PREAMBLE AND SUMMARY
This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Egypt, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Egypt.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy Policy
Egyptian strategy includes the diversification of the energy mix including renewable and nuclear energies, higher energy efficiency, a reform of the electricity and the oil and natural gas markets, and reduction of energy subsidies. It is based on meeting the ever increasing demand on electricity with a high degree of reliability and sustainability in addition to defining follow up energy efficiency programmes in the electricity sector.
The diversification of the energy mix in the electricity sector aims to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, and as a result reducing the production of greenhouse gases, while increasing the share of renewable energy sources and giving a new impetus to start the nuclear electricity programme that was suspended in the 1980s.
In February 2008, the government set an ambitious target of 20% of the electricity production will be due to renewable energy by 2022, a figure which includes existing large hydropower plants. The government launched a nuclear electricity plan in 2007; and the steps for its implementation are ongoing.
The Integrated and Sustainable Energy Strategy, until 2035, seeks to diversify energy sources and ensure energy security and sustainability, as well as setting conditions necessary to support the growth of renewable energy sources with the participation of all sectors. Moreover, Egypt's aspires to become a focal point on the energy map linking Africa, Asia and Europe by strengthening the interconnection of the electricity network in the Arab region and beyond. Egypt possesses many untapped energy resources, such as wind energy and solar energy. The Integrated and Sustainable Energy Strategy, until 2035, indicates that renewable energy should contribute 42% of the total energy capacity by 2035.
The government of Egypt has given special attention to environmental aspects of its energy policy and has promulgated several laws and regulations concerning protection of the environment. Egypt issued an environmental law during 1994. In accordance with the law, the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) was created with the principal functions of development and monitoring of projects and the implementation of pilot projects. Environmental impact assessment must be submitted to EEAA for review and approval before licensing power plants. In addition, the air and water pollution limits pertaining to the power plant projects are established.
1.1.2. Estimated Available Energy
At present, most of Egypt's coal reserves are located in Sinai, with a total reserve potential of 17.6 million tons (estimate made during 2016). As of 2019, Egypt's proven oil reserves were estimated at 400 million tonnes; the country's reserves of natural gas were estimated at about 2.1 trillion cubic meters. Egypt considered the use of nuclear energy; in 2010, the country announced it will revive its civilian nuclear power programme and planned to build a nuclear power station at El Dabaa, which is currently under construction, with participation from the Russian Federation.
Egypt has a high potential to harness solar and wind energy, especially in the Red Sea coast area. Egypt approved a strategy aimed at increasing the contribution of renewable energy to 20% of total energy generated by 2022, where hydropower would represent 6%, wind energy would represent 12%, and 2% would be provided by other renewable energy resources, especially solar energy.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Estimated available energy sources (2019)|
|Total amount in specific units*||17.6 (7)||400||2.1||NA||13.12||4.543|
|Total amount in Exajoule (EJ)||0.5269||16.74||75.6||NA||0.047||0.0164|
* Solid, Liquid: Million tons; Gas: trillion m3; Uranium: metric tons; Hydropower, Renewable: TWh
(1) Coal including Lignite: proved recoverable reserves, the tonnage within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology.
(2) Crude oil and natural gas liquids (oil shale, natural bitumen and extra-heavy oil are not included): proved recoverable reserves, the quantity within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology.
(3) Natural gas: proved recoverable reserves, the volume within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology.
(4) Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) under < USD 130/kgU.
(5) Hydropower: Technically exploitable capability, the amount of the gross theoretical capability that can be exploited within the limits of current technology energy statistics.
(6) Other Renewable includes only the wind and the solar power.
(7) in 2016
1.1.3. Energy Consumption Statistics
The total primary energy production was about 3.05 EJ in 2005, increased to about 3.98 EJ in 2019.
The natural gas production increased from 1.61 EJ in 2005 to 2.34 EJ in 2019, the oil production reached 1.41 EJ in 2019, whereas coal production reached 0.008374 EJ in 2019. Most of the available hydropower energy resources in Egypt are being exploited; the share of hydropower in primary energy consumption reached 0.12 EJ in 2019. Shares of renewable energies increased from 0.0022 in 2005 to 0.023 at 2019 or a compound annual growth rate of 19.79%.
Total final energy consumption was 1777 PJ in 2005 and this figure increased to 2628 PJ in 2019, representing a compound annual growth rate of 3.62 % (Table 2).
TABLE 2. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
|Final Energy consumption [PJ]||2000||2005||2010||2015||2020||Compound
rate 2000-2020 (%)
|Total||1 336||1 777||2 213||2 301||2 480||3.14|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||33||35||22||53||43||1.33|
|Oil||847||971||1 228||1 255||1 181||1.68|
|Bioenergy and Waste||59||60||60||57||66||0.57|
Source(s): United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and Decision Making Process
The principal sources of policy are Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy (MOERE), which holds a monopoly over the distribution, transmission and generation of electricity and the Supreme Council for Energy (SCE), which reports directly to the President. The Electric Utility and Consumer Protection Agency (EUCPA) is the industry watchdog and is responsible for licensing and sector monitoring. While the Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA) is the authority responsible for conducting the regulatory tasks on the nuclear and radiation facilities, activities and practices.
