This report provides information on the status and development of the nuclear power programme in the Czech Republic, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operation of nuclear power plants.
The Czech Republic currently has six nuclear power reactors in operation, which accounted for 34.5% of electricity production in 2018. In accordance with Act No. 18/1997 Coll. (collection of laws), the Atomic Act, a licence for continued operation has been issued for four units at the Dukovany site. The State Energy Policy includes partial objectives to support and accelerate the process of negotiating, preparing and implementing new nuclear units at existing nuclear power plant sites with a total output of up to 2500 MW, or annual production of approximately 20 TWh by 2030–2035.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
On 18 May 2015, the Czech Government approved an updated version of the State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic prepared by the Ministry of Industry and Trade with a 2040 timeline. The energy policy specifies a comprehensive set of priorities and long term goals, taking into account energy, environmental, economic and social interests (see www.mpo.cz/dokument161030.html).
The outlined strategic objectives are based on the European Union’s energy strategy and are aimed at meeting the targets of the State Energy Policy to fulfil the long term vision for the energy sector in the Czech Republic. The top strategic objectives are: (1) security of energy supplies; (2) competitiveness of the energy sector and social acceptability; and (3) sustainable development.
The Czech energy policy is clearly determined by factors relating to international energy policy and the global market, on which the Czech economy is solely reliant for gas and petroleum imports. The possibility of using various energy sources is limited in the Czech Republic due to the country’s natural potential and economic specifics, which determine their comparative advantages and disadvantages. The potential of energy from renewable resources is limited by the natural conditions of the Czech Republic (climate, geology and soil) and environmental protection requirements (soil, water, landscape character, flora and fauna).
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
Available energy sources are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Total amount in specific units*||706.0||1.401||4.801||276||1.9||50.7
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||10.193||0.0593||0.1632||0.2806||0.007||0.2|
*Solid, liquid: million tonnes; gas: billion m3; uranium: metric tonnes; hydro, renewable: TWh.
Source: Ministry of Industry and Trade, the Czech Geological Survey
1.1.3. Energy statistics
The general energy balance (energy statistics) is shown in Table 2 (for electricity, see Table 3).
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|INDICATOR (PETA-JOULES)||2000||2010||2015||2017*||Compound annual growth rate (%) 2000 to year*|
|Energy consumption (PJ)|
|Energy production (PJ)|
*Latest available data.
**Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import–Export) of secondary energy.
***Solid fuels include coal lignite.
Source: Ministry of Industry and Trade
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
The energy sector was mostly privatized by 2002, though the state still owns about 70% of shares of the Czech Power Company, a.s. (CEZ, www.cez.cz), the major domestic energy production and distribution company. In the long term, state influence in the energy sector is anticipated only in the form of indirect measures (legislation, pricing and taxes), regulating natural monopolies in particular industries and assuring energy security (mainly by management of ownership rights).
The legislative background is as follows:
Act No. 458/2000 Coll. on Business Conditions and Public Administration in the Energy Sectors (Energy Act) establishes a new regulatory regime to regulate business in the electrical power sector. According to the Energy Act, electricity generation, distribution, transmission and trading is subject to licensing. Support for cogeneration of electricity and heat in the form of a duty to buy the produced electricity and in the provision of financial support to electricity production is stated as well. The Energy Act introduces the market environment, opens the electricity and gas markets and establishes relevant institutions: the Energy Regulatory Office (www.eru.cz), the Electricity Market Operator (www.ote-cr.cz) and the State Energy Inspection (www.cr-sei.cz).
Act No. 406/2000 Coll. on Energy Management stipulates the rights and obligations of natural and legal bodies in the management of energy, in particular, electricity and heat, as well as gas and other fuels. It aims to contribute to the economical use of natural resources and protection of the environment, as well as to more efficient use of energy, enhanced competitiveness, and reliable energy supplies and to the sustainable development of society.
Electricity trade is organized and regulated by the Electricity Market Operator, which is a state owned stock company. The key role of the operator is to organize the electricity market and flow of information between the market players.
A regulatory role is performed by two state bodies and the technical status is inspected by the State Energy Inspection, which is the government body that supervises energy facilities.
From an economic perspective, the regulatory function is performed by the Energy Regulatory Office, as defined in the Energy Act. It is the state administrative body appointed by and responsible to the Cabinet. Its operating costs are covered by the state budget approved annually by the Parliament. The general mission of the Energy Regulatory Office is to support economic competition and protect consumers’ interests in the energy sector, aiming to meet all reasonable requirements for energy supply (i.e. electricity, gas and heat supplies).
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
About two thirds of electricity production is concentrated in CEZ, the joint stock company which owns 9 coal power plants domestically, two nuclear power plants (Dukovany and Temelín), 28 hydropower plants, 11 solar power stations and two wind power plants. The remaining electrical power production is provided by plants owned largely by independent producers (e.g. International Power Opatovice, a.s., Elektrárna Kolín, a.s.) or by auto producers in industry and local heat producers (cogeneration), and by regional utilities.
