PREAMBLE AND SUMMARY
This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Finland, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs).
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Finland.
Finland has four nuclear power units in operation and is planning expansion of existing programmes; one unit is under commissioning at the Olkiluoto 3 site, with an expected capacity of 1650 MW. The Hanhikivi 1 project has been cancelled by the company Fennovoima Oy. One of the major nuclear projects in Finland is the underground repository for spent fuel, ONKALO, that is being constructed at the Olkiluoto site.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
The objectives of Finland's energy policy are to ensure the security of supply of energy sources; effective energy markets and economy; environmental acceptability and safety. In Finland, supply decisions for energy systems take place at a fairly decentralized level'.'.ith the exception of nuclear power.
In November 2016, the Government's report on climate and energy strategy was issued. The National Energy and Climate Strategy outlines actions that will enable Finland to attain the targets specified in the government programme and adopted in the European Union for 2030, and to systematically set a course for achieving at least an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.
According to the trend outlined in the strategy, the share of indigenous energy, and that of renewable energy, in particular, will increase markedly over current levels. Furthermore, the use of coal in energy production will be prohibited by law in 2029. The share of transport biofuels will be increased to 30%, and an obligation to blend 10% bioliquids into light fuel oil used in machinery and heating will be introduced. The minimum aim is to have 250'.00 electric and 50'.00 gas powered vehicles on the roads.
The electricity market will be developed at the regional and the European level. The flexibility of electricity demand and supply and, in general, system level energy efficiency will be improved.
It is anticipated that the share of renewable energy in end consumption will increase to about 50% and self-sufficiency in energy will increase to about 55%. The share of renewable energy use in transport is expected to exceed the government programme target and the domestic use of imported oil will be halved, as planned. The greatest non-emissions trading system (ETS) sector reductions in emissions will be achieved in the transport sector, and this will be the foundation of the medium term climate policy plan of 2017 .
New energy and climate strategy is being prepared. It will take into account and coordinate the government programme's energy and climate policies, the long- and medium-term climate change policy plans referred to in the Climate Change Act, and the European Union's energy and climate targets for 2030.
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
At present, Finland is highly dependent on foreign energy supplies. Crude oil and oil products constitute a major part of its imported energy. Other main fuels imported to Finland are coal and natural gas. Finland imports all of its oil, natural gas, coal and uranium. The primary indigenous energy resources in Finland are hydropower, wood, wood waste, pulping liqueurs and peat.
Table 1 shows estimated domestic energy sources with certain restrictions. Most presented figures are rough estimates based on eligible energy production in 2020. Fossil fuels here include only peat, as it is the only domestic fossil fuel source available in Finland. Finland's peat resources are abundant, but according to the 2013 Energy and Climate Strategy, peat production in 2020 is projected to be significantly lower when compared with the existing potential. An increase in use of wood chips (total production in 2020 is estimated to be 25'.W'.) in combined heat and power (CHP) applications and in district heat production will partly offset future peat and other fossil fuel consumption. Wind power capacity is based on 2020 estimates, predicting 2500'.W installed capacity and a yearly production of 0.02'.xajoules (EJ) (6'.W'.), while wood based fuels take a share amounting 0.35'.J per year (98'.W'.). Hydropower capacity includes only power and efficiency upgrades of the present capacity; power potential in this area is somewhat larger but only a part of this potential capacity can be harnessed for energy production purposes. The National Energy Strategy 2020 baseline scenario figure for hydropower production is 0.05'.J per year (14'.W'.), while upgrading capacity is estimated to yield around 260'.W. Uranium resources are 15'.00 tonnes (estimated recoverable resources) and include only the Terrafame nickel/zinc mine. Uranium by-production and estimated uranium production of the Terrafame mine could be up to 250'.onnes per annum.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Estimated available energy sources|
|Total amount in specific units*||5.9||0||0||15 800||3.3||n.a.|
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||0.06||0.05||0.37|
* Solid: million tonnes; uranium: metric tonnes; hydro, renewables: GW.
Renewables (for a period of 10 years).
n.a.: Not applicable.
Source: Ministry of Employment and the Economy '.Energy and Climate Strategy 2013 Report,
1.1.3. Energy consumption statistics
Finland's energy mix is diverse and balanced, and many of its power plants can be optimized for up to three different fuels. In 2021 about 2.7 million inhabitants (slightly less than half of the population of Finland) lived in district heated apartments and 56% of all district heat was carbon neutral. In total, CHP covered about 27% of Finland's electricity demand in 2020 [2, 3].
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|Final Energy consumption [PJ]||2000||2005||2010||2015||2020||Compound
rate 2000'.020 (%)
|Total||1 033||1 069||1 116||1 035||1 027||-0.03|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||53||47||45||36||33||-2.35|
|Bioenergy and Waste||188||178||206||227||242||1.27|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Total energy derived from primary and secondary generation sources. Figures do not reflect potential heat output that may result from electricity co-generation.
'. data not available.
Source(s): United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity policy and decision making process
Electricity production is focused on access to sufficient and moderately priced electricity with security of supply while simultaneously supporting other climate and energy policy goals. In the future, electricity sourcing will continue to be based on a versatile system based on several energy sources, diversified thanks to cogeneration of power and heat. Domestic production capacity will provide supply for peak consumption and possible import disturbances.
In constructing its own capacity, Finland will give priority to plants that do not emit greenhouse gases, such as CHP plants using renewable sources, including financially profitable and environmentally acceptable hydro and wind power plants. Furthermore, preparations have been made for constructing additional NPPs.