1.2.2. Structure of Electric Power Sector
MOERE is the focal point for five different authorities and one holding company affiliated to the Ministry as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Structure of Egyptian Electric Power Sector
Egypt had approximately 58.818 GWe of installed electric capacities during 2021. Figure 2 shows the distribution of installed capacities by source; the distribution is roughly 90.1% from thermal sources and 4.8% from hydropower sources, which are almost fully utilized. Renewable sources represent about 5.1% of the total.
Figure 2: Total Installed Capacity of 58.818 GW(e) in 2021
More than 99% of the Egyptian population has access to electricity; and the number of customers at all voltage levels increased to 37.9 million customers in 2021 compared to 37.1 million customers in the preceding year at a variation rate of 2.2%.
The Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC) is mainly responsible for system studies and planning for power plants and grid expansion projects. EEHC has 16 companies: six for production, one for transmission, and nine for distribution functions. There is a new electricity law under preparation. According to the new law the drive mechanism of the system will be the Transmission System Operator (TSO). The transmission company will become an independent company, and the EEHC will also be restructured. The role of the electricity regulator will be strengthened, and the market mechanism will move forward.
1.2.3. Main indicators
The average growth rate of the installed capacities is 5.7% per year during the period from 2017-2018 to 2018-2019. In 2021, the total installed capacity reached 58.818 GWe. During 2021, the peak load was reached 31.9 GWe, and electricity consumption per capita was 1513 kWh in 2019.
Total consumption of electricity increased from about 331 PJ in 2005 to 556 PJ in 2019, which is a compound annual growth rate of 4.73 %.
TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
|Electricity production (GWh)||2000||2005||2010||2015||2020||Compound
rate 2000-2020 (%)
|Total||78 143||108 690||146 796||172 827||201 600||4.85|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||0||0||0||0||0||0.00|
|Oil||7 566||14 488||19 782||38 237||23 248||5.77|
|Natural gas||56 743||81 006||112 264||118 819||159 243||5.29|
|Bioenergy and Waste||0||0||0||0||0||0.00|
|Hydro||13 697||12 644||13 046||13 545||12 886||-0.30|
|Wind||137||552||1 498||2 058||4 581||19.18|
Source: United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||3.7||4.35||38.40||38.70|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)||1204||1527||1589||1513|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||11.58||12.67||19.98||18.42|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||0||0||0||0|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)||NA||NA||NA||NA|
Source: IAEA RDS-1 and RDS-2
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT NUCLEAR POWER ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The factors which led the country to promote launching a nuclear power programme are as follows:
Steadily increasing demand for energy and electricity, caused by population growth, urbanization, industrialization, and the desire and intention to improve the conditions and the standard of living of the people;
Inadequate and insufficient proved national primary energy resources, the increasing demand for energy and electricity on a medium and long term basis; as well as limited potable water resources, which will require the utilization of energy desalination technology particularly in remote areas;
Perception of nuclear power as a convenient, economically competitive and viable source of energy which, if introduced in the country, would not only complement the traditional energy sources, but would also promote technological development and serve as an incentive for social and economic progress;
Nuclear power is the best solution to decrease the amount of greenhouse gas emitted.
These reasons have not only retained their validity, but have been reinforced by the developments, which have been taking place.
In compliance with its mission and with the functions assigned by the Government of Egypt, the Nuclear Power Plants Authority (NPPA) has performed a pre-feasibility study for the first Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) to be implemented for the cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water. This study was carried out with technical support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) during the period 1999-2001 and updated in 2007.
The Egyptian nuclear programme started in 1955 and developed through the following:
Table 5: NUCLEAR POWER UNITS UNDER CONSTRUCTION
|ELDABAA-1||PWR||1194||Under Construction||NPPA||JSC ASE||2022-07-20||0|
2.1.2. Current organizational chart
Figure 3: Nuclear organizations in Egypt
2.2. Nuclear power plants: overview
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and license renewals
2.3. Future development of Nuclear Power
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The main decisions that have already been made to construct the first nuclear power plant for electricity generation at El- Dabaa are:
The President announced the strategic decision to start a programme to construct a number of nuclear power plants for electricity generation;
Restructuring the Supreme Council for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Contracting with a consultant for the first Egyptian nuclear power plant;
The Egyptian nuclear and radiation law has been promulgated;
Issuing the executive legislation of the Nuclear and Radiation Law;
Establishment of the Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA);
Signing of an inter-governmental agreement between Egypt and the Russian Federation to cooperate in the building and operating the first nuclear power plant in Egypt with Russian technology;
Starting the negotiations with the Russian Federation to build, operate, supply with fuel, and store spent fuel for a nuclear power plant consisting of four units with WWER type reactors, 1200 MW each;
Signing the EPC contract with the Russian EPC contractor which entered into force on 11 December 2017. The NFS contract, OSM contract and SNFT contract all include detailed technical specifications and requirements and these contracts entered into force on 11 December 2017;
The El-Dabaa NPP Project envisages construction of four units with pressurized water reactors of 1200 MWe power each using the Russian VVER-1200 (AES-2006) design at the El-Dabaa site. The design selected for El-Dabaa NPP belongs to the group of pressurized water reactors (PWR), which are the most common reactor type worldwide;
On 10 March 2019, Site Approval Permit (SAP) for El Dabaa site was issued by the Egyptian Nuclear Regulation and Radiological Authority (ENRRA);
In July 2021, manufacturing of the long lead equipment requiring long production time (the Core Catcher ) has been started.