Electricity is distributed (as well as imported and exported) by the Czech electricity transmission system CEPS, a.s. (www.ceps.cz), a state-owned shareholding company which owns and operates the backbone high voltage power transmission system (400 kV, 220 kV and some 110 kV lines) in addition to a dispatching centre.
Electricity distribution to final consumers is provided by three electrical power distribution companies (utilities) — CEZ, a.s., E.ON Distribution, a.s. (www.eon.cz/en) and PRE Group (www.pre.cz/en). Since 2006, a consumer of any size (including households) can select its electricity supplier. The role of former utilities is in servicing distribution lines and providing them to the delivery organization at the cost defined by the Energy Regulatory Office.
1.2.3. Main indicators
Table 3 shows electricity production and installed capacity, and Table 4 energy related indicators. The energy sources for electricity production have been quite stable for several years since the Temelín NPP has been in full operation and the main hydro potential, which cannot be further substantially increased due to physical conditions, has been utilized.
TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND COMPSUMPTION
|2000||2010||2015||2017||Compound annual growth rate (%) 2000 to year*|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GW(e)) Gross||G|
|- Other renewable||0.00||1.73||2.08||2.07||—|
|Electricity production (TWh) Gross||G|
engines and gas turbines
|- Other renewable||0||0.701||2.344||2.297||—|
|Total electricity consumption (TW.h)||57.248||62.547||62.734||35.305||7|
*Latest available data.
**Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
—: not available.
Source: Ministry of Industry and Trade
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||169||180||167||171|
|Electricity production per capita (kWh/capita)||5573||5947||5950||6067|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||16||17||19||21|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||18||33||32||33|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)**||26||30||32||37|
*Latest available data.
**Net import/Total energy consumption.
Source: Ministry of Industry and Trade
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The nuclear power era in the former Czechoslovakia started in the 1950s, and the decision to build an NPP was founded on an established research and development (R&D) capability due to the machinery industry, which had a long tradition of success and a lack of fossil fuels (an absence of significant resources of oil and gas and shrinking coal reserves).
In the 1970s, four WWER-440/213 reactors were built at the Dukovany site. Four units were completed and put into commercial operation from 1985 to 1987. The Soviet design was adopted and Czech industry was gradually involved in the production of almost the whole of the plant equipment, with the exception of fuel and the main circulation pumps. Czech industry also became a supplier of these parts for other Eastern European countries (e.g. 20 reactor vessels were made by Škoda). In the mid-1980s, construction of the WWER-1000 began at the Temelín site. In 1993, the government decided to change the reactor control system and the fuel to meet specific criteria, and Westinghouse was selected as a supplier. The project manufacture of four units was reduced to two units. Finally, at the beginning of the 21st century, the two units were completed and put into commercial operation in 2003.
During the period of economic reconstruction in the 1990s, a lack of demand for nuclear equipment led to a loss of industrial capacity. In the past few years demand was partially renewed for sub-deliveries, mainly for Areva Company for the Olkiluoto 3 (Finland) and Jules Horowitz (France) reactors.
In August 2009, CEZ, a.s., launched a tender for the construction of two more units at the Temelín NPP site (Temelín 3 and 4). Final selection was expected to be made in September 2013, but the decision was delayed and afterward cancelled.
According to the State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic (see www.mpo.cz/dokument155315.html), the primary objectives include: (1) supporting and accelerating the process of negotiating, preparing and implementing new nuclear units at existing nuclear power plant sites with a total output of up to 2500 MW, or annual production of app. 20 TWh by 2030–2035; and (2) creating conditions to extend the lifetime of the Dukovany plant to 50 years and, if possible, to 60 years.
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
The organization of the Czech Government can be seen in Fig. 1. The Ministry of Industry and Trade is a political ministry with the principal responsibility for overall energy policy and support of selected fields. The State Office for Nuclear Safety (SÚJB) belongs to a group of ‘non-political’ offices of the Government alongside, for example, the State Energy Inspection (i.e. these institutions have their own budget not connected to any ‘political’ ministry). Heads of these organizations are appointed by the Cabinet on a professional basis.
FIG. 1: Position of the SÚJB in the state administration.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
In the Czech Republic, there are several reactors in operation (Table 5), including:
Four units operating at Dukovany (WWER-440/V213 type PWRs), with a total installed power of 2040 MWe;
Two units at Temelín (WWER-1000/V320 type PWRs), with a total installed power of 2110 MWe.
TABLE 5. STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
FIG. 2. Map of nuclear power plants in the Czech Republic.
