the remaining technically recoverable reserves, with data as of the end of 2020.
(Source: China Mineral Resources 2021 released by the Ministry of Natural Resources of the People-s Republic of China
The statistics on uranium reserves was as of 1 January 2019 and the data were from the Uranium 2020 Resources, Production and Demand provided by China Atomic Energy Authority to the IAEA.
Hydro: refers to the technically developable installed capacity of hydropower as of the end of 2003 as described in the Results of Review of Hydraulic Resources of the People's Republic of China (2003).
Wind energy: The grid-connectable resources that can be developed onshore are 800 GW; and the grid-connectable resources that can be developed offshore are 150 GW.
1.1.3. Energy Consumption Statistics
Energy consumption and production data from 2000 to 2021 are shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
|Final Energy consumption [PJ]||2000||2005||2010||2015||2020||Compound
rate 2000-2020 (%)
|Total||34 706||55 192||73 265||86 941||95 326||5.18|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||12 432||25 274||34 121||36 317||28 634||4.26|
|Oil||8 488||12 379||15 425||20 082||23 865||5.30|
|Natural gas||661||1 402||3 200||4 518||8 270||13.47|
|Bioenergy and Waste||8 229||6 944||5 038||3 774||3 594||-4.06|
|Electricity||3 726||7 170||12 405||17 529||24 175||9.80|
|Heat||1 170||2 023||3 076||4 721||6 788||9.19|
(Sources: The website of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, http://data.stats.gov.cn/easyquery.htm?cn=C01, the website of the National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China, https://www.ndrc.gov.cn/fgsj/tjsj/jjsjgl1/202201/t20220129_1314011.html?code=&state=123, the statistical unit of energy consumption/production is 10,000 tonnes of standard coal. The statistical unit of this table is EJ. China stipulates that the calorific value of each kilogram of standard coal is 7,000 kcal, and the calorific value per kcal is 4.1816 kJ (i.e. 10,000 tonnes of standard coal = 2.9271-10-4EJ). The data on liquid energy consumption in 2021 is taken from https://www.sohu.com/a/526770894_120950203 with the original data of 707.16 million tonnes, converted into data of 10,000 tonnes of standard coal with a conversion factor of 1.4286 kg standard coal/kg.)
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
In 2021, the Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and Vision 2035 of the People's Republic of China was reviewed and approved at an Executive Meeting of the State Council of the People-s Republic of China. The Outline points out that -we will promote the energy revolution and build a clean, low-carbon, safe, and efficient energy system to enhance energy supply capabilities; we will accelerate the development of non-fossil energies, continue to promote in parallel centralized and distributed patterns, vigorously enhance the scale of wind power and photovoltaic power generation, accelerate the development of distributed energy in the central and eastern regions, ensure orderly development of offshore wind power, accelerate the construction of the southwest hydropower base, safely and steadily promote the construction of coastal nuclear power, and build a number of clean energy bases featuring integrated energy development, and increase the proportion of non-fossil energy in total energy consumption to about 20%-.
(Sources: Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and Vision 2035 of the People's Republic of China, https://www.12371.cn/special/ssw2035/)
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
The National Energy Administration is the government authority and regulator of Chinese power companies and power grid companies.
There are five national power generation enterprises in China, namely China Huaneng Group Co., Ltd., China Datang Corporation Ltd., China Huadian Corporation Ltd., China Energy Investment Corporation and State Power Investment Group Co., Ltd. They are authorized to operate by the State Council. In addition, China National Nuclear Corporation and China General Nuclear Power Corporation retain a number of NPPs. China Three Gorges Corporation builds and operates some hydropower stations in China.
State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid Co., Ltd. are the two nationwide power grid companies responsible for the operation of the power grids in China. Six inter-provincial power grids and one regional power grid have been built. All power grid companies in China are state-owned enterprises.
1.2.3. Main Indicators
TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
|Electricity production (GWh)||2000||2005||2010||2015||2020||Compound
rate 2000-2020 (%)
|Total||1 355 738||2 500 466||4 207 993||5 859 515||7 781 726||9.13|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||1 060 372||1 980 272||3 239 704||4 108 994||4 966 309||8.03|
|Oil||47 268||50 513||14 856||9 679||10 724||-7.15|
|Natural gas||5 773||12 142||78 063||145 346||216 297||19.86|
|Bioenergy and Waste||2 421||5 200||33 863||63 729||123 387||21.72|
|Hydro||222 414||397 017||722 172||1 130 270||1 355 311||9.46|
|Nuclear||16 737||53 088||73 880||170 789||366 121||16.68|
|Wind||615||2 028||44 622||185 766||470 568||39.38|
|Solar||22||84||701||44 809||272 871||60.21|
Notes: Power transmission losses are not calculated.