On 28 February 2022, NPPA obtained the site permit for the spent nuclear fuel storage facility by ENRRA Board of Directors;
On 27 April 2022, the beginning of manufacturing the nuclear reactor vessel, one of the long-lead equipment for El-Dabaa nuclear power plant project.
On 29 June 2022, the Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (ENRRA) issued a permit for the construction of the El-Dabaa NPP Unit 1.
On 20 July 2022, the ceremony marking the pouring of first concrete for Unit 1 of the El-Dabaa NPP, signalling the formal start of construction.
|Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial Year|
|El- Dabaa NPP (Unit 1)||VVER||1200||2022||2028|
Table 7: PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER UNITS
|Expected Construction Start Year||Expected Commercial Year|
|El- Dabaa NPP (Unit 2)||VVER||1200||2022||2028|
|El- Dabaa NPP (Unit 3)||VVER||1200||2023||2029|
|El- Dabaa NPP (Unit 4)||VVER||1200||2023||2030|
2.3.2. Project management
Nuclear Power Plants Authority (NPPA) is the sole utility in Egypt responsible for project management of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants for electricity generation and seawater desalination.
Nuclear Material Authority (NMA) is responsible for exploring the potential of the nuclear ore.
Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (ENRRA) is responsible for the regulation and control of safety, security, nuclear safeguards and emergency of all the nuclear and radiological facilities and activities.
2.3.3. Project funding
The financing of El-Dabaa NPP project depends on a strong support from public and government. The policy in support of nuclear power has been created through:
Activating the role of the Supreme Council for the Peaceful Purposes of Nuclear Energy;
Developing and implementing all the necessary financial plans (including waste and decommissioning).
The Russian Federation will fund approximately 85% of the construction cost of the El Dabaa nuclear power project. It will provide a $25bn loan, under a financing agreement signed between the Ministry of Finance of Egypt and the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation. The loan is repayable over a period of 22 years at an interest rate of 3% a year.
The remaining 15% will be raised by Egypt.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
In the 1980s, NPPA in cooperation with the EEHC carried out a technical study by Swedpower to investigate the interconnection of the first NPP with the Egyptian grid. The grid capacity was less than 15 GW(e) and the new nuclear unit is likely to be the largest unit on the system 1 GW(e).
The outcome of the study indicated that with the planned expansion over a period of 15 years the grid can accommodate four nuclear units of 1GW each at the El Dabaa site without serious implications.
Currently the installed capacity is about 55.818 GW(e) (2021) of installed electricity generating capacity, and the growth in demand for electricity in recent years has been 6% to 8% per year. Egypt adopted an Integrated Sustainable Energy Strategy to 2035, which aims to reach the percentage of nuclear energy contribution to reaching a total installed capacity of 4800 MW(e) in 2035. There is no interconnection problems are expected and a detailed study of the interconnection is in progress.
The site studies and investigations were performed based on local requirements and international practices. The studies then concluded with the selection of the El-Dabaa site.
The El Dabaa site is a coastal site on the Mediterranean Sea (west of Alexandria) which is characterized by low seismic activity.
NPPA performed meteorological, groundwater and marine analyses at the El-Dabaa site in order to provide data for the site evaluation.
In 2009, site evaluation requirements for nuclear installation were issued by ENRRA.
In February 2010, a Site Evaluation Report (SER) was presented by NPPA to ENRRA and in September 2010, ENNRA issued a report stating that there were no exclusionary elements preventing the construction of the NPP at El-Dabaa.
In 2016, ENRRA updated the Site Evaluation Requirements for Nuclear Installation; in 2017 the updated SER and Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIAR) were presented by NPPA to ENRRA. The SER update included revisions following the review of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, revisions to the population distribution and activities around the site, consideration of flooding and consideration of aircraft crashes, as well as data from seismic activity monitoring and oceanographic systems were included.
Nuclear Power Plants Authority (NPPA) completed the required site permit application and submitted it to ENRRA.
ENRRA issued a Site Approval Permit in March 2019 after the completion of the Site and External Events Design Revision Service (SEED) Mission of the IAEA.
2.4. Organizations involved in construction of NPPs
NPPA is the owner/operator and the sole utility in Egypt responsible for the construction and operation of NPPs for electricity generation and seawater desalination. The NPPA works closely with ENRRA and other government ministries and agencies namely Ministry of Finance ( MOF ), MOERE and the National Electric Power Company (the electricity off-taker) to fulfil its mandate.
The Egyptian strategy intends to maximize the effects of the nuclear power plants programme in modernizing Egyptian industries and upgrading several stakeholders through planned increase in local participation in every new plant.
2.5. Organizations involved in operation of NPPs
NPPA will cooperate with the vendor to establish all operation requirements involving the operation and maintenance staff.
2.6. Organizations involved in decommissioning of NPPs
According to Egyptian regulations and requirements, NPPA is responsible for developing the decommissioning strategy to obtain the NPP license.
2.7. Fuel cycle including waste management
In October 2017, the Supreme Council approved the Strategy for Securing Long-term Supply Plans for Nuclear Fuel.