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
In 2015, Dukovany NPP had been in operation for 30 years and Temelín NPP for 15 years. The SÚJB conditionally approved operation of both NPPs on the performance of a periodic safety review to the extent specified in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-2.10(1) on periodic safety review of nuclear power plants. The first review at Dukovany NPP was performed in 2005–2006 and the second in 2013–2014. The results of these reviews served as the basis of an application for a permit for operation after 2015, following 30 years of operation.
In September 2015, CEZ, as the operator of Dukovany NPP, applied for SÚJB’s approval to operate the unit Dukovany-1 to 2025. After implementing all required conditions and in accordance with Atomic Act No. 18/1997, SÚJB issued an operating licence for Unit 1 for an indeterminate period. The new operating licence issued on 30 March 2016 (valid from 1 April 2016) includes almost 99 conditions, which, if not fulfilled, could be a reason to withdraw the licence. The licence imposes on CEZ an obligation to inform SÚJB about operation beyond the scope of the licence to ensure the efficient performance of the state administration as well as the regulatory body. Nevertheless, in connection with the enactment of the New Act No. 263/2016 Coll., Atomic Act, as of 1 January 2017, the validity of the decision issued for Unit 1 operation is limited until 2027.
The application for the licence to continue operation of Dukovany NPP Unit 2 was submitted by CEZ, a.s., on 2 January 2017 and for Units 3 and 4 on 30 June 2017. In accordance with Act No. 263/2016 Coll., Atomic Act, SÚJB issued an operating licence for Unit 2 as of 28 June 2017 and for Unit 3 and 4 as of 19 December 2017, for an indeterminate period.
For more information about upgrades and modernization of both NPPs please refer to the latest Czech Republic National Report under the Convention on Nuclear Safety.
The Post-Fukushima National Action Plan (Rev. 3) was drafted on the basis of the European Union stress tests and provides a new stage of further enhancement of the plant safety levels.
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The updated State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic considers nuclear power to be a feasible and desirable option.
Within the framework of the State Energy Policy, several future considerations are outlined, including: (1) supporting the development of nuclear energy, including a target of nuclear energy to comprise 50% of the amount of electricity generated and maximizing heat supplies from nuclear power plants; (2) supporting and accelerating the process of negotiating, preparing and implementing new nuclear units at existing nuclear power plant sites with a total output of up to 2500 MW, or annual production of approximately 20 TWh by 2030–2035; (3) creating conditions to extend the lifetime of the Dukovany plant (to 50 or 60 years), taking account of technology, safety and security, the economy and European Union rules; (4) scheduling the potential construction of a new block at existing nuclear power plant sites in line with the expected decommissioning of the Dukovany NPP (i.e. after 2035); and (5) making a decision concerning the storage of nuclear waste by 2025.
In addition, the policy recommends making greater use of heat energy produced from nuclear sources to heat large urban agglomerations. If nuclear power were to continue to be used for a long period of time, it would also be necessary to explore and prepare, as needed, sites for future additional nuclear power stations after 2040.
2.3.2. Project management
It is assumed that the delivery of new units will be considered a ‘turnkey’ type project.
2.3.3. Project funding
At the moment, no official plan has been announced.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
The backbone internal electric grid owned by CEPS is adequate for internal transfers. New investments will be oriented mainly towards strengthening the connection of new units.
2.3.5. Site selection
In accordance with the strategic task defined in the updated State Energy Policy, construction of new nuclear facilities in the Czech Republic is desirable. This plan includes immediate preparations for the siting and construction of one nuclear unit at the Temelín NPP site and one unit at the Dukovany NPP site, while protecting against the potential risks by obtaining the necessary permits/licences for the possibility of constructing two units at both sites: Czech Republic National Report under the Convention on Nuclear Safety
2.3.6. Public awareness
CEZ, a.s., initiates efforts on a long term basis to establish friendly and mutually beneficial relationships with the towns, municipalities and populations within the vicinity of the power plants. These relationships are based on mutual confidence and honesty, and the public has an opportunity to ensure that safety is a priority during operation of nuclear power plants in the Czech Republic. Support of the development of nuclear energy in the Czech Republic was 72% after the 2011 Fukushima accident and has since increased to 74%.
In the region of the Dukovany NPP, representatives and residents of municipalities living in the plant’s vicinity and the general public have been allowed to inspect the plant premises, including both spent nuclear fuel interim storage facilities; their questions and comments have been answered. Reliable operation of the Dukovany NPP and the above mentioned activities bring the expected result. A total of 86% of the population within 20 km of the Dukovany NPP supports modernization and long term operation of the Dukovany NPP and 70% is supportive of its development.