(Sources: The official website of China Electricity Council, https://www.cec.org.cn/detail/index.html?3-306171, and the website of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, http: //data. Stats.gov. Cn/easyquery.htm?cn=A0http://data.stats.gov.cn/easyquery.htm?cn=A01)
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Final Energy consumption [PJ]||2000||2005||2010||2015||2020||2021*|
|Nuclear/total electricity (%)||1.2||2||1.8||3||4.9||5|
(Source: The website of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, http://data.stats.gov.cn/easyquery.htm?cn=C01
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Entering the 21st century, the Chinese government further put forward the policy of "actively developing nuclear power" and "developing nuclear power efficiently on the basis of ensuring safety". In 2007, the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Nuclear Power (2005-2020) was released, marking China's nuclear power entering a new stage of large-scale development.
In 2012, in an executive meeting of the State Council of China, the comprehensive safety inspection of nuclear facilities was reported, and the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention and the Vision for 2020, the Nuclear Power Safety Plan (2011-2020) and the adjusted Nuclear Power Mid- and Long-Term Development Plan (2011-2020) were successively reviewed and approved. The safety goals and regulatory principles for nuclear safety were clearly put forward. It was decided at the meeting to prudently resume normal construction of nuclear power in coastal areas.
In 2015, the National Energy Administration, the National Nuclear Safety Administration, and the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense jointly issued the Nuclear Safety Culture Policy Statement, which clarifies China's attitude of actively advocating nuclear safety culture and the principle requirements for cultivating and practicing nuclear safety culture. China has incorporated nuclear safety into its overall national security system, clarified its strategic positioning for nuclear safety, and actively promoted the legislative process of the Nuclear Safety Law and the Atomic Energy Law. The Nuclear Safety Law was reviewed and approved by the National People's Congress and came into force on 1 January 2018.
In 2017, the State Council reviewed and approved the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention and Control and the Vision for 2025, which points out the necessity to implement a subject responsibility system for safety, continually improve the level of safety and promote the prevention and control of radioactive pollution and ensure to develop China-s nuclear energy and nuclear technology utilization in a safe and efficient manner.
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
There are four main government departments in charge of and supervising nuclear power in China, including: National Energy Administration, China Atomic Energy Authority, Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration), and National Health Commission.
The National Energy Administration is the energy industry management department of the Chinese government. It is responsible for formulating nuclear power development plans, access conditions, and technical standards and organizing their implementation; proposing review comments on major nuclear power projects; and organizing, coordinating, and guiding nuclear power scientific research.
China Atomic Energy Authority is the nuclear industry authority of the Chinese government. It is responsible for researching and formulating policies, regulations, planning, plans and industry standards for China's peaceful use of atomic energy, and organizing the implementation of them. It is also responsible for exchanges and cooperation between the government and international organizations in the nuclear field, and it takes the lead in national emergency management of nuclear accidents.
The Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) is the nuclear safety and radiation regulatory department of the Chinese government, which implements unified supervision over the nuclear safety of China's NPPs and independently exercises the power of nuclear safety supervision. The Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) is responsible for the implementation of the licensing system and provides oversight over the NPPs, nuclear materials and nuclear activities.
The National Health Commission is responsible for formulating laws and regulations on the prevention and control of radiation occupational diseases in conjunction with relevant departments, organizing the formulation and publication of relevant standards for radiation occupational diseases, and carrying out emergency medical rescue of nuclear and radiation accidents.
At present, there are four major state-owned enterprises engaged in nuclear power business in China: China National Nuclear Corporation, China General Nuclear Power Corporation, State Power Investment Corporation Limited, and China Huaneng Group Co., Ltd. Among them, China National Nuclear Corporation and China General Nuclear Power Corporation operate the majority of the nuclear power plants; State Power Investment Corporation Limited is mainly engaged in the introduction, application and further development of the third-generation nuclear power technology.
In addition, State Power Investment Corporation Limited and China Huaneng Group Co., Ltd. hold or participate in some nuclear power projects, and China Datang Corporation Ltd., China Energy Investment Corporation, and China Huadian Corporation Ltd. participate in some nuclear power projects.
(Source: The Eighth National Report of the People's Republic of China under the Convention on Nuclear Safety)
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
From 2017 to 2021, 16 units were put into commercial operation in China, and construction was started on 13 new units. As of 31 December 2021, a total of 51 nuclear power units were under commercial operation, with a total installed capacity of 53,274.95MW(e); a total of 20 nuclear power units were under construction, with a total installed capacity of 20,222.57 MW(e). In 2021, the annual cumulative power generation of commercial nuclear power units was 407.520 billion kWh, accounting for about 5.02% of the country's total power generation. The basic information of China's NPPs as of the end of 2021 is shown in Table 5.
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) issued the General Technical Requirements for Improvement Actions of NPPs after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident and carried out on-site verification of the implementation of improvement items in nuclear plants during September 2012 and September 2013.