Egypt signed a Nuclear Fuel Supply (NFS) contract with a Russian supplier for the lifetime operation of all El-Dabaa NPP units. The contract ensures the security of fuel supply and includes conditions under which NPPA can purchase fuel from other suppliers.
The supplier will provide its services to NPPA under the NFS contract including nuclear fuel design and in-core fuel management services, as well as ongoing technical assistance and scientific support for various activities related to fuel supply, handling and in-core management, as needed.
Training included in the NFS contract covers areas of in-core management and nuclear design, start-up physics testing, incoming inspection and fuel handling and evaluation of fuel operational data.
Egypt has taken the decision to adopt an open fuel cycle.
Necessary agreements to provide enrichment services will be investigated along with the contracting schemes of the nuclear power plant.
For radioactive waste, on-site storage will be the method adopted, covering the operating life of the plant.
Final disposal (presumably in deep geological formations) will follow international trends and experience.
On 28 February 2022, NPPA obtained the site permit for the spent nuclear fuel storage facility by ENRRA.
2.8. Research and development
2.8.1. R&D organizations
The main research and development organization in Egypt is the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA), which comprises three research centres as indicated in Appendix 2.
Its mandate is to achieve the maximum utilization of the peaceful uses of the atomic energy for the welfare of the Egyptian people from the outset. This covers the fields of health, agriculture, food, industry, environment, and water resources.
Major Research and Development facilities at the EAEA include:
Two research reactors;
Fuel manufacturing plant devoted for the manufacture of fuel for the second research reactor;
The radioisotope production facility;
Two cobalt's radiation facilities;
Liquid radwaste treatment facility.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
2.8.3. International Co-operation and Initiatives
In 2011 Egypt joined the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) and is participating in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Association (INFCA) as an observer.
Under the framework of technical cooperation programmes Egypt and IAEA elaborated an integrated work plan (IWP) for the implementation of technical cooperation projects, identifying experts, tasks, and workshops required by the implementation of the project. The plan included the following areas: project management feasibility study; siting; human resources development; and nuclear security and safety. The active Technical Co-operation Projects are:
|Project No||Project Title|
|EGY0019||Supporting Design and Implementation of High Sensitivity Radiation Monitoring Equipment|
|EGY0020||Establishing a National Training Center and Developing Information and Communication Technology Materials to Build Technical Skills in the Field of Nuclear Science and Technology|
|EGY1025||Implementing a Quality Assurance and Quality Control System for the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) to Assure a Higher Degree of Customer Satisfaction|
|EGY1026||Strengthening the Applications Associated with the Second Research Reactor|
|EGY2011||Separation and Estimation of Valuable Rare Metal during Uranium Ore Processing in the Eastern Desert|
|EGY2012||Developing Human Resource Capacities for the Nuclear Power Plant Project during Contracting and Early Construction Stage|
|EGY2013||Supporting Technological Separation and Purification of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Rare Earth Elements from Minerals|
|EGY2014||Building Capacity for the Nuclear Power Plant Project Construction Stage|
|EGY2015||Developing Project Management for a Nuclear Power Programme During the Construction and Commissioning Phases|
|EGY2016||Supporting a Feasibility Study for Uranium and Rare-Earth Element Recovery from Unconventional Resources|
|EGY4052||Modernization and Improvement of the MGC-20 Cyclotron|
|EGY5026||Establishing a National Reference Laboratory Applying Nuclear/Isotopic and Related Techniques in the Analysis of Food Contaminants|
|EGY6009||Upgrading the National Facility for Radiopharmaceutical Production to Meet with International Quality Standards|
|EGY6010||Introducing Positron Emission Tomography Magnetic Resonance Fusion Imaging|
|EGY6011||Contributing to the Establishment of a Well Equipped National Laboratory for the Quality Control of Radiopharmaceuticals to Enhance the Regulatory Functions of the Ministry of Health|
|EGY7004||Assessing the Recharge Ability of Groundwater Resources in the Highly Mountainous Area in South Sinai under the Prevailing Climate for Sustainable Development in the Utilisation of Groundwater Resources|
|EGY9039||Establishing a National Decontamination Operational Unit for Hot Laboratories and a Waste Management Centre|
|EGY9041||Upgrading and Improving Emergency Response Capabilities of the Atomic Energy Authority|
|EGY9042||Strengthening the Regulatory Inspection of Nuclear and Radiological Installations|
|EGY9043||Strengthening Capacities for Radiological Impact Assessment of Nuclear Facilities Using Modelling and Data|
|EGY9044||Establishing and Upgrading Radiation Protection and Safety Measures for the Egyptian Incinerator for Low Level Radioactive Waste|
|EGY9045||Developing a Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programme for the Radioactive Waste Management Facility|
|EGY9046||Supporting and Strengthening the National Regulatory Body for Reviews, Assessments and Inspection for the Construction of a Nuclear Power Plant|
|EGY9047||Providing Regulatory Control Assistance to the Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority during the Construction Phase.|
|EGY2017||Building Capacity for the Construction and pre-commissioning of the nuclear power plant project|
2.9. Human Resources Development
Egypt has a long experience in the application of nuclear technologies and this expertise provides a good basis for the development of the workforce needed for the nuclear power programme.