1.2.2. Structure of the electric power sector
Finland's power system is part of the Nordic power system, connected to the systems in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Moreover, there is a direct current connection from the Russian Federation to Finland, enabling connection between the systems, which also enables power trading across borders. In addition, there is a direct current connection to Sweden under the Gulf of Bothnia, with a link to Estonia. Furthermore, an 800'.W/500'.V direct current electricity transmission connection between Finland and Sweden (Fenno'skan 2) began commercial operation in 2011.
Regional and distribution network activities are the responsibility of the electric utilities, which are licensed to operate their networks by the pertinent authority, Fingrid. Electricity transmission is priced using a so-called point tariff system (postage stamp), whereby the user can procure electricity from anywhere in the country without restriction. The user pays one grid transmission fee at a respective grid connection point, which covers the transmission costs for the use of the entire grid. The producer can feed power into the network using the same payment principle. Meanwhile, grid operators are responsible for operating, maintaining and developing networks. The transmission of electricity over the national grid as well as the boundary interconnections with Norway, Sweden and the Russian Federation are managed by the responsible grid company, Fingrid Plc., which is owned by the two major producers (Fortum and PVO), the Finnish Government and institutional investors.
Finland's power system is widely decentralized and diversely organized. The main types of ownership are: (i)'.artly privatized, State controlled power companies; (ii) industrial companies; and (iii) municipal and other distribution companies. There are about 400 power plants in Finland and about half of these are hydroelectric. Fortum Power and Heat Oy (FPH) is the largest power producer in Finland. The remaining power is produced by local and regional energy companies. In addition, Finland imports electricity from the Russian Federation, Nordic electricity markets and Estonia to satisfy its remaining energy requirements.
Industrial and domestic consumers are free to use the power supplier they prefer. The power industry is covered by the same laws as other commercial activities. Companies are fully responsible for respective economic operations. The main ways government influences energy decisions are through taxes and minor subsidies. Anyone has the right to construct a power station or a transmission line. Obtaining a licence for construction of power plants is needed only for the construction of nuclear and hydropower plants. New power plant projects (nuclear facilities and thermal power plants (>300'.W(th)) and high voltage transmission lines (=220'.V)) need to undergo environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedures.
The Nuclear Energy Act outlines the procedures required for new NPPs, irrespective of private or state ownership. The decision making process for building nuclear facilities is rather complex and requires (besides the normal EIA necessary for major power plant projects) ultimately also the approval of the Decision in Principle (DIP) by the Finnish Parliament. The same is true for other nuclear facilities related to the fuel cycle, such as waste management facilities.
Fortum is a leading energy company in the Nordic countries and other parts of the Baltic Rim. Fortum's activities cover the generation, distribution and sale of electricity and heat, the operation and maintenance of power plants as well as energy related services. Fortum Power and Heat is engaged in nuclear energy activities. In addition to the Loviisa NPP, Fortum owns shares in the Olkiluoto NPP and the Swedish Forsmark and Oskarshamn NPPs. Fortum Corporation was listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange in December 1998. The state presently owns around 51% of its shares. In 2021, the sales of the Fortum Group amounted to about '.12'.00 million. Electricity generation totalled 188.1'.W'. and heat generation 33.4'.W'.. In 2021 the Loviisa power plant produced 8.2'.W'. of electricity, which is 10% of Finland's electricity production. At the end of 2021, the company employed 19'.40 people.
Teollisuuden Voima Oyj
Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) was founded in 1969 by Finnish industrial companies for the purpose of building and operating large power plants. TVO produces electricity at the Olkiluoto NPP in Eurajoki and at the Meri-Pori coal fired power plant. TVO's principal task is to secure economical, safe and environmentally friendly electricity generation for its shareholders at Olkiluoto's current plant units. The power produced by TVO is delivered to the shareholders on a production cost basis (sometimes referred to as the Mankala principle).
Posiva Oy is responsible for the characterization and construction of the site for the final disposal of spent fuel and, at a later date, the operation of the final disposal facility. In addition, Posiva's line of business includes other expert services in the field of nuclear waste management. Posiva is owned by Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat.
1.2.3. Main indicators
The main sources of power production in Finland are thermal, nuclear and hydropower plants. In 2021, the shares of these sources in the domestic power production were 31.3%, 32.9% and 22.5%, respectively. To date, about 11.7% of the total electricity consumption is produced by wind power, although the share of wind power capacity is expanding rapidly. Finland's electricity generation capacity (peak load) totaled about 15'.50'.W at the beginning of 2016. In addition, electricity is imported from the Russian Federation, the Nordic electricity market and Estonia. Table 3 shows information on installed capacity, production and consumption, and Table 4 shows energy related ratios.
TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
|Electricity production (GWh)||2000||2005||2010||2015||2020||Compound
rate 2000'.020 (%)
|Total||69 786||70 334||80 366||68 351||68 723||-0.08|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||13 137||11 688||21 414||8 787||5 180||-4.55|
|Natural gas||10 131||11 231||11 259||5 195||3 991||-4.55|
|Bioenergy and Waste||8 712||9 687||11 188||11 805||12 020||1.62|
|Hydro||14 660||13 784||12 922||16 769||15 883||0.40|
|Nuclear||22 479||23 271||22 800||23 245||23 291||0.18|
|Wind||78||170||294||2 327||7 938||26.00|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
'. data not available.
Source: United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
In Finland, nuclear power production is running constantly as a baseload energy source and load factors are kept on a high level through well planned maintenance.
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Final Energy consumption [PJ]||2000||2005||2010||2015||2020||2021*|
*Latest available data.