For new units, the improvement items implemented before the first fuel loading mainly include: Improving the flood-proofing of nuclear safety-related plants and equipment, adding facilities such as mobile power supplies and mobile pumps, improving the seismic monitoring and seismic response capabilities of NPPs, improving the SAMG of NPPs, conducting in-depth assessment of earthquake and tsunami risks, conducting probabilistic safety analysis of external events, improving emergency response plans and emergency response capabilities of nuclear accidents, formulating and improving the information release procedures of NPPs, improving disaster prevention plans and management procedures, etc. After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the nuclear power units that achieved the first fuel loading have all completed improvements as planned.
PLANT LIFE MANAGEMENT
The aging management of NPPs is carried out by making primary reference to the Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants and Aging Management of Nuclear Power Plants and draws on the good practices of the nuclear power industry at home and abroad. Various aging management tasks have been carried out in the construction, commissioning and operating stages of NPPs in a systematic manner, establishing and improving the aging management system of NPPs.
Aging management is the most important part to be addressed in the application for renewal of operation licenses of an NPP. In order to guide the relevant work on the extension of the validity period of the NPP operation license and ensure the safety of NPPs, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) issued and implemented the Technical Policy for the Extension of the Validity Period of the -NPP operation license- (for Trial Implementation) on 31 December 2015. The Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) issued the Regulations on the Procedures for the Safety Licensing of Nuclear Power Plants, Research Reactors, and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities on 11 July 2019, which clarifies the application procedures and safety demonstration requirements for the continued operation of nuclear facilities upon the expiry of their operation licenses, providing clear provisions for subsequent applications for renewal of the operation licenses of nuclear facilities.
Through the review of operation license renewal applications, Qinshan NPP has carried out work such as the definition of aging management scope and object screening, aging management review, and time-limited aging analysis. From 2019 to 2021, Qinshan NPP had completed all the engineering renovations for the renewal of operation licenses. During May 2021, it passed the pre-OLE comprehensive inspection; during June 2021, it passed the review of the National Nuclear Safety Expert Committee. Currently, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) has officially approved the application for the renewal of the operation licenses of Qinshan NPP that the operation licenses are renewed until 30 July 2041.
Daya Bay NPP completed the OLE feasibility analysis for Unit 1 of the NPP in 2015 and started the OLE demonstration evaluation in 2016. Daya Bay NPP initially completed the OLE demonstration evaluation during June 2019, completed the application report and submitted it to the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) at the end of 2019.
From 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2021, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) newly issued the following for NPPs: site selection review comments for 12 sites, construction licenses for 25 units, first fuel loading approvals for 26 units, and operation licenses for 51 units.
(Source: The Eighth National Report of the People's Republic of China under the Convention on Nuclear Safety, the official website of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People-s Republic of China)
2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
Until 31 December 2021, there were no nuclear power units in China that were permanently shut down and decommissioned.
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
At the beginning of 2022, the National Development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration compiled the 14th Five-Year Plan for the Modern Energy System, which makes it clear that China will "actively develop nuclear power in a safe and orderly manner". The Plan highlights actively and orderly promoting the construction of coastal nuclear power projects, maintaining a stable construction pace, and rationally deploying new coastal nuclear power projects under the premise of ensuring safety. The Plan also emphasizes carrying out demonstrations of comprehensive utilization of nuclear energy, actively promoting demonstration projects of advanced reactor types such as high temperature reactors, fast breeder reactors, modular small reactors, and offshore floating reactors, and promoting the comprehensive utilization of nuclear energy in fields such as clean heating, industrial heating, and seawater desalination. Furthermore, the plan highlights effectively protecting the resources of NPP sites. By 2025, the installed capacity of nuclear power operation will reach approximately 70 GW.
2.3.2. Project management
The Chinese government has implemented effective planning, guidance, supervision and management for the development of nuclear power. The final approval of nuclear power projects will be discussed and decided by the executive meeting of the State Council.
China's nuclear safety regulations stipulate that nuclear safety license holders (or applicants) assume overall responsibility for the safety of NPPs, nuclear materials and nuclear activities.
2.3.3. Project funding
The group companies of nuclear power projects, in which construction has started, construction has not started but the project is approved, or preliminary work has been approved, are all state-owned super-large enterprises. Funds for nuclear power projects are mainly raised by the group companies that control nuclear power projects, and the state allows qualified social capital to participate in new nuclear power projects.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
See Section 1.2.1 of this report for details.
There are currently 18 NPP sites where NPPs are under operation or construction in China, all of which are coastal sites. Site selection procedures and external event evaluations should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of nuclear safety laws and regulations and be reviewed and confirmed by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration).
(Source: The Eighth National Report of the People's Republic of China under the Convention on Nuclear Safety)
2.3.6. Public awareness
With the rapid development of China's nuclear power industry, public attention and awareness of nuclear power safety and nuclear emergency responses has been increasing. China's nuclear emergency organizations at all levels publicize the country's nuclear energy policies and nuclear emergency policies to the whole society in a timely manner, increase public communication, and ensure that the general public has the right to know about nuclear power safety, nuclear emergency preparedness and response.