NPPA conducted an integrated human resources development (HRD) study in 2011 to determine the skills and knowledge required for the implementation of the El-Dabaa NPP. NPPA revised its HRD plan in 2017 to address the specific staffing needs following the selection of the NPP technology. NPPA has a detailed organizational structure and staffing plan for the El-Dabaa NPP that includes the qualifications and experience required for each position. Depending on that organizational structure, NPPA started the recruitment process for the El-Dabaa NPP project.
ENRRA has performed a self-assessment (SARCON) of the competencies needed to support the nuclear power programme. It has also developed initial job profiles that were reviewed by its TSOs. Once finalized, these profiles will form the basis for the initial staffing plan for the organization for Phase 3 and beyond.
NPPA and its consultant have developed a training programme that consists of several elements, such as, soft skills, Russian and English language, and project management. Specialized courses are also provided in the areas of mechanical, electrical, instrumentation and control (I&C), human resources (HR), and contract management and negotiations. Also, EPC contract provides on the- job training in the areas of design, construction, commissioning, operations and maintenance.
As part of the EPC contract, comprehensive training systems including a training centre with a full scope simulator will be provided by the vendor. The instructors for this centre are anticipated to be nationals.
ENRRA has prepared job profiles for the primary leadership positions in its new organizational structure and initiated a recruitment process for the heads of several departments within the organization (Finance, HR, Legal, Security, Public Relations and International Cooperation) in May 2019.
ENRRA is also developing its training programme. ENRRA 's current training administration will become a separate unit, the Centre of Excellence (COE), which will be responsible for overseeing and delivering training for the entire organization. The COE will report directly to the Vice Chairman of ENRRA and will also be responsible for conducting competency reviews of the staff and evaluating the effectiveness of the training programmes.
ENRRA has developed a Basic Professional Training Programme, which is delivered to all staff of the organization; additional training programmes in the areas of review, assessment and inspection have been carried out through international cooperation.
ENRRA established a Centre of Excellence to ensure a high-quality capacity building programme. In cooperation with the Human Resources Department and TSO, the Centre of Excellence is developing -and implementing a capacity-building program to assist in achieving the strategic objectives of ENRRA. The Centre of Excellence is maintaining a training providers pool consisting of training provided by IAEA, TSOs, national and international experts, and countries with bilateral agreements with Egypt.
In NPPA, an Education and Training Committee was established to integrate the HRD plans of the key organizations.
In 2010, NPPA, together with its consultant, prepared a generic and comprehensive National Human Resources Strategy. This strategy was recently updated by NPPA and is currently under final review by the Education and Training Committee.
Egypt established the El-Dabaa Nuclear Energy Vocational School in 2017. The school is located near the site of the El-Dabaa NPP and is a five-year technical school for post-secondary school students. The first batch of students from El Dabaa Nuclear School has been graduated successfully in 2022.
The first groups of specialists from Egypt 's El-Dabaa NPP began training at the Rosatom 's Technical Academy. The training programme is being carried out in the framework of contracts pertaining to the construction of Egypt 's first nuclear power plant.
2.10. Stakeholder Communication
Communications/public relations specialists need to be a part of the project team. The stakeholders to be addressed are:
Organizations that should participate in development of the strategy and communication plans, and organizations involved in the implementation of these plans;
Affecting and affected stakeholders that should be the target audiences for the communications.
NPPA takes a leading role in the implementation of the NPP project. The main near term actions regarding stakeholder involvement are:
Finalizing strategic goals and the attached action plans with clearly defined role responsibility for each stakeholder;
Implementing a human resources development programme;
Implementing the plans of communication with each of the target audiences;
Establishing a web site on the internet;
Conducting an information campaign to raise awareness of the nuclear programme in order to explain its objectives and plans and to respond to the allegations made by groups opposing the use of nuclear energy.
ENRRA also has its own strategy and communication plans; however, it should coordinate its efforts with those of others.
ENRRA has a strategic goal to continuously improve the engagement of interested parties and public awareness. It has organized workshops to raise awareness about nuclear power and the role of ENRRA for the public and media and maintains its website.
ENRRA has established a Communication Plan to ensure an effective and efficient strategy for partners and stakeholders engagement. Through its Communication Plan, ENRRA seeks to provide information in an open and transparent way about safety and the regulatory measures used to ensure safety to foster better public understanding of, trust in, and confidence in its ENRRA regulatory mandate.
The plan was designed to include various targeted audiences (e.g. the public, nuclear and radiological licensees, academia, Government of Egypt (GoE; ministries, and governorates), as well as tailored communications channels (e.g. ENRA website; signatures of various national memorandums of understanding; various developed promotional and introductory materials, such as posters and brochures). ENRRA issues quarterly and annually reports on the national radiological status to the public and publishes them on its website as well as in the Official Gazette, newspapers, and media.
NPPA has developed a Stakeholder Management Plan that it is currently implementing and updating on a quarterly basis. The plan includes the identification and analysis of the stakeholders related to the El-Dabaa project and provides guidance on the management of these groups.
NPPA has conducted a number of stakeholder involvement and public communication activities and maintains a website that provides the vision and mission of the organization, updates regarding the El-Dabaa NPP, and educational information about nuclear power. The website is also used to issue press releases and other official statements. NPPA has also developed printed outreach materials, including information to educate students, about how nuclear energy can be used to produce electricity. This information is also provided to the general public. The Chairman of NPPA currently serves as the spokesperson for nuclear power in Egypt. The locations for public information centers in Cairo and El-Dabaa have been selected, and NPPA is working with a consultant to finalize the scope and design for both centres.