The communication strategy of the Communication Division at the Temelín NPP specifies key target groups of the population. The groups are addressed using a broad mix of above the line and below the line communication facilities. The most important group exchanging information on an intensive basis is made up of the mayors of 33 municipalities within 13 km of the emergency planning zone around Temelín NPP. Apart from personal contacts, the power plant organizes 4–6 working meetings annually with the mayors in the presence of power plant and CEZ, a.s., company management. In Melk, the Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic and Austria concluded a general agreement in December 2000 on the exchange of information between both States on the operation of Temelín NPP. A number of expert negotiations took place on the basis of this agreement which are also available in Czech and English on the SÚJB web site: https://www.sujb.cz/mezinarodni-spoluprace/melksky-proces/.
Thanks to these activities, as of October 2016 approximately 53% of respondents to a poll would agree to the construction of a new NPP in the country; this opinion has held steady. According to the respondents, the main issue is the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and fear of increased construction costs if a new power plant is built: https://www.cez.cz/en/power-plants-and-environment/nuclear-power-plants/dukovany/construction-of-new-nuclear-power-sources/attitude-of-the-czech-public-to-nuclear-power.html.
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
Since most of the equipment and all construction parts of both NPPs were produced in the Czech Republic or in Slovakia, involvement of domestic companies is expected. Some of them are listed in Appendix 2.
There are no domestic specialized capacities in the areas of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel processing or heavy water production. The only exception is research in fuel coating and spent fuel processing.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
It is assumed that CEZ, a.s., the operator of both existing NPPs, will operate any new NPP. It is the only organization licensed to operate an NPP.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
The basic obligations of a licensee (as per the Atomic Act, see below) include the obligation to evenly create financial reserves for the preparation and actual decommissioning of nuclear installations. The amount of this reserve shall be established based on the decommissioning technology approved by the SÚJB and based on the estimate of the costs given for decommissioning technology verified by the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA). The method of creating reserves is governed by a separate legal regulation issued by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic. The creation of reserves is controlled by the RAWRA. Monetary reserves for decommissioning are created in compliance with legal regulations for all nuclear facilities operated by CEZ, a.s. The funds for decommissioning nuclear installations are kept in a blocked account and can only be used for preparation and implementation of decommissioning. The preparation of decommissioning documentation is assured by the licensee (CEZ, a.s.). Currently, proposals for the decommissioning method have already been approved for Dukovany and Temelín NPPs and the various spent fuel storage facilities (interim spent fuel storage facility at Dukovany, spent fuel storage facility at Dukovany and spent fuel storage facility at Temelín).
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
Nuclear fuel is supplied to both NPPs by the TVEL Company. In addition, the fuel for the Czech research reactors comes from the Russian Federation. Under the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, research reactors at both the Czech Technical University and the Nuclear Research Institute at Rež, a.s./Research Centre Rež, s.r.o. (Ltd) were converted from the use of highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium (less than 20%); spent fuel from all Czech research reactors was also repatriated to the country of its origin in 2007.
The Dolní Rožínka branch, operated by Diamo, s.p. (the state enterprise), continued selective uranium ore mining in harmony with Czech Government Resolution No. 1316/2005 approving continued mining and processing of uranium at the Rožná deposit until the end of 2008. Czech Government Resolution No. 565/2007 of 23 May 2007 extended the period of permitted uranium mining and processing at the Rožná deposit in the Dolní Rožínka locality for as long as there is an economic benefit, without the need for Czech state budget subsidies. In January 2016, the Czech Government decided to decommission the mine by the end of 2017. To eliminate the consequences of mine activity, mining water was treated in the localities where mines had been terminated. Recently, the main outlets of the Dolní Rožínka branch released about 6.5 million mł of water produced by treating overbalanced water from the tailing ponds of the chemical treatment plant into rivers each year. The outlets of the main abandoned mines, which were closed after surveying and mining uranium, polymetallic ores, coal and lignite, are periodically inspected. The mining, liquidation and remediation works include monitoring their effects on the environment.
The storage of spent fuel is ensured by its originators: CEZ, a.s. (from NPPs) and Research Centre Rež (from its research reactors). The spent nuclear fuel removed from the reactors is stored in a spent nuclear fuel pool (approximately 7–10 years) and then in dry storage facilities (approximately 40–60 years), which are situated at power plant sites.
There are (interim) dry cask-type spent fuel storage facilities at both NPPs. The first interim storage facility at the Dukovany NPP, with a capacity of 600 tonnes of heavy metals, was in operation from 1995 to 2006. The second storage facility at Dukovany, with a capacity of 1340 tonnes of heavy metals (sufficient to cover the remaining production of spent fuel at all four units of Dukovany NPP), was put into operation in 2006. Since 2010, spent fuel storage has also been in operation at the Temelín NPP (with a capacity of 1370 tonnes of heavy metals).