Source: RDS-1 and RDS-2
'. data not available
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) has operated a research reactor since'.962. The Loviisa power plant units are located on the southern coast and are owned by FPH; the plants were ordered in 1969 and 1971 and started commercial operation in 1979 and 1981. The Olkiluoto power plant units (owned by TVO), on the western coast, were ordered in 1972 and 1974 and started commercial operation in 1979 and 1982. The Loviisa power plant has two Russian water cooled, water moderated (WWER) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and the Olkiluoto power plant has two Swedish boiling water reactors (BWRs). At the start of operation, the nominal net capacity of each Loviisa unit was 420'.W(e) and the initial net rating of each Olkiluoto unit was 660'.W(e). The power level (net) of the Olkiluoto units was raised to 710'.W(e) in 1984. In connection with the latest operating licence renewal process and plant modernization projects (cf. Section 2.2.2), the authorities approved in 1998 the uprating of the power production capacities (net) of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto plants up to 2'.'.88'.W(e) and 2'.'.40'.W(e). Thereafter, the capacity of the reactor units at Olkiluoto was raised further through various modernization projects. Currently, the net capacity of each Olkiluoto unit is 890'.W(e).
The Olkiluoto 1 and 2 units were ordered on turnkey contracts from ASEA-Atom (now Westinghouse Electric Sweden Ab). TVO was responsible for the second unit's civil engineering systems. In 1993, the containment buildings were retrofitted with a Siemens filtered venting system.
The ongoing Olkiluoto 3 NPP project was ordered as a turnkey delivery from a consortium formed by AREVA GmbH, AREVA NP SAS and Siemens AG. Olkiluoto'. is a European pressurized water reactor (EPR) plant unit; its net electrical output is approximately 1600'.W. The project has suffered from several delays. According to the latest schedule, regular electricity production at the Olkiluoto'. unit will begin in September 2022. On 7 March 2019 the Government granted TVO the operating licence for the Olkiluoto 3 power plant unit. The licence will remain in effect until the end of 2038 .
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
An organizational chart is presented in Section 3.1.2.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
In 2021, 32.9% of the total electricity supply in Finland was produced by nuclear power. Finland's four operating NPP units had a total net capacity of 2794'.W(e) in 2021.
NPP units have operated reliably and complied with existing safety and environmental protection standards. For years, the annual load factor of all units has been around 90%. Table'. shows the status and performance of the NPPs.
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
*Latest available data.
'. data not available.
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
Major modernization, power uprating actions and safety improvements were carried out in connection with nearly all licence renewal processes. Several technical modifications at the plants and thorough updating of the final safety analysis reports were necessary as well. The capacity of NPPs in 1997'.998 was upgraded to a total of 350'.W(e). Thereafter, the Olkiluoto plant units upgraded their capacity by renewing their turbine systems.
In April 1998, the Government granted a licence to uprate the power levels of the Loviisa 1 and 2 plant units. The licence was valid through 2007, and also covered its repository for low and medium level nuclear waste and interim storage for spent fuel, including the necessary expansion of these facilities. The licence for the operational waste repository is valid until the end of 2055.
The operating licences of the Loviisa 1 and 2 reactor units were expected to expire at the end of 2007. Yet, the operating licence application was submitted to the authorities for a regulatory review in the autumn of 2006 and, in July 2007, the Government granted the operating licences for Loviisa 1 and 2 through 2027 and 2030, respectively. Fortum has applied for operating licences for Loviisa 1 and 2 until 2050, after which the units will be decommissioned.
In the late 1990s, the operating licence application for the Olkiluoto NPP was submitted for 115.7% uprated reactor power. The Government granted the licence for the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 units in August 1998 at the uprated power level. Thereafter, the capacity of the reactor units at Olkiluoto was raised to 860'.W(e) each during 2005'.006, through modernization of the high pressure turbines.
TVO also replaced the low pressure turbines of Unit 1 in 2010, raising the output of the reactor unit to'.80'.W. During the 2011 maintenance outage, the capacity of Unit 2 was also raised to 880'.W. After the most recent updates, the capacity of both units has been raised to 890'.W.
In January 2017, TVO filed an application for operating the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 NPPs for an additional 20 years, and the Government granted the operating licence in September 2018. The licence will remain in effect until the end of 2038. However, this requires a comprehensive periodic safety review to be conducted in 2028. With this operating licence the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 units are operated beyond their original designed lifetime.
2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
In 2012, the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland decided to decommission the research reactor (Table 6). As part of the decommissioning process, an EIA was conducted in 2013'.015. VTT shut down the reactor in the summer of 2015.
On 20 June 2017, the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland submitted to the Government a licence application for decommissioning of the FIR 1 research reactor. The Government granted the licence for decommissioning in 2021. Before the licence application was made in 2017, VTT conducted an EIA during 2013'.015 [7, 12].
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
On 6 May 2010, the Finnish Government made two DIPs in favour of the construction of additional NPPs. TVO's application for constructing a new NPP unit, Olkiluoto 4, in Eurajoki, and Fennovoima Oy's application for constructing a new power plant in Simo or Pyh'.oki were both approved. In September 2011, Fennovoima chose Pyh'.oki for its site. The Government gave a negative DIP on Fortum's application for constructing a new NPP unit, Loviisa 3. On 1 July 2010, the Parliament ratified both DIPs. In 2015, TVO announced that it will not apply for a construction licence for Olkiluoto 4. In May 2022, Fennovoima Oy terminated the plant contract and withdrew their construction licence application.