The Coordination Committee serves as the forum for communication among the various national stakeholders. Additional national coordination occurs through the Education and Training Committee, the Localisation Committee and the International Instruments Committee. These committees provide continuing opportunities for stakeholders from national organizations to discuss their on-going activities, share plans and clarify any questions regarding roles and responsibilities.
In February 2017, a public hearing session was held and attended by more than 1200 individuals. The hearing was part of the EIA process and provided stakeholders with an opportunity to express their concerns and interests related to the project.
2.11. Emergency Preparedness
A- ENRRA Infrastructure Requirements for Emergency Preparedness
The following represents the EPR Regulatory Framework:
The Nuclear Law and its Executive Regulations containing provisions with respect to emergency response requirements relating to nuclear and radiological facilities, activities and practices and clear identification of roles and responsibilities of ENRRA and Supreme Committee for nuclear and radiological (N&R) emergencies related to EPR;
Prime Minister Decree concerning the establishing of Supreme Committee for N&R emergencies;
ENRRA Board Decrees as follows:
The nomination of national coordinator;
The issuance of regulatory requirements for emergency plan;
The issuance of national standards for protecting public and emergency workers in case of nuclear and radiological emergencies.
Guides concerning enhancing the national capabilities were issued. Examples are as follows:
Guide for the content of local emergency plan;
Guide for the content of evacuation plan in case of N&R emergency;
Guide for the specification of new building of El-Dabba hospital to be local hospital for receiving radiation injuries.
B- National System and Coordination Mechanism
The Supreme Committee for N&R emergencies related to EPR has the main responsibility for the management of N&R emergencies;
The coordination mechanism at national level is executed by ENRRA;
The Central Chamber for Nuclear & Radiological Emergencies (CCNRE) provides_24/7 coverage for nuclear and radiological emergencies and is responsible for ENRRA coordination role.
There are various national (memorandum of understandings) MoUs signed between ENRRA and its national counterparts such as the following:
MoU between EAEA and ENRRA describing the role of EAEA as the competent authority in responding to a N&R emergency at the national level and defining respective roles for ENRRA for training etc.
MoU between General Meteorological Authority (GMA) and ENRRA, describing the role of GMA as the competent authority for atmospheric dispersion models and other modeling at the national level and defining respective role for ENRRA for training etc.
EPR Trainings and Workshops: As part of its capacity building activities; there are several organized workshops and trainings for national organizations and first responders related to EPR and they have been conducted periodically by ENRRA from 2014 to the present.
C- EPR Strategies & Plans
The national strategy for Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Preparedness and Response was issued in 2016 and is based on IAEA categorization of hazards.
National Emergency Plan for Preparedness of and Response to N&R Emergencies was issued in 2020 and includes hazard assessments, protection procedures and roles and responsibilities of all relevant organizations as well as other functional and infrastructure and requirements described in IAEA GSR Part 7.
The following plans were also issued:
2016: Plan of Preparedness and Response to Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies Associated with Transport Accidents;
2016: Medical Preparedness and Iodine Tablets Distribution Plan in Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies;
2016: Public Communication Plan in Case of Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies;
2020: National Plan for Evacuation and Accommodation during Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies;
2020: Preparedness and Response Plan for Nuclear Security Events.
D- EPR International Cooperation
Egypt is a member of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency and is registered its national capabilities at Response & Assistance Network (RANET).
The CCNRE is also defined as a contact point between Egypt and IAEA. The Supervisor of CCNRE is nominated as the national officer in International Nuclear Event-Scale-(INES).
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1 Regulatory Framework
3.1.1 Regulatory Authority
In 2012, the Egyptian-Nuclear-and-Radiological Regulatory Authority (ENRRA) was established as an independent regulatory body with an independent budget and is centrally located in Cairo. The head of the ENERRA is the Chairperson of the Board, reports directly to the Prime Minster and is authorized as a Minister.
ENRRA represents the national point of contact for nuclear safeguards, nuclear security, nuclear and radiological emergencies. ENRRA heads the National Supreme Committee for nuclear and radiological emergencies.
ENRRA has the following main responsibilities (Art. 12 of Law No. 7 of 2010):
Issue, modify, suspend, renew, withdraw and rescind all types of licenses for nuclear and radiological facilities and activities, in addition to all personal licenses for the authorized users of ionizing radiation.
Enforce administrative closure of facilities or locations that are using ionizing radiation in violation of the provisions of the law, its executive regulation and decrees executing them.
Issue mandatory regulatory decrees and regulations for licensees, upon necessity, to enhance and ensure the safe and secure practice, without prejudice the conditions of the granted license.
Obtain all documents and information related to activities, which are under its regulatory control, with a commitment to maintain their confidentiality.
Perform regulatory and control duties such as:
Review and assess safety analysis reports, including provided reports by the license /applicant and make appropriate regulatory decisions according to the regulations in force in that field.
Carry out regulatory inspection on all nuclear and radiological practices at all stages.
Setting out regulatory rules for the long-term planning of radioactive waste management and spent nuclear fuel storage sites and subject those sites to its regulatory oversight.