At the national level, the white paper China's Nuclear Emergency Preparedness was released, which introduces and publicizes the overall situation of China's nuclear emergency work to the world and states how China-s nuclear emergency work is coordinated with and parallel to the development of China's nuclear energy industry.
Local governments are responsible for popularizing and educating the public near NPPs on basic knowledge of nuclear safety and radiation protection, as well as for publicizing and giving guidance on emergency protection knowledge such as alarming, concealment, evacuation, and taking anti-radiation preventive drugs in emergency situations.
The Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) has issued the Administrative Measures for the Disclosure of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Information, the Work Plan for Public Communication on Nuclear and Radiation Safety, the Guidelines for Public Communication on Nuclear Power Projects, the Notice on Strengthening the Disclosure of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Information in NPPs, and other documents and has actively promoted the information disclosure of nuclear-related project environmental impact assessment reports, national radiation environmental quality monitoring results, project approvals and administrative licensing documents.
Nuclear power groups and NPP operating organizations have combined the advantages of traditional media with new media, strengthened communication with news media, built a normalized news release and media communication platform, and printed and distributed nuclear safety publicity materials such as China Nuclear Power Science Popularization Manual and Nuclear Power Public Communication Guide to further popularize nuclear power. At present, all NPP sites in China have built various science popularization facilities, which areopen to the public.
(Source: The Eighth National Report of the People's Republic of China under the Convention on Nuclear Safety)
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
The main nuclear power design and engineering management organizations include:
China Nuclear Power Engineering Co., Ltd.
China Guangdong Nuclear Power Engineering Company
State Nuclear Power Engineering Co., Ltd.
Nuclear Power Institute of China
Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute
The main construction and installation companies are:
China Nuclear Engineering & Construction Corporation Limited
Other major nuclear power construction companies: SEPCO Electric Power Construction Corporation, Guangdong Power Engineering Co., Ltd., Tianjin Electric Power Construction Co., Ltd., Anhui No. 2 Electric Power Construction Co., Ltd., China Construction Second Engineering Bureau Co., Ltd.
The main equipment suppliers are:
Harbin Electric Corporation
Dongfang Electric Corporation
Shanghai Electric (Group) Corporation
China First Heavy Industries Corporation
China National Erzhong Group Corporation
Shenyang Blower Works Group Corporation
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
See T1 for information on owners and operators of NPPs in China.
T1 NPP Owners and Operators
|Nuclear Power Plant||Owner||Operator|
|Qinshan NPP||Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||CNNC Nuclear Power Operation and Management Co., Ltd.|
|Qinshan Phase II NPP||Nuclear Power Qinshan Joint Venture Co., Ltd.||CNNC Nuclear Power Operation and Management Co., Ltd.|
|Third Qinshan NPP||Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||CNNC Nuclear Power Operation and Management Co., Ltd.|
|Fangjiashan NPP||Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||CNNC Nuclear Power Operation and Management Co., Ltd.|
|Daya Bay NPP||Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Co., Ltd.||Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations and Management Co., Ltd.|
|Ling'ao NPP Phase I||Ling'ao Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations and Management Co., Ltd.|
|Ling'ao NPP Phase II||Lingdong Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations and Management Co., Ltd.|
|Tianwan NPP||Jiangsu Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||Jiangsu Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.|
|Hongyanhe NPP||Liaoning Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.;||Liaoning Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.;|
|Ningde NPP||Fujian Ningde Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.;||Fujian Ningde Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.;|
|Fuqing NPP||Fujian Fuqing Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.;||Fujian Fuqing Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.;|
|Yangjiang NPP||Yangjiang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||Yangjiang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.|
|Changjiang NPP||Hainan Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||Hainan Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.|
|Fangchenggang NPP||Guangxi Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.;||Guangxi Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.;|
|Sanmen NPP||Sanmen Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||Sanmen Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.|
|Haiyang NPP||Shandong Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||Shandong Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.|
|Taishan NPP||Taishan Nuclear Power Joint Venture Co., Ltd.||Taishan Nuclear Power Joint Venture Co., Ltd.|
|Zhangzhou NPP||CNNC Zhangzhou Energy Co., Ltd.||CNNC Zhangzhou Energy Co., Ltd.|
|Xudapu NPP||CNNC Liaoning Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||CNNC Liaoning Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.|
|Taipingling NPP||CGN Huizhou Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||CGN Huizhou Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.|
|San'ao NPP||CGN Cangnan Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||CGN Cangnan Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.|
|State Nuclear Power Demonstration Plant||State Nuclear Power Demonstration Plant Co., Ltd.||State Nuclear Power Demonstration Plant Co., Ltd.|
|Huaneng Changjiang NPP||Huaneng Hainan Changjiang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||Huaneng Hainan Changjiang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.|
|Shidao Bay NPP||Huaneng Shandong Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.;||Huaneng Shandong Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.;|
|Xiapu NPP||CNNC Xiapu Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.||CNNC Xiapu Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.|
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
As of 31 December 2021, China had no nuclear power units in decommissioning status.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
2.7.1. Fuel cycle
In the field of nuclear fuel processing, including uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, and fuel assembly manufacturing, China already has large-scale production capacity and can provide nuclear fuel assemblies for various reactor types of NPPs to meet the needs of nuclear power development.