2.2.1. Nuclear power development strategy
According to the Nuclear Energy Act, the Government must consider whether the use of nuclear energy is in line with '.he overall good of society'. In 2010, the two new DIPs for Olkiluoto 4 and Hanhikivi 1 were based on the projected national energy needs in 2008 strategy. In 2016, the renewed Energy and Climate Strategy maintained that a significant part of Finland's increasingly carbon neutral energy production will continue to rely on nuclear power.
2.2.2. Project management
The Ministry of'.conomic Affairs and Employment (MEAE) has supreme command and control of nuclear energy matters. MEAE prepares licence decisions, drafts proposals to improve legislation and steers the planning and implementation of nuclear waste management .
STUK is a supervising authority whose tasks include processing licence applications, supervising compliance with the terms and conditions of the licence and carrying out inspections at the plants. STUK also issues detailed regulatory guides on nuclear safety and supervises compliance with them. STUK also defines the competence criteria for people responsible for nuclear safety.
Many other central government organizations (Ministry of the Environment and Ministry for Foreign Affairs) and regional authorities (regional state administrative agencies and centres for economic development, transport and the environment), as well as the municipalities where nuclear facilities are located, also participate in the supervision of NPPs, as required by Finland's nuclear energy legislation and other regulations .
The management and the organization of an NPP construction project is under the responsibility of the public or private entity that has been granted the construction licence. The organization and the management system have to fulfil the requirements set in the legislation and guidelines given by STUK.
2.2.3. Project funding
Projects are funded by international and private financing. Financing is arranged by the public or private entities constructing the NPP.
2.2.4. Electric grid development
Transmission system operator Fingrid and nuclear power company TVO began preparations to connect the Olkiluoto 3 reactor unit to the national grid. Yet, the connection requires special arrangements, as Olkiluoto 3 will be considerably larger than previous electricity production units when completed, with a rated net capacity of 1600'.W. Finland's power system can withstand the failure of a power plant of 1300'.W. Fingrid and TVO made a preliminary agreement during the planning of the Olkiluoto 3 reactor unit concerning system protection, whereby the reactor unit could be connected to the electricity system. In technical terms, the arrangement means that when Olkiluoto 3 is disconnected from the grid, industrial consumption will be restricted in close to real time so that the disturbance in the electricity system would remain within the allowed 1300'.W limit.
In addition, the electric grid will be strengthened from south to north in order to fulfil all the reliability and capability requirements set for it .
The operating NPPs in Finland are located in two different sites, at Olkiluoto and Loviisa. Both are located on the coast of Finland, Loviisa on the south coast and Olkiluoto on the west coast. Both NPPs use the sea as the ultimate heat sink. Loviisa and Olkiluoto are existing sites with operating power plants and developed transport infrastructure.
It has been determined that the seismic activity is quite low in Finland's site locations .
2.2.6. Public awareness
The public is informed about all phases of nuclear projects on the national and local level. Everyone is able to give their opinion on the projects in question during the public hearing process. Also the positive decision for any licence can be challenged by those who are affected by immediate consequences of the licence and the licensee.
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
Construction of an NPP can be initiated by public or private entities, given a positive EIA and DIP and the acquisition of a construction licence.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
The operation, maintenance and training at Loviisa are carried out by FPH. TVO takes care of the operation and maintenance and the operator training for Olkiluoto.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
No NPP decommissioning has been carried out in Finland so far and the earliest NPP decommissioning is expected to take place in the early 2030s. Nuclear power operators are exclusively responsible for the decommissioning process and the final phase of the NPP life cycle will be funded through the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund. However, the research reactor FIR 1 (TRIGA in Espoo) is now undergoing decommissioning, as VTT applied for a decommissioning licence in the summer of 2017. Decommissioning of FIR 1 will form a model for the bigger reactors. MEAE and STUK are now developing the legislation and other measures based on this project.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
After Finland joined the European Union in 1995, the requirements of EURATOM were adopted and applied to the nuclear fuel supply for Finland's NPPs.
Until the late 1990s, fuel for the Loviisa NPP came from a Russian supplier. Around 2000, the operator FPH started efforts to acquire an optional fuel supplier from other sources.
Uranium fuel for TVO 1 and TVO 2 is sourced from Australia, Canada, China, Niger and the Russian Federation. Most enrichment efforts are sourced from the Russian Federation, with the remainder carried out in Western Europe. Fuel elements delivered to Olkiluoto were manufactured by Siemens in Germany, GENUSA in Spain and ABB Atom in Sweden.
2.7.1. Plans for prospecting and mining for uranium in Finland
Finland's bedrock contains uranium, and its abundance in some areas across Finland appeals to exploring and interested companies. In addition to the licensing based on the Mining Act and on other legislation (e.g. environmental protection, nature conservation, protection of wilderness reserves, land use and building, occupational safety and health, radiation), production of uranium or thorium also requires a licence from the Government according to the Nuclear Energy Act.
MEAE promotes the use of mineral resources by securing a favourable operating environment for mineral exploration and mining activities. An updated Mining Act was accepted by the Parliament on 15 March 2011 and entered into force on 1 July 2011. An amendment of the Nuclear Energy Act was included as well. One of the changes included transferring the duties of the mining authority from the ministry to a lower administrative level, the Safety Technology Authority (Tukes), which is also responsible for granting permits and supervising compliance with legislation.
In the Mining Act of 2011, an exploration licence is required for uranium exploration (e.g. drilling, trenching). Permit applications for a uranium mine under the Mining Act and Nuclear Energy Act are handled jointly and decided on in a single decision by the Government.
The nickel, zinc, copper and cobalt mine in Sotkamo, eastern Finland, operated by Terrafame Oy, is one of the largest sulphide nickel deposits in Europe. The company applies bioheap leaching to extract the metals from black schist hosted ore. Although the average uranium grade is very low (0.0017%), the pregnant leach solution contains 15 to 25'.g/l'., sufficient for exploitation. Terrafame released its plans to build a solvent extraction circuit for by-product recovery of uranium in 2017. Annual uranium production is expected to be about 250'.'.. Proceeding with construction and operation of the uranium circuit requires a number of permits from the regulators. An EIA was completed in March 2011, and in October 2017 Terrafame Oy filed an application for a Government licence for uranium extraction . The Government granted the licence for uranium extraction in February 2020.
2.7.2. Waste management
Spent fuel from operating reactors is stored in the fuel pools at the reactor buildings. Thereafter, spent fuel elements are transferred to interim spent fuel storage at the power plant sites. FPH and TVO are responsible for the management of spent fuel from the NPPs in Loviisa and Olkiluoto. A specialized company, Posiva, which is jointly owned by the nuclear power companies TVO'.60%) and FPH'.40%), is responsible for the necessary research and development (R&D) activities, design and implementation of the spent fuel disposal project of its owner companies.
The repository for medium and low level waste at the Olkiluoto site has been in use since 1992. A similar facility at the Loviisa site has been in use since 1997 for low level waste disposal. The disposal facility at Loviisa has been expanded for disposal of medium level waste as well.
2.7.3. Financial provisions for nuclear waste management
Power companies in Finland pay annual contributions to the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund, which is a segregated fund operating under the auspices of MEAE. This provision covers all future measures: treatment, storage and final disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste, as well as decommissioning of the plants. The power companies contributing to the fund are entitled to borrow back 75% of the contributions against securities.
FPH and TVO are independently responsible for funding all nuclear waste management activities, despite their cooperation on spent fuel disposal. To ensure that the financial liability is covered, each year the utilities must present cost estimates for the future management of nuclear waste. The utilities are obliged to set aside a certain amount of money each year for the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund.
2.7.4. Low and intermediate level waste
After treatment, low and intermediate level waste generated during the operation of an NPP is initially stored at the plant. After interim storage, the waste is transferred to a repository for low and intermediate level waste on the plant site. At Olkiluoto, the disposal of waste in the repository began in 1992, and at Loviisa it began in 1997.
The repositories for low and intermediate level waste are located in bedrock, at a depth of 60'.10 metres. These repositories have separate silos or tunnels for low and intermediate level waste, and have been sized to hold all radioactive operational waste produced during the operative life of the present Olkiluoto and Loviisa units. Once all waste has been disposed of, the tunnels and shafts leading to the repositories will be filled and sealed.
2.7.5. Interim storage of spent fuel
Spent nuclear fuel from NPPs is stored at the power plant sites until its disposal. In addition to the storage pools in the reactor buildings, the Loviisa NPP has basket type and rack type pool storage attached to the reactor building.
At the Olkiluoto plant, the effective capacity (excluding reserves for repair work) of the pools at the reactor buildings is about 370'.'.. Subsequently, the spent fuel is transferred to an on-site interim spent fuel facility. The spent fuel storage facility was initially commissioned in 1987. The construction of the extension of the interim storage facility taking into account the storage needs of Olkiluoto 3 unit was finished in 2013. The current capacity of the interim spent fuel storage is 4300'.'..
2.7.6. Spent fuel encapsulation and disposal facility
The final responsibility for nuclear waste management stays with the company that produced the waste. In 2012, Posiva Oy submitted an application for a construction licence for the encapsulation and geological disposal facility to be located in Olkiluoto. The construction licence was granted by the Government in 2015. Posiva Oy has submitted the operating licence application to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment. The plan is to start the operation of the facility by the mid 2020s.
During their 50 to 60 operational years, the Olkiluoto and Loviisa nuclear power units are expected to produce at a maximum around 4000 tonnes of spent fuel for final disposal. Spent fuel from the Olkiluoto 3 unit during its 60 year operative lifetime is estimated to total around 2500 tonnes. Consequently, the ratified DIPs for spent fuel arising from the operating reactors as well as from the Olkiluoto 3 reactor cover the disposal of 6500 tonnes of spent fuel in the spent fuel disposal facility at Olkiluoto. The encapsulation facility is presently planned to be located at the same location as the underground disposal facility. In the encapsulation facility, the spent fuel rod assemblies are packed into water and airtight double layered metal canisters.
All types of fuel element from the Olkiluoto and Loviisa reactors can be packed in copper/cast iron canisters of a similar construction. The length of the canisters varies according to the fuel element, but the diameter is the same. The canisters will be positioned vertically in the repository at a depth of around 400'.. The canisters are placed in holes drilled at the bottom of the repository tunnels, spaced a few metres from each other and surrounded with bentonite clay. Finally, the tunnels will be filled and the shafts leading to the repository closed. The underground repository will require no monitoring after it has been closed.
Disposal of spent fuel is planned so that retrievability of the waste canisters is maintained at any stage of the process.
2.7.7. Underground rock characterization facility
A deep underground rock characterization and research facility (ONKALO) is under construction at the Olkiluoto site as part of the site confirmation investigations for spent fuel disposal. The excavation work for the ONKALO facility began in September 2004. ONKALO is being constructed at the actual repository site, where the construction and operation of this facility should not cause major disturbances to the properties of bedrock that are important for long term safety. In addition, it should be possible to use ONKALO later as a part of the repository. This means that the construction of the facility must comply with the rules and requirements applicable for nuclear facilities.
The original design and plans for the underground facility were reported in 2003. Since then, a number of changes have been made in the layout of the ONKALO access tunnel, and the number of access shafts was increased from one to three. Also, the layout and the depth of the auxiliary rooms at the main characterization level have been updated to match with the current needs.
The main characterization level is located at a depth of 420'., but some of the auxiliary rooms are deeper, at a depth of 437'. (FIG 1.). The total underground volume of ONKALO will be approximately 365'.00'.3, the combined length of tunnels and shafts being 9.8'.m .
FIG. 1. Overall layout of the facility for underground rock characterization (ONKALO).
2.7.8. Decommissioning: Information and plans
No NPPs are under decommissioning, except for the research reactor FIR 1.
According to the requirements of the Nuclear Energy Act, utilities need to update their technical plans at six'.ear intervals for the decommissioning of operating reactor units.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Finland's nuclear energy research is decentralized among several research units and groups, which operate at different state research institutes, universities, utilities and consulting companies. The focus of nuclear R&D is on the safety and operational performance of the power plants, and the management and disposal of waste. Publicly funded nuclear energy research, on the other hand, provides impartial expertise on nuclear energy issues and contributes to maintaining the necessary personnel and equipment for R&D; this research has also established a framework for international collaboration.
The annual total funding for Finland's research into nuclear fission and fusion energy is estimated to be around '.5 million. Research funds are aimed at ensuring a high scientific/technical level for national safety research and maintaining national competencies. For reactor safety research, the amount of finance is proportional to the thermal power of the licensed plant or the thermal power presented in the DIP application or the construction licence application. For waste research, payments are proportional to the fund targets in the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund. The total annual volume of these research funds for reactor safety and nuclear waste management is almost '. million.
The SAFIR safety research programme provides '.hin coverage'.in all key areas of NPP safety. The Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety is a four year programme funded through the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act to ensure that, should new matters related to the safe use of NPPs arise, the authorities possess sufficient technical expertise and other necessary competencies. Funding for the SAFIR programme comes from the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund.
In the Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management (KYT '.latest KYT2022), restricted activities are carried out in the area of advanced fuel cycle concepts '.primarily the follow-up of research activities on partitioning and transmutation. Based on the initiative of the former Advisory Group on Nuclear Energy, the research network (GEN4FIN) on advanced nuclear energy systems was established in 2005. The aim of this research network is the further promotion of the maintenance and development of national expertise and international cooperation.
SAFER2028 (National Nuclear Safety and Waste Management Research Programme 2023'.028) is a six'.ear technical and scientific research programme. It is a continuation of the series of government-led nuclear safety (SAFIR) and nuclear waste management safety (KYT) programmes. The objective of the programme is to develop and continuously improve nuclear safety and nuclear waste management safety expertise for resolving safety issues relevant to Finland's use of nuclear energy. The programme supports the capturing of knowledge and its transfer between organizations and generations through carrying out internationally high-level multidisciplinary safety research.
2.8.2. VTT Centre for Nuclear Safety
VTT's main research topics are the characterization and fracture mechanics of active structural materials (hot cell), radiochemistry, final disposal of nuclear waste, dosimetry and other nuclear technology experimentation, first wall material research for fusion reactors, and iodine filter testing. VTT's new Centre for Nuclear Safety was built in Otaniemi, Espoo. The Centre for Nuclear Safety houses modern facilities for handling radiation sources, as well as state'.f'.he'.rt technology for studying radioactive materials to improve the safety of NPPs and nuclear waste repositories.
2.8.3. R&D organizations
Finland has no institutes dedicated solely to nuclear energy research. Most research takes place at VTT. Other major research institutes include Aalto University and Lappeenranta Technical University (LUT), the Geological Survey of Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the universities of Helsinki, Jyv'skyl'.and Tampere. In addition, STUK and the power companies Fortum, TVO and Posiva Oy carry out internal research, or finance research at research institutes or universities.
2.8.4. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies
In the area of new generation nuclear reactor systems, VTT participated in the European Union's framework programme projects in the area of new, innovative systems. One example is the past project High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR 1 and 2).
Within the Academy of Finland's Sustainable Energy research programme, a joint effort, New Type Nuclear Reactors (NETNUC), was undertaken during 2008'.011 by a consortium comprising the Finnish technological universities at Lappeenranta and Helsinki (LUT and Aalto University) and VTT. Fortum provided additional funding for this joint project. The research work focused on safety, sustainability and efficiency.
VTT, TVO, Fortum and LUT are partners in the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE-TP). The objectives of the platform coincide with many aspects of the NETNUC project on new types of nuclear reactor. Consequently, SAFIR2014 and NETNUC both contribute to the objectives of SNE-TP, which covers both the present and advanced light water reactors (e.g. EPR) and fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, and is crucial for the long'.erm sustainability of nuclear fuel resources. SNE-TP also covers the production of other energy besides electricity. Consequently, participation in this technology platform ensures close networking with other European stakeholders and research organizations. The NETNUC project is closely connected to European Union projects (e.g. HPLWR2 for the supercritical water'.ooled reactor concept and RAPHAEL for the very high temperature reactor/gas cooled fast reactor concepts) and other global forums. Another important technology platform is the implementation of geological disposal of radioactive waste (IGD-TP). The mission of IGD-TP is to support confidence building in the safety and implementation of deep geological disposal solutions. The vision of IGD-TP is that by 2025, the first geological disposal facilities for spent fuel, high level waste and other long'.ived radioactive waste will be operating safely in Europe.
2.8.5. International cooperation and initiatives
Finland participates actively in international cooperative endeavours regarding nuclear energy. In recent years, the recognition of these trends led to the development of several multinational initiatives, both for research and other purposes. Major initiatives under way include the following:
The Generation IV International Forum, led by the United States Department of Energy;
The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles;
The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership;
The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme;
The Multinational Fuel Assurance Concept, proposed by the IAEA.
At the European level, the Nuclear Illustrative Programme from 2007 underlined the need to develop common instruments within the framework of nuclear safety. The European Commission launched a number of initiatives in the field of nuclear safety, waste management and decommissioning, such as recommendations on the financing of decommissioning activities, the establishment of a Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE-TP) and the establishment of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group, composed of national nuclear regulators, for the further development of a common understanding and European rules in the field of nuclear safety and waste management.
As a result, Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom, establishing a community framework for the safety of nuclear installations, was established in June 2009. In November 2010, the Commission proposed a directive on spent fuel and radioactive waste management. On 19 July 2011, the Council adopted a directive on radioactive waste and spent fuel management, asking Member States to present national programmes and to indicate when, where and how they will construct and manage final repositories guaranteeing the highest safety standards. The safety standards become legally binding and enforceable in the European Union. Member States were to submit the first report on the implementation of their national programmes in 2015.(1)
SNE-TP, launched in September 2007, aims at coordinating research, development, demonstration and deployment in the field of nuclear fission energy. It brings together stakeholders from industry; research organizations, including technical support organizations; universities and national representatives. Regarding joint infrastructure, the recently launched Jules Horowitz Reactor material testing reactor project will, in the short term, support studies on ageing and life extension, safety and fuel performance of Generation'.I and III light water reactors, and support materials and fuel development for Generation'.V reactors. The reactor will be located in Cadarache, France, and VTT will be actively involved in the planning and design of this facility.
SNE-TP's strategic research agenda and deployment strategy reflect a consensus among a large group of stakeholders on research priorities in the field of nuclear fission, addressing the renaissance of nuclear energy with the deployment of Generation'.II reactors and the development of Generation IV systems, both fast neutron reactor systems, with fuel multirecycling for sustainable electricity generating capability, and (very) high temperature reactors for other applications, such as the production of hydrogen or biofuels.
Besides the activities launched by the European Commission, Finnish organizations participate actively in other international efforts furthering the international harmonization of nuclear safety standards. The bases for this harmonization should be enhanced cooperation conducted in association with the follow-up conferences on two important IAEA conventions '.the Nuclear Safety Convention and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management '.as well as the preparation of nuclear safety guidelines and other documents by the IAEA. Other work currently being performed, such as that of the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association, provides a vital contribution. In addition, new initiatives such as the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme, may contribute to the convergence of national regulatory practices.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
The Nuclear Energy Act was amended in 2003 to establish the Nuclear Safety Research Fund, to ensure a high level of national safety research and to maintain national competency in the long run. A Nuclear Waste Safety Research Fund was also established. These funds provide financing for national research programmes on nuclear fission energy.
The national nuclear safety and waste management research programmes have an important role in competence building for all essential organizations involved in nuclear energy. These research programmes have two roles: first, ensuring the availability of experts, and second, ensuring the on-line transfer of the research results to the organizations participating in the steering of the programmes and the fostering of expertise. A key objective of the national research programmes on nuclear energy is to train new nuclear experts to meet the requirements for additional human resources owing to ongoing/future operation of nuclear facilities and the large number of present experts retiring within the next decade. MEAE and STUK have important roles in steering these programmes.
In 2010, MEAE set up a working group to survey the long term needs in the nuclear energy field. The survey was carried out by a broad group of experts. The final conclusion of the working group in 2012 was that there is an increased need for high level and extensive national know-how in companies and research facilities, as well as among authorities. In addition, competency needs in Finland's nuclear energy sector are growing. The competency of the licensees as well as the vendor and main subcontractors is one of the key review areas in the licensing processes for the use of radiation and nuclear energy and during the lifetime of the facilities.
Both TVO and Fortum have a systematic approach to training. However, changes in energy markets and the fast development of technology will bring new challenges to knowledge management, and this requires special emphasis from all parties. There is a basic professional training course on nuclear safety and waste management organized together with the Finnish organizations in the field. The first six'.eek course commenced in September 2003 and the 16th basic professional training course commenced in autumn 2018. So far, about 600 newcomers and junior experts, of whom about 80 were from STUK, have participated in these courses. The content and structure of the courses have been enhanced over the years based on the feedback received from the participants. Training materials that can be used by the organizations in their internal training programmes are being developed as appropriate.
2.9.1. Report of the Committee for Nuclear Energy Competence in Finland
Owing to a planned expansion of the use of nuclear energy in Finland, a comprehensive study was conducted to explore the need for experts and education of experts in Finland to meet the needs of the organizations in the field. The study was published in March 2019 and is available here:
Survey of Competence in the Nuclear Energy Sector 2017'.018 in Finland
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
In Finland, the legislation supports wide and deep stakeholder communication when new nuclear facilities are licensed. EIA and Espoo processes include consultations with stakeholders and the public. All other licensing steps also include extensive statement rounds.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
The licensees for nuclear facilities and use of radiation must prepare for abnormal incidents and accidents with advance plans and necessary arrangements. Currently, STUK monitors the preparedness of the licensees in Finland and issues related requirements and guidelines. In addition, STUK is the national point of contact that receives information around the clock about abnormal incidents or accidents related to the use of nuclear energy and radiation in Finland or abroad.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
General safety regulations are issued by the Government. Detailed regulations and regulatory guides are issued by STUK. The licensing of nuclear installations in Finland (construction licence and operating licence) is the responsibility of the Government. A major nuclear facility also needs a positive DIP by the Government, subject to ratification by the Parliament. Licences for small nuclear facilities (e.g. research reactors with thermal power below 50'.W(e)) are granted by MEAE, which has overall responsibility for control of nuclear energy in Finland.
In Finland, MEAE is responsible for the overall supervision of the use of nuclear energy. The drafting of legislation, the implementation of international agreements in Finland, the supervision of the planning and realization of nuclear waste management, and the administration of the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund constitute a significant part of the ministry's duties in the nuclear field. The ministry supervises R&D carried out in the field of nuclear safety. Its principal objective is to ensure a high level of safety and operating reliability at existing NPPs and to support the safe and appropriately timed implementation of nuclear waste management. The ministry represents Finland within the European Atomic Energy Community, the IAEA, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD, and the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme. The ministry's energy department prepares the Government's and ministry's decrees and decisions on nuclear energy.
STUK is the authority and expert in radiation and nuclear safety in Finland. It interprets requirements set forth by law and supervises implementation. Furthermore, STUK supervises nuclear materials in order to ensure that they are not used for purposes other than peaceful ones. The objective of STUK's activities is to maintain Finland's radiation and nuclear safety at a high level and develop a safety culture in society in general. The power company operating an NPP is always responsible for the plant's safety. It is the duty of STUK to supervise all activities, from the design of plants to their decommissioning; STUK also carried out the national and European Union stress tests in Finland after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP.
STUK also supervises Posiva's research, development and planning for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and the activities of the nuclear power companies in the treatment, storage and final disposal of low and intermediate level reactor waste. In addition, STUK controls the safety of the transportation of nuclear waste and radioactive materials.
STUK operates under the auspices of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The safety authority maintains close contact with MEAE, other government bodies, research institutes, universities and power companies. STUK is assisted by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety in major nuclear safety issues and by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Security.
3.1.2. Licensing process
The decision making process for the construction of a nuclear facility (e.g. a power plant or a final disposal facility) includes several stages (Figs 2 and 3). First, the operator carries out an EIA on the construction and operation of a nuclear facility. Thereafter, the operator files an application to the Government to obtain a DIP on a new nuclear facility. In case the DIP is positively received, in due course the operator applies for a construction licence from the Government. Towards the end of the construction, the operator applies for an operating licence for the facility. After the necessary official statements are received, the Government decides whether to issue such an operating licence. The safety aspects of all the licence applications are then assessed by STUK.
FIG. 2. Licensing stages for nuclear facilities in Finland.
Before the DIP is made, an overall description of the installation, including environmental impacts and safety plans, is made available to the public. Public and local authorities are given the opportunity to present their opinions in a public hearing. If the general prerequisites are met and if the municipal council of the site in question is in favour of the construction of the installation (the host municipality has binding right of veto), the Government may make the DIP. The decision is submitted to the Parliament, which either confirms or rejects it (taking into account political considerations).
The applications for the construction and operating licences are submitted to the Government. The application for a construction licence is more detailed than the application for the DIP and includes safety analysis reports and security plans. On behalf of the Government, MEAE then asks for several statements. The most important is STUK's statement on the safety of the facility. The documents to be included in the construction licence application to be submitted to STUK for approval in this phase are defined in Nuclear Energy Decree '.5. After receiving all statements for the construction licence application, the Government issues its decision.
FIG. 3. Licensing of nuclear facilities in Finland (e.g. NPPs and nuclear waste management facilities).
During its operation, an NPP is subjected to three types of regulatory inspections: periodic inspections, inspections that the operating organization must pass in order to continue operation, and continuous re-evaluation of the safety level of the operating plant. Operating licences are granted for a limited period. When renewing a licence, an overall evaluation of the safety of the plant is carried out by STUK.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The Nuclear Energy Act (990/1987) and the Nuclear Energy Decree (161/1988) grant Parliament final authorization to permit the building of new major nuclear installations, including final disposal facilities for nuclear waste. The act and the decree also define the licensing procedure and conditions for the use of nuclear energy, including waste management, as well as the responsibilities and powers of the authorities.
Since 2008, a few amendments have been made to the Nuclear Energy Act and Nuclear Energy Decree. The latest amendments came into force in the beginning of 2018, and consist of nuclear safety and spent fuel and waste management directives and also improvements to the licensing process.
The detailed licensing requirements for nuclear installations are outlined in the STUK regulatory guidelines. The new set of regulatory guidelines includes more than 40 guidelines in the following eight series: general guides, systems, pressure vessels, civil engineering, equipment and components, nuclear materials, radiation protection and radioactive waste management.
The Radiation Act (592/1991) establishes the conditions for preventing and limiting the harmful effects of radiation on the health of workers and the general public. The latest amendments to the Radiation Act and Decree were made at the end of 2005, to reflect the European Union directive on the control of high activity sealed radioactive sources.
The Nuclear Liability Act (484/1972 and 588/1994) implements the Paris Convention on Third'.arty Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. The amendment of 1994 adopts the Joint Protocol bridging the Paris and Vienna conventions. Amendments approved in 2005 include unlimited financial liability for licensees and a requirement that the licensee acquire insurance to cover damages up to