Develop the regulation for justified activities of radioactive sources used in radiating food and beverages, in the cosmetics industry, and any other products made for the human use.
Develop the regulation for the permissible radiation levels in case of import, bring, produce or export of nutrition materials or any other materials for the human use.
Advice on the drafted laws related to the nuclear or radiological activities.
3.1.2 Licensing Process
Upon submitting the required application for granting a licence by the licensee (NPPA) and throughout the licensing process, NRRA's staff will review and assess the application and its relevant safety reports for its completeness and adequacy for the licensing conditions and will make a recommendation to NRRA Board of Directors who will issue the licences. Figure 4 presents the organizations involved in the licensing process of NPPs, which also includes the governmental environmental entities to regulate the environmental aspects relevant to NPP impacts during the licensing process.
Figure 4 Licensing Procedures for Nuclear Power Plants in Egypt
ENRRA has adopted basic safety rules based upon IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards, which establish nuclear regulations, safety criteria, codes, rules and standards required for NPPs. NRRA has made the condition that the proposed plant should be licensable in the vendor's country.
The licensing procedures are divided in to six stages:
Pre-operation testing permit;
Fuel loading and approach to criticality permit;
Law No. 7 of 2010 empowers ENRRA to issue regulations in the following areas:
Safety, security and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons at all the stages of nuclear and radiological installations (siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, closure, decommissioning, site rehabilitation and release from regulatory control);
Safe transport of radioactive materials;
Import and export control of radioactive materials;
Nuclear and radiation activities for various purposes including medical, industrial, agricultural, and research applications;
Spent nuclear fuel storage and management of radioactive wastes, including processing and storage up to the final disposal;
Management of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) which result from extraction of oil and raw materials;
Emergency preparedness and intervention in case of nuclear and radiological accidents;
Manufacture of products and supply of services for nuclear installations;
Any other regulations necessary for the licensing and control of nuclear and radiological facilities and activities.
The executive regulation is dealing mainly with implementation of the Law 7 of 2010 that shall be applied on all nuclear and radiation activities including:
Licensing of nuclear & radiation facilities;
International transportation via air, land, sea crossing of the radioactive substances and wastes;
Import, export, and transport of radioactive sources and substances;
Safe disposal of radioactive wastes;
Nuclear and radiological emergencies;
Nuclear safeguard and nuclear security;
Civil liability for nuclear damages.
Licensing, assessment, inspection and enforcement processes are derived from number of sources, such as:
Law 7 of 2010 and its executive regulation;
Related Egyptian laws;
Regulations issued by ENRRA;
Limits and conditions specified in different licenses;
IAEA safety standards and guides;
Licensing basis approved or accepted by ENRRA;
Licensing documentation produced by licensee/applicant (e.g. safety analysis reports, design documentation, operating and maintenance procedures, radiation protection program, waste management program, emergency plans);
Applicable standards and codes.
The license is granted to legal person after ensuring that safety is achieved and compliance with requirements is demonstrated. As stated in the law, the licensing is divided into six stages (site permit, construction permit, pre-operation testing permit, fuel loading and approach to criticality permit for nuclear reactors, operating license, and decommissioning license).
ENRRA is empowered to request from the application/licensee all documentation needed for the regulatory decision making process on safety related matters. The documentation that needs to be submitted to ENRRA for review and assessment is specified in the executive regulation and regulations issued by ENRRA. Additional support documentation is requested on a case by case basis. In addition to the review and assessment of the documentation, ENRRA verifies the compliance to the regulatory requirements and applicable standards through inspections and conformity assessment processes.
3.2 National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power
Currently, the main national laws and governmental decisions governing the activities in the field of peaceful use of atomic energy in Egypt include the following:
Law No. 131 of 1948, the Egyptian Civil Code;
Law No. 38 of 1967, regulating all the activities of collection, transportation, handling, management and safe disposal of solid waste originating from households, public place, commercial and industrial facilities;
Law No. 124 of 1983, regulating fishing and aquatic life and the regulation of fish farms in the main body of legislation on fisheries;
Law No. 4 of 1994, protection of the environment from the adverse or hazardous materials and hazardous waste including substances that emit ionizing radiation;
Law No. 12 of 2003, (Labor code) Book V on Occupational Safety and Health;
Law No. 119 of 2008, Unified Law on Building in Egypt;
Law No.7 of 2010, regulating Nuclear and Radiological Activities (RNRA) and its amendment;
Law No. 87 of 2015, Egyptian Electricity Law.
Prime Minister Decree No. 338 of 1995, promulgating the executive regulations of the Environmental Law No. 4, 1994 regulating the management of hazardous wastes;
Ministerial Decree No 126 of 2003, notification of accidents and diseases at the workplace;
Ministerial Decree No. 134 of 2003, OSH committees;
Ministerial Decree No 211 of 2003, safety levels, precautions and terms to prevent detrimental physical, chemical, biological and mechanical hazards and securing the work environment;
Ministerial decree No.359 of 2007, the Egyptian Code for steel construction (load and resistance factor design);
Prime Minister Decree No. 1326 for 2011, regarding the issuance of the Executive Regulations implementing the Law on Regulating Nuclear and Radiological Activities;
Ministerial Resolution No. 537 for 2012; Egyptian code for design principles of design and implementation requirements of the water and dump proofing system works in buildings;
Ministerial Decree No. 160 of 2013, Egyptian code for ventilation in building;
Ministerial decree No.578 of 2013, the Egyptian code for the basics of design and conditions for the implementation of acoustics and noise control in buildings;
Ministerial Decree No.532 of 2013, the Egyptian Code for design Bases and Implementation Conditions of Sanitary Fittings Engineering in Buildings;
Prime Minister Decree No. 1767 for 2014, specifying the licenses and permit fees issued by ENRRA pursuant to Nuclear Law No.7 for 2010;
Ministerial Resolution No.152 for 2015, the Egyptian code of fire.