The construction of a deep geological repository is proposed in the Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management in the Czech Republic prepared by RAWRA in cooperation with a number of other organizations and updated in 2017 (an updated proposal for the Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management in the Czech Republic is going to be submitted to the Government in 2019). The concept respects the requirements of the European Council. In compliance with a recommendation contained in these directives and recommendations provided by the Working Group of the European Nuclear Energy Forum (Information and Transparency), discussion is under way regarding implementation of national legislative frameworks in the site selection process. Based on a preliminary timetable, the selection of the final sites is scheduled for 2025; construction of the deep geological repository is scheduled for 2050–2064; the commissioning of the repository is scheduled for 2065.
The issue of reprocessing remains open, but the decision is left to the operator. Basically, a decision to either reprocess or directly dispose of spent fuel (after its conditioning) as waste can be suspended for the time of its storage in the interim storage facility (40 to 50 years).
A shallow land repository for radioactive waste is operated by RAWRA within the Dukovany NPP site. It is designed to accommodate all future low level radioactive waste from both the Dukovany and Temelín NPPs.
A repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste from medical and industrial use is located in an abandoned limestone mine, Richard, near Litomerice in the north of the Czech Republic. It was put in operation in 1964. Another repository, Bratrství, for waste containing natural radionuclides only, is located near Jáchymov in the northwestern part of the Czech Republic and has been in operation since 1974. Repository Hostim, near Beroun, was closed in 1997 and now is monitored by RAWRA.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
Responsibility for research in the area of nuclear energy is divided between the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic and the SÚJB. While the ministry sponsors any general research in the area, SÚJB supports projects aiming to increase nuclear safety.
Most activities in the area of nuclear energy R&D are carried out by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rež, a.s. (founded in 1955); its daughter company, Research Centre Rež, s.r.o. (established in 2002); and the Czech Technical University in Prague.
ÚJP Praha, a.s., performs specialized research into fuel element cladding — it is a successor of the former Nuclear Fuel Institute (ÚJP) established in 1966 as a subsidiary of the state-owned enterprise DIAMO.
Several institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences and other universities such as the Czech Technical University in Prague (Department of Nuclear Reactors) focus their scientific activities on a broad spectrum of issues of nuclear power engineering. They cover theoretical and experimental reactor physics, safety of nuclear facilities or computational tools for nuclear reactor analyses. The Department staff is also concerned with advanced nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycles, spent nuclear fuel, and design and test control and safety systems of nuclear reactors. Finally, the Department members study thermohydraulics of nuclear reactors and thermomechanics of nuclear fuels.
At present, three research nuclear reactors are operated in the Czech Republic. Two experimental reactors are located in the vicinity of Prague at the Research Centre Rež, s.r.o. — LVR-15 and LR-0 — and one training reactor VR-1 is operated by the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
The Czech Republic is an active member of the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), and provided several studies as in-kind contributions in its framework.
The Nuclear Research Institute at Rež, a.s., together with the Research Centre Rež, s.r.o., is engaged in several international research projects under the EU framework programmes on nuclear safety, waste management and other topics in the nuclear field.
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
The Czech Republic has fruitful international cooperation with a number of international nuclear organizations and is a member of a number of international nuclear organizations and associations such as the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA).
Intensive cooperation is carried out within the European Union. The Czech Republic is involved in the development of European legislation in the European Council as well as in the planning and realization of EuropeAid projects under the Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation and Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance.
The SÚJB is a member of the following associations:
Western European Nuclear Regulators’ Association;
WWER Forum (established by the regulatory bodies of countries operating Soviet designed PWRs);
Association of countries with small nuclear programmes.
In the area of safeguards, the Czech Republic is a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the Zangger Committee.
CEZ, a.s., is also a member of the World Association of Nuclear Operators.
Czech scientists take part in research activities organized by international organizations such as OECD/NEA, the Information System on Occupational Exposure, International Nuclear Emergency Exercises, the Incident Reporting System and programmes of the European Organization for Nuclear Research, Dubna and others.
The Czech Republic has concluded agreements to exchange information with all neighbouring states and general cooperation agreements with other countries having a substantial nuclear programme.
The Czech Republic is a member of the international conventions and treaties listed in Appendix 1.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
In the Czech Republic the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is the central authority in education responsible for overall strategy, educational policy and distribution of financial resources from the State budget and introduction of the general scientific research and development policy.
The Czech Republic, a country with developed nuclear energy, dedicates systematic care to educating and training human resources and specialists to ensure provision of reliable operation and manufacturing of various nuclear devices, and carrying out of research and developmental activities.
Basic courses (on the Master’s level) in nuclear physics and its application and engineering are provided at four main universities (Prague: Charles University and Technical University; Brno: Masaryk University and Plzen: University of West Bohemia). These universities also provide postgraduate courses and PhD studies. There are many partial courses on the use of radioactive sources and radiation protection as part of education in chemistry, biology and other sciences.