China National Nuclear Corporation is a major supplier of nuclear fuel in China. CNNC Jinyuan Uranium Co., Ltd., CNNC North Nuclear Fuel Component Co., Ltd., CNNC South Nuclear Fuel Component Co., Ltd., CNNC Lanzhou Uranium Enrichment Co., Ltd., CNNC Shaanxi Uranium Enrichment Co., Ltd., and CNNC 404 Co., Ltd. under China National Nuclear Corporation, and CGNPC Uranium Resources Co., Ltd. under China General Nuclear Power Corporation are the major producers of natural uranium and nuclear fuel.
2.7.2 Waste management
Waste management in NPPs
Each NPP is equipped with radioactive waste liquid and waste gas treatment facilities, and solid waste storage facilities. They have formulated radioactive waste management outlines, implemented classified management of radioactive waste, and formulated corresponding radioactive waste management procedures according to the outlines.
NPPs continuously implement radioactive waste minimization management. In the design of new NPPs, new waste treatment technologies and operation methods are actively adopted, such as drying in barrels, drying and hot pressing of waste resin, high integral containers, mobile waste liquid treatment devices and centralized waste treatment facilities, and information management of radioactive waste gas, waste liquid and solid waste.
Spent fuel management
China implements the nuclear fuel closed cycle technology route. The first pilot plant for the reprocessing of spent fuel from power reactors has been built, has successfully completed the thermal commissioning and has been put into operation. Construction has started on the 200-ton large-scale commercial spent fuel reprocessing project.
Each NPP in China has built a spent fuel storage facility with a certain storage capacity to accommodate the spent fuel generated by the operation of the NPP for a certain period of time and to ensure its safe storage.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
The major nuclear power R&D organizations in China include:
China Institute of Atomic Energy
Nuclear Power Institute of China
Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute
China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd.
Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute Co., Ltd.
Research Institute of Nuclear Power Operation
China Institute of Radiation Protection
Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University
China Nuclear Power Engineering Co., Ltd.
Nuclear Power Operation Research (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.
Huaneng Nuclear Energy Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies
During the development of nuclear power for more than 30 years, China has adhered to the policy of combining the introduction and use of foreign technology with independent research and development. Not only did China independently design and construct the 300,000-kilowatt Qinshan NPP in 1991, but also through the incorporation of the Daya Bay NPP M310 technology, has mastered the design and construction of 600,000-kilowatt and one-million-kilowatt pressurized water reactor NPPs.
In order to achieve the sustainable development of nuclear energy, China has determined the "three-step" development strategy of thermal neutron reactor-fast neutron reactor-controlled nuclear fusion will improve the independent innovation capability of nuclear power.
HPR1000 proposes the safe design concept of "combining active and passive facilities-. Its safety indicators and technical performance have reached the advanced level of the international third-generation nuclear power technology, and it has complete and independent intellectual property rights. On 29 January 2021, Unit 5 of Fuqing NPP, the world's first HPR1000 reactor, completed 168 hours of continuous operation at full power, meeting the conditions for commercial operation. On 6 December 2021, the first fuel cycle of Unit 5 of Fuqing NPP was completed and the first refueling overhaul began. On 20 May 2021, the first overseas reactor project of HPR1000, Unit 2 of the Karachi NPP in Pakistan, officially entered commercial operation. So far, a total of 14 nuclear power units using the HPR1000 technology are under construction or operational at home and abroad; these units- safety, construction and operation have been deemed reliable.
China is actively promoting the incorporation and re-innovation of the AP1000 technology. The design of the CAP1400 demonstration project, a major special project for an advanced pressurized water reactor NPP, has been completed and passed the safety review. The CAP1400 demonstration power station is located at the site of Shidao Bay, Rongcheng, Weihai City, Shandong Province. It has a design life of 60 years and a single reactor installed capacity of 1.534 GW. The relevant engineering construction is being carried out as planned.
High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor
The construction of Shandong Shidao Bay NPP High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor NPP Demonstration Project (HTR-PM) has progressed smoothly. Unit 1 has completed its first loading on 21 August 2021, the unit was successfully connected to the grid for power generation on 20 December 2021, and the full power operation of the unit will be achieved in 2022.
The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor will follow the technical development route of the improved version of the demonstration project, the supercritical version, and the hydrogen production version. At present, the design of the improved version of the 600,000-kilowatt high-temperature gas-cooled reactor project has been completed, and the research and development of the supercritical version of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor is expected to be completed in 2023.