ECP 208 of 2005, Egyptian code for practice for the use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) in the construction fields code design and construction of concrete structure;
ECP 306 of 2005, Egyptian code for improving energy efficiency in building, part II commercial building;
ECP 203 of 2007, Egyptian code for design and construction of concrete structure;
ECP 205 of 2001, Egyptian code for steel construction and bridges (allowable stress design);
ECP 207 of 2015, the Egyptian code for planning, design and construction of bridges and elevated intersections;
SPEC905 for 2016, Egyptian specification for blast resistance buildings.
Nuclear regulations (standards, rules, safety guides)
ENRRA is empowered by Law No.7 of 2010 to develop mandatory regulations in order to detail the general legal requirements, as well as any other regulations necessary to support the licensing and control of nuclear activities. ENRRA has issued regulations in the following areas:
Site evaluation requirements for nuclear installations;
Management system requirements for regulated facilities and activities;
Regulation for the permissible radiation levels in case of import, produce or export of nutrition materials or any other materials for human and non-human use.
Resolution for the financial insurance for licensing the construction or operation of nuclear installation;
Resolution for the financial insurance for licensing the construction or operation of a nuclear power plant.
Nuclear security rules on nuclear materials and radioactive sources categorization;
Security of radioactive materials during transport;
Security of radioactive sources during handling.
Procedures and rules regulating the activities related to nuclear safeguards;
Nuclear and radiological emergencies;
Rules and regulations on nuclear and radiological emergency management.
All regulations and regulatory guides needed for a nuclear power plant during its whole life time are identified and in the process of issuance according to the stages (siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning). Upon ENRRA Board's approval, some of the issued regulations are made available on ENRRA website.
Egypt Information Portal http://www.egypt.gov.eg
The Egyptian Cabinet Information and Decision Support Center http://www.idsc.gov.eg
The Egyptian Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy http://www.moee.gov.eg
The Egyptian Ministry of Petroleum http://www.emp.gov.eg
The Egyptian Ministry of Economic Development http://www.mop.gov.eg
The Egyptian Ministry of Finance http://www.mof.gov.eg
Energy Information Administration (EIA) http://www.eia.doe.gov
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) http://www.iaea.org
Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) http://www.eaea.org.eg
Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (ENRRA) www.enrra.org
Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA) http://www.moee.gov.eg
Nuclear Power Plants Authority (NPPA) http://www.nppa.gov.eg
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
Summary of Egypt's International, Multilateral and Bilateral Treaties, Agreements
|Commitments||Position||Date of enforcement|
|Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty (NPT)||Ratified||26/02/1981|
|The Agreements Between the Agency and States Required in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||Ratified||30/06/1982|
|Vienna Convention on Civil Liability||Ratified||12/11/1977|
|Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and Paris Convention||Ratified||
|Early Notification of Nuclear Accident||Ratified||06/08/1988|
|Assistance in the Case of Nuclear Accident||Ratified||17/11/1988|
|Convention on Nuclear Safety||Signed||-|
|Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, Outer Space and Under Water, Partial Test Ban Treaty||Ratified||10/1/1964|
|Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty||Signed||-|
|African Nuclear Weapon-Free-Zone Treaty (Pelindaba Treaty)||Signed||-|
|Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)||Signed||-|
|International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism||Signed||-|
|Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (ASSIST)||Signed||17/11/1988|
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
Atomic Energy Authority (AEA)
Nuclear Research Center (NRC)
National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT)
Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC)
Address: 3 Ahmed El-Zomor Street, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
Tel. 202 22876033 - 202 22875924 Fax. 202 22876031
The Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA)
Regulating all nuclear and radiation facilities, activities and practices in Egypt
Address: 3 El Huda street, Nassr City, Cairo, Egypt.
Post Code: 11787
Tel :+(202) 22738668
Chairman Fax: +(202) 22740238
Emergency Room : +(202) 22738668
Central Lab. Fax : +(202) 22713212
Licence Fax: + (202) 22740237
Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA):
Research & Development
Exploration & Mining of Nuclear Materials
Address: El Maadi - Kattamiya Road, Cairo, Egypt
P.O. BOX 530, Maadi
Tel. 202 27585831 Fax. 202 27585832
Nuclear Power Plants Authority (NPPA)
NPPs Project implementation
O& M over NPPs Life Cycle
Address: 4, El Nasr Avenue, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
P.O. Box 8191, Nasr City 11371
P.O. Box 108, Abbassia Cairo 11381.
Tel. 202 22616480 - 202 22616483 Fax. 202 22616476
Dr Hesham N. Hegazy
Institution: Nuclear Power Plants Authority (NPPA)