The Czech Republic continues to implement one ‘national’ project under the IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme — Strengthening Human Resource Capacity, Nuclear Knowledge, Skills Preservation, Supplementary Enlargement of Knowledge and Expertise in Relevant Fields of the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy. The programme focuses on education and improvement of the age structure of various institutions in the field of non-industrial utilization of nuclear energy in the country. Target institutions are hospitals, universities, research institutes and relevant organizations within the state administration; the project is coordinated by the SÚJB.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
Communication of governmental institutions with the public is operated with openness and transparency and is governed by Act No. 106/1999 Coll. on Free Access to Information. In practice, it is implemented using Internet services (www.statnisprava.cz, https://portal.gov.cz www.sujb.cz, www.mpo.cz). An example can be found at www.sujb.cz/elektronicka-uredni-deska/.
Formal communication (content of communications and terms) between the SÚJB and its licence holders and other stakeholders is governed by Act No. 500/2004 Coll., Administration Act. The most important communication between CEZ, a.s., and the SÚJB concerning events at NPPs is governed by the Technical Specification of NPP operation (Limits and Conditions) and by an agreement between CEZ, a.s., and SÚJB.
International communication on emergency matters is governed by the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident. The Czech Republic has also concluded bilateral agreements with all neighbouring states which usually also cover matters related to the exchange of information in case of an emergency and mutual cooperation in the field of peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
Information exchange has a prominent role in relations with Austria and Germany. The respective agreements are formulated very carefully and are followed by several arrangements establishing technical details.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE
The Crisis Management and ICT Department is a technical department responsible for management of radiation in an extraordinary event and is directly managed by the SÚJB chairperson.
The area of emergency preparedness is regulated as a system for managing radiation related extraordinary events and is aligned with the crisis management system of the Czech Republic, while the special regulations necessary for radiation related extraordinary events have remained in effect. Management of radiation related extraordinary events is defined by the individual stages that represent parts of the process. It is a system of procedures to ensure:
Analysis and assessment of impacts of potential radiation related extraordinary events, which means: analysis of radiation related extraordinary events coming into consideration and assessing their impact;
Preparedness for radiation related extraordinary event response;
Radiation related extraordinary event response;
Remedial action after a radiation accident.
The Crisis Management and ICT Department ensures, in particular, (1) approval of on-site emergency plans of nuclear facilities; (2) inspection of management of radiation related extraordinary events at nuclear facilities; (3) participation in inspections at workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation; (4) continuous operation of the centre for the receipt of information in the event of an emergency (www.sujb.cz/en/emergency-preparedness/emergency-response-center/).
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
The SÚJB was established as the Czech Republic’s national regulatory authority in the nuclear safety and radiation protection field on 1 January 1993 by Act No. 21/1992 Coll. The competencies of the former Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission were divided into regulatory activities (nuclear safety and safeguards), which were transferred to the SÚJB, and promotional activities, which were transferred to the Ministry of Industry and Trade. In 1995, the SÚJB assumed regulatory responsibility in the overall area of radiation protection (from the Ministry of Health) and in 2000 and 2002, respectively, extended the scope of its responsibilities to regulation in the area of material and technologies which could be used for chemical and biological weapons (in case of chemical weapons from the Ministry of Industry and Trade). To simplify the inspection process in important mechanical parts in nuclear installations (like pressure tubes or vessels), ‘technical’ safety responsibility in the area was also in 2005 transferred to the SÚJB.
The legal framework of the SÚJB is provided by Act No. 263/2016 Coll., Atomic Act. Other legal documents specifying the powers of the SÚJB are listed in Section 3.2.
The SÚJB is an independent central body of the state administration, with its own budget. It is headed by a chairperson appointed by the Government. The chairperson can, on request, be present at a meeting of the Government. Regulatory decisions of the SÚJB cannot be changed by any other Government body. Directors of sections, directors of departments and heads of divisions, as well as nuclear safety and radiation protection inspectors, are appointed by the chairperson of the SÚJB.
The SÚJB has about 210 employees. Its organizational chart is presented in Fig. 3.
FIG. 3: Organizational chart of the SÚJB.
3.1.2. Licensing process
The licensing process legislative framework is defined by Act No. 183/2006 Coll. on Urban Planning and Building Code (the Building Act), the Atomic Act and their implementing decrees.
In the case of construction of a nuclear installation, the Building Act establishes a three stage procedure for its permitting (site decision, construction permit and final inspection approval). General building authorities exercise the competence of a building office to issue a site decision (siting) pursuant to Act No. 183/2006 Coll. The construction permit and operating licence (permanent operation) are issued by the Department of Planning and Building Control of the Ministry of Industry and Trade. Their resolutions are conditional upon positions issued by specialized regulatory bodies, including the SÚJB. The Department of Planning and Building Control of the Ministry of Industry and Trade can issue the operating licence only with the approval of the municipal department of planning and building control competent to issue the site decision, which verifies observance of its conditions; the approval is not an administrative decision, but can be challenged in revision proceedings.