Fast Breeder Reactor
During July 2011, China-s experimental fast breeder reactor was successfully connected to the grid for power generation for the first time. During October 2014, the overall planning scheme of the demonstration fast breeder reactor project was approved by the state. On 29 December 2017, the demonstration fast breeder reactor project with a single unit capacity of 600,000 kilowatts started civil construction at the Xiapu site in Fujian; on 18 January 2020, the first-span steel vault of Unit 1 of the Xiapu Demonstration Fast Breeder Reactor Project was in place, marking the transition from the civil construction stage to the installation stage. On 27 December 2020, Unit 2 of the Xiapu Demonstration Fast Breeder Reactor Project officially started construction.
Other nuclear reactors
China also attaches great importance to the development of other advanced nuclear power technologies and is carrying out research and development on technologies such as small reactors, floating reactors, molten salt reactors, and nuclear fusion reactors.
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
China has participated in the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and has sent a number of experts to participate in INPRO steering committee, seminars, technical meetings, etc. to assist INPRO in completing various tasks.
In 2006, China officially joined the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), formally participated in the arrangement of eight projects in the three system arrangements of UHT gas-cooled reactors, sodium-cooled fast reactors and supercritical water reactors, formally participated in the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor Interim System Steering Committee and conducted a long-term involvement as an observer in activities related to molten salt reactors.
China's nuclear energy development implements a three-step strategy of "thermal reactor-fast reactor-fusion reactor". During November 2006, China formally signed the ITER agreement and joined the ITER plan; during February 2007, the State Council officially approved the establishment of the ITER program. China undertakes 18 ITER purchasing arrangement agreements (including four supplementary agreements). By 2016, China had signed all procurement package manufacturing task agreements. During September 2019, through the concerted efforts of many Chinese organizations and arduous bidding efforts, the Chinese consortium led by CNNC China Nuclear Power Engineering Co., Ltd. won the Contract One (TAC-1) for the installation of the main engine of the ITER unit with the total contract value of 240 million Euros (about RMB 2 billion Yuan). The contract includes the assembly and installation of the ITER reactor dewar structure and all components and systems between the dewar and the vacuum chamber, ensuring that the ITER unit achieves the first plasma discharge by the end of 2025, a crucial milestone in the completion of the ITER program.
On 1 February 2022, China and Argentina officially signed the engineering, procurement and construction contract for Argentina's Atucha III NPP. According to the agreement, China National Nuclear Corporation will build a HPR1000 pressurized water reactor NPP for Argentina in a "turnkey" mode through EPC.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
The Chinese government attaches great importance to the development of human resources for nuclear power and takes various measures such as strengthening nuclear science and technology degree programs in colleges and universities, strengthening on-the-job training in enterprises, and strengthening cooperation between universities, scientific research institutions, industry and other organizations to meet the increasing demand for human resources in the nuclear power industry.
2.10 STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
The public participates in the environmental assessment of NPPs at all stages from siting to decommissioning. The Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment and the Interim Measures for Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessment stipulate that for projects that may cause adverse environmental impacts and directly involve the public's environmental rights and interests, demonstration meetings, hearings or other forms should be held or taken to solicit the opinions of relevant organizations, experts and the public on the environmental impact report before the draft is submitted for approval.
In the environmental impact report of the NPP siting stage, a chapter on public participation needs to be prepared. The organizations that are responsible for construction and operation of the NPP shall seriously consider the opinions of other relevant organizations, experts and the public regarding environmental impact and shall attach a statement of acceptance or non-acceptance of the opinions in the environmental impact report submitted for review. If there is no public participation chapter in the environmental impact report, the environmental protection administrative authority of the State Council will not accept the report.
In the approval stage of NPP siting, the construction company should publicize nuclear power-related knowledge in the project location through intuitive and effective methods such as distributing nuclear power knowledge brochures, organizing special lectures on nuclear power knowledge, holding nuclear power knowledge exhibitions, organizing NPP site visits, etc. before extensively soliciting public opinions.
The main communication methods of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration) with the public and the media include:
Timely release important regulatory activity information, such as granting of licenses, important review and surveillance activities and results, reporting of nuclear facility construction events and operational events, radiation environment monitoring results, nuclear and radiation accident emergency-related information, etc. on the official website of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration);
Use websites, newspapers, periodicals, television, publications, publicity materials, etc. to disseminate knowledge and information about nuclear and radiation safety to the public;
Before the release of important regulatory documents or decisions, use various forms such as information disclosure, distribution of questionnaires, symposiums, hearings, etc., to solicit public opinions, and accept public inquiries and supervision;
Invite the media to participate in important nuclear safety regulatory experience exchange activities, and organize experts to answer questions on the media in response to public concerns.
2.11 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
China has promulgated a series of laws, regulations and guidelines, including the Law of the People's Republic of China on Nuclear Safety, the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution, the Emergency Response Law of the People's Republic of China, and the Regulations on Emergency Management of Nuclear Accidents in NPPs, specifying the details about the national emergency management system and the emergency preparedness of NPP operating organizations. In 2013, the State Council approved and promulgated the revised National Nuclear Emergency Plan, which further defines the management scope of nuclear emergency, clarifies the working principles and responsible subjects, strengthens the command mechanism, refines emergency preparedness and safeguard measures, standardizes information reporting and release procedures, and makes provisions for the aftermath of nuclear facility accidents.
China has a three-level emergency organization system for nuclear emergency response, namely the national nuclear emergency organization, nuclear emergency organization in the province (autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government) where the NPP is located and nuclear emergency organization of NPP operating organizations. The National Nuclear Emergency Coordination Committee is responsible for organizing and coordinating nuclear emergency preparedness and responding actions at the national level, and the National Nuclear Emergency Response Office functions as its standing office. Provincial nuclear emergency coordination committees are made responsible, within their respective jurisdictional areas, for emergency preparedness and responding actions for nuclear accidents occurring within the boundaries and to uniformly command the off-site emergency response actions. The emergency command of NPP operating organization is responsible for organizing on-site nuclear emergency preparedness and response; implementing unified command of emergency responses in its own organization; cooperating and supporting the departments assigned by the provincial government, dealing with the off-site nuclear emergency preparedness and response; and proposing the recommendations for entering the general emergency status and taking off-site emergency protective measures in a timely manner.. In addition, the nuclear power corporation, to whom the NPP operating organization is subordinate, is responsible for leading and coordinating nuclear emergency preparedness in the NPP operating organization and deploying its emergency resources or forces to support the responding actions performed by the NPP operating organization.
3 NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
China's nuclear safety and radiation regulatory authority is the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (National Nuclear Safety Administration). It implements unified and independent regulation over the nuclear safety of NPPs in China.
The administrative department for environmental protection under the State Council is responsible for the surveillance monitoring of the prevention and control of radioactive pollution nationwide in accordance with the law. The health administration authority and other relevant authorities of the State Council shall, in accordance with the responsibilities stipulated by the State Council, supervise and administer relevant radioactive pollution prevention and control work in accordance with the law.
3.1.2. Licensing process
The current types of nuclear safety licenses for NPPs in China include:
NPP siting review comments;
NPP construction license;
NPP operation license;
NPP decommissioning approval and other documents requiring approval.
The application and approval process of a clear safety licenses is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The application and approval process of a clear safety licenses
3.2 NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
As of 31 December 2021, the following laws and regulations related to nuclear power had been promulgated.
Law of the People's Republic of China on Nuclear Safety
(Adopted at the 29th Session of the Standing Committee of the 12th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on 1 September 2017)
Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution
(Adopted at the 3rd Session of the Standing Committee of the 10th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on 28 June 2003)
Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment
(Adopted at the 30th Session of the Standing Committee of the 9th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on 28 October 2002 and revised for the second time at the 7th Session of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on 29December 2018)
Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases
(Adopted at the 24th Session of the Standing Committee of the 9th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on 27 October 2001) (Adopted at the 7th Session of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on 29 December 2018)
Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Protection
(Adopted at the 11th Session of the Standing Committee of the 7th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on 26 December 1989 and revised at the 8th Session of the Standing Committee of the 12th National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on 24 April 2014)
?. Administrative regulations of the State Council
Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Administration of Supervision over Safety of Nuclear Facilities for Civilian Use (HAF001)
(Promulgated by the State Council on 29 October 1986)
Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Administration of Nuclear Materials (HAF501)
(Promulgated by the State Council on 15 June 1987)
Regulations on Emergency Management of Nuclear Accidents in NPPs (HAF002)
(Promulgated by the State Council on 4 August 1993, and revised on 8 January 2011)
Regulations on the Administration of Supervision over Civilian Nuclear Safety Equipment
(Promulgated by the State Council on 11 July 2007, and revised for the second time on 2 March 2019)
Regulations on the Administration of Transport Safety of Radioactive Substances
(Promulgated by the State Council on 14 September 2009)
Regulations on the Administration of Safety of Radioactive Waste
(Promulgated by the State Council on 20 December 2011)
Regulations on the Safety and Protection of Radioisotopes and Radioactive Devices
(Promulgated by the State Council on 14 September 2005, and revised for the second time on 2 March 2019)
Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Nuclear Export Control
(Promulgated by the State Council on 10 September 1997, and revised on 9 November 2006)
Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Export Control of Nuclear Dual-Use Items and Related Technologies
(Promulgated by the State Council on 10 June 1998, and revised on 26 January 2007)
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
Agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency
|Reactor unit||Owner||Type||Capacity MW(e)||Construction start year||Expected commercial year|
Major international treaties:
|International Treaties||commencement date|
|Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||11 March 1992|
|Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||9 February 1989|
|Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||11 October 1987|
|Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||11 October 1987|
|Convention on Nuclear Safety||8 July 1996|
Chinese government has signed bilateral cooperation agreements on the peaceful use of nuclear energy with 31 countries/regions. These countries/regions are Algeria, Argentina,Australia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, Euratom, France, Germany, Ghana, Iran, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Poland, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America, and Vietnam.
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|National Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA)||A-8, Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China||100048||+86-10-8858-1381
|National Energy Administration(NEA)||38 Yuetan South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China||100824||+86-10-6855-5875||+86-10-6855-5848||http://www.nea.gov.cn/|
|National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA)
(Under the Ministry of Ecology and Environment)
|115 Xizhimennei Nanxiaojie, Xicheng District, Beijing, China||100035||+86-10-6655-6006
NUCLEAR POWER GROUPS
|Nuclear Power Group||Adress||Postcode||Telephone||Fax||Website|
|China National Nuclear Corporation||No. 1, Nansanxiang, Sanlihe, Xicheng District, Beijing, China||100822||+86-10-6851-2211||+86-10-6853-3989||http://www.cnnc.com.cn|
|China General Nuclear Power Corporation||CGN Building, 2002 Shennan Road, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China||518028||+86-755-8443-1555||+86-755-8369-9900||http://www.cgnpc.com.cn|
|State Power Investment Corporation Limited||Building 3, Yard 28, Jinrong Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China||100033||+86-10-6629-8000
|China Huaneng Group Co., Ltd.||No. 6, Fuxingmennei Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China||100031||+86-10-6322-8800||+86-10-6322-8866||http://www.chng.com.cn/|
RESEARCH AND DESIGN INSTITUTES
|Research and Design Institute||Adress||Postcode||Telephone||Fax||Website|
|Nuclear Power Institute of China||No. 328, Section 1, Huayang Changshun Avenue, Shuangliu County, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China||610000||+86-28-8590-3138
|Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute||No. 29, Hongcao Road, Shanghai, China||200233||+86-21-6186-0000||+86-21-6186-0728||https://www.snerdi.com.cn|
|China Nuclear Power Engineering Co., Ltd.||No. 117, Third Ring North Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China||100840||+86-10-6841-5086||/||http://www.cnpe.cc|
|China Institute of Atomic Energy||Beifang Village, Xinzhen, Fangshan District, Beijing, China||102413||+86-10-6935-7493||+86-10-6935-7008||http://www.ciae.ac.cn|
|Hualong Nuclear Power Technology Co., Ltd.||6/F, CNECC Building, 12 Chegongzhuang Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China||100037||/||/||www.hpr.com.cn|
|China Zhongyuan Engineering Corp.||CICG Financial Center, 140 Xizhimenwai Street, Xicheng District, Beijing||100044||0086-10-62355635||0086-10-62355640||http://www.czec.com.cn|
|CNNC 404 Co., Ltd.||A-4, PO Box 508, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province, China||735112||0937-6769113||09376764984||http://www.zh404.cn|
|China National Uranium Co., Ltd.||Building 14, Hepingli 7th Block, Dongcheng District, Beijing||100010||010-64271870||010-64211783||http://www.cnncgm.cn/|
|CGNPC Uranium Resources Co., Ltd.||A-22 Shiao International Center, No. 101, Shaoyaoju Beili, Chaoyang District, Beijing||100029||010-57321990||010-57321991||http://www.cgnurc.com.cn/|
|SPIC Uranium Development Co., Ltd.||No. 65, Zhichun Road, Haidian District, Beijing||100089||010-53910000||01053910004||/|
|China Nuclear Energy Industry Corp.||No. 9, Huayuan Street, Jinrongjie Subdistrict, Xicheng District, Beijing, China||100037||+86-10-6629-7033||+86-10-6801-0445||http://www.cneic.com.cn|
|CNNC Lanzhou Uranium Enrichment Co., Ltd.||No. 1, Xin'an Road, Xigu District, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province||730000||0931-7917017||0931-7917304||/|
|CNNC Shaanxi Uranium Enrichment Co., Ltd.||Apartments 6-11, Unit 3, Building 70, Chunhui Residential Quarter, Yangxian County, Hanzhong City, Shaanxi Province||723000||0916-8506000||0916-8506000|
|CNNC North Nuclear Fuel Components Co., Ltd.||East side of the intersection of Jingyin Line and Jianhua Road, Qingshan District, Baotou City, Inner Mongolia||014000||+86-0472-3139805||/||/|
|CNNC Jianzhong Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd.||No. 1, Yingbin Street, Baixi Town, Xuzhou District, Yibin City, Sichuan Province||644000||+86-0831-8279911||+86-831-8278981||http://www.cjnf.com.cn|
|Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University||No. 30, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China||100084||+86-10-6259-4533||+86-10-6256-4177||http://www.inet.tsinghua.edu.cn/|
|School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University||No. 800, Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai, China||200240||+86-21-3420-5182||+86-21-3420-5182||http://nsse.sjtu.edu.cn|
|School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University||No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China||710049||+86-29-8266-8721||/||http://epe.xjtu.edu.cn/|
|School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University||Building 31, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China||150001||+86-451-8256-8070||http://cnst.hrbeu.edu.cn/main.htm|
Name of CNPP Report Coordinator: Mr. LONG Maoxiong
Institution: China Nuclear Energy Association