Moreover every nuclear installation has to undergo a procedure under Act No. 100/2001 Coll., on Environmental Impact Assessment, prior to its construction. A binding opinion is issued as a result of this procedure by the Ministry of Environment.
The Atomic Act establishes how to utilize nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, as well as conditions for the performance of activities related to that utilization. A precondition for the performance of such activities is a licence issued by the SÚJB with an administrative procedure, which is independent of the above described procedure required under the Building Act. The Atomic Act explicitly forbids launching siting, construction, operation and other activities at nuclear installations requiring a licence issued by the SÚJB, before the respective licence becomes legally effective.
Aside from the three stage process mentioned above, the approval procedure also includes a number of other partial licences issued by the SÚJB in accordance with the Atomic Act during different stages of the service life of a nuclear installation.
According to the provisions of Section 5 of the Atomic Act, the licensee shall verify nuclear safety during all stages of the installation’s service life (in the scope appropriate for the particular licences), assess it in a systematic and comprehensive manner from the aspect of the current level of science and technology, and ensure that results of such assessments are translated into practical measures. The verification/assessment shall be documented. The content of the documentation is specified in Appendix 1 to the Atomic Act. A safety assessment is, in compliance with the Atomic Act, reviewed by the SÚJB, both analytically and within its inspection activities.
The implementing decrees complement the Atomic Act to establish basic criteria for the nuclear safety assessment of a nuclear installation during different stages of its service life.
For more information, see the latest National Report of the Czech Republic under the Convention on Nuclear Safety (www.sujb.cz/fileadmin/sujb/docs/zpravy/narodni_zpravy/CZ_NR_2016.pdf).
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The Czech Republic’s legislative framework for nuclear safety and radiation protection is based particularly on the Atomic Act and appropriate decrees of the SÚJB, as well as Government resolutions. The following list contains the complete legislation relating to the responsibilities of the SÚJB, and also includes norms concerning the prohibition of chemical and biological weapons. Both laws and decrees are continuously updated; for the current situation, the public is invited to consult the following web site: www.sujb.cz/en/legal-framework/. It is necessary to note that since May 2004 the Czech Republic has been a member of the European Union and therefore ‘acquis communautaire’, which includes all European Union treaties, legislation, declarations, resolutions, international agreements and more, is also fully applicable in the country.
Act No. 263/2016 Coll., Atomic Act. Nuclear law of the Czech Republic took effect on 1 January 2017: www.sujb.cz/en/legal-framework/new-nuclear-law/.
Act No. 18/1997 Coll., on Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Ionizing Radiation (the Atomic Act) — the part regulating civil liability for nuclear damage is still valid.
Act No. 19/1997 Coll., on Some Measures Concerning Chemical Weapons Prohibition and on Amendments and Additions to Related Acts.
Act No. 281/2002 Coll., on Some Measures Related to Prohibition of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Amendments to the Trades Licensing Act.
Act No. 458/2000 Coll., on Business Conditions and Public Administration in the Energy Industry Sectors and on Amendment to Other Laws (Energy Act).
Decree No. 324/1999 Coll., on Limits of Concentration and Amount of Nuclear Material for which Nuclear Liability Requirements Do Not Apply.
Decree No. 474/2002 Coll., on Some Measures Related to Prohibition of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Amendments to the Trades Licensing Act.
Decree No. 208/2008 Coll., Implementation of the Act on Some Measures Concerning Chemical Weapons Prohibition.
Decree No. 358/2016 Coll., on Requirements for Assurance of Quality and Technical Safety and Assessment and Verification of Conformity of Selected Equipment.
Decree No. 359/2016 Coll., on Details of Ensuring Radiation Extraordinary Event Management.
Decree No. 360/2016 Coll., on Radiation Situation Monitoring.
Decree No. 361/2016 Coll., on Security of Nuclear Installation and Nuclear Material.
Decree No. 362/2016 Coll., on the Conditions for the Award of the Grant from the State Budget in Some Existing Exposure Situations.
Decree No. 374/2016 Coll., on the Accountancy and Control of Nuclear Materials and Reporting of Information on Them.
Decree No. 375/2016 Coll., on Selected Items in the Nuclear Area.
Decree No. 376/2016 Coll., on Dual-Use Items in the Nuclear Area.
Decree No. 377/2016 Coll., on the Requirements for the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and on the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations or Category III or IV Workplaces.
Decree No. 378/2016 Coll., on Siting of a Nuclear Installation.
Decree No. 379/2016 Coll., Concerning the Approval of Some Products in the Field of Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and Ionising Radiation and the Carriage of Radioactive or Fissile Material.
Decree No. 408/2016 Coll., on Management System Requirements.
Decree No. 409/2016 Coll., on Activities Especially Important from Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Viewpoint, Special Professional Qualification and Training of Persons Ensuring Radiation Protection of the Registrant.
Decree No. 422/2016 Coll., on Radiation Protection and Security of a Radioactive Source.
Decree No. 21/2017 Coll., on Nuclear Safety Assurance.
Decree No. 162/2017 Coll., on Requirements for Safety Assessment Under the Atomic Act.
Decrees No. 329/2017 Coll., on Nuclear Installation Design Requirement.
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
Following is the list of international conventions and bilateral agreements signed/ratified by the government of the Czech Republic in the field of nuclear power.
Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency
Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the International Atomic Energy Agency to the Government of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR)
Agreement between the Government of the former Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (historically also referred to as Czechoslovakia or the CSSR) and the Government of Austria on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
Protocol between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Republic of Austria which changes the Agreement between the Government of the CSSR and the Government of Austria on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
Agreement between the Government of the CSFR and the Government of Germany on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
Agreement between the Government of the CSFR and the Government of Hungary on the Issues of Common Interest Related to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Nuclear Energy Field
Amendment to the Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Nuclear Energy Field
Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of Canada on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Slovak Republic on Cooperation in the State Regulation of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Materials
Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of Ukraine on Cooperation in the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Industry
Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, the Russian Federation and the Government of Ukraine on Cooperation in the Transport of Nuclear Materials between the Czech Republic and the Russian Federation over the Territory of the Slovak Republic and Ukraine
Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Republic of Korea for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement between the Government of the CSSR and the Government of the Republic of India on Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement between the Government of the CSSR and the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria on Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement between the Government of the CSSR and the Government of the Socialistic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on Cooperation in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Republic of Poland on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and on Exchange of Information on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection
Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of the Slovak Republic on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident
Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and the Government of Australia on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and Transfer of Nuclear Materials
Agreement between the CSSR and the USSR on Further Extending of Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement on the Application of Safeguards under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
Additional Protocol to the Non-Proliferation Treaty Safeguards Agreement
Agreements/arrangements of ministries and regulatory bodies
Memorandum of Understanding between the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SÚJB) of the Czech Republic and the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) of China for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Nuclear Safety Matters
Agreement between the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (France) and the State Office for Nuclear Safety (the Czech Republic) for the Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Regulation of Nuclear Safety
Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic (SÚJB) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the United States of America (US NRC) for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Nuclear Safety Matters
Implementing Agreement between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety (SÚJB) Relating to Participation in the US NRC Cooperative Severe Accident Research Program (CSARP)
Implementing Agreement between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety (SÚJB) on Application of Thermohydraulic Codes (CAMP)
Statement of Intent concluded between the Minister of Science and Technology of the Republic of Korea on one side and the Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic and the Chairman of the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic on the other side
Agreement on Cooperation in the Area of State Supervision of Nuclear Safety and Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy between the Federal Regulatory Authority of the Russian Federation and the Czech Republic State Office for Nuclear Safety
Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic and the State Commission for Nuclear Supervision of Ukraine on Cooperation in the Area of State Administration and Supervision of Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Uses of Nuclear Energy
Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Safety between the SÚJB of the Czech Republic and the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority
Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic and the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration for the Exchange of Information
Agreement for Cooperation between the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland and the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic
Memorandum of Understanding on Nuclear Cooperation between State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic and the Atomic Energy Council of Taiwan, China
Arrangement between the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic and the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic on the Exchange of Data from the Networks of Radiation Situation Monitoring
Programme of Cooperation between the SÚJB of the Czech Republic and the ÚJD of the Slovak Republic
Administrative Arrangement between the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic pursuant to the Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Czech Republic for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
Agreement between the Committee for Nuclear Energy of the Romanian Socialist Republic and the Federal Committee for Technical and Investment Development of the CSSR
Memorandum of Cooperation of the Association of the State Nuclear Safety Authorities of the Countries Operating WWER Type Reactors
Memorandum of Cooperation of the Forum of the State Nuclear Authorities of the Countries Operating WWER Type Reactors
Protocol on Cooperation between the Interministerial Committee for Nuclear Safety under the Prime Minister of France and the Czechoslovak Federal Government Radiation Accident Commission
Software Licensing Agreement within the Regional Technical Cooperation Program RER/4/012 of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on Nuclear Fuel Modelling for WWER Type Reactors
Software Licensing Agreement between the European Commission, Directorate-General Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements and the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic
Software Licensing Agreement within the PHARE Programme between the European Commission, Directorate-General JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements and the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
Ms. Silvia Habadová
State Office for Nuclear SafetySenovážné námesti 911000 Praha 1Czech Republic
Tel.: (+420) 221 624 770 or 226 514 770Email: firstname.lastname@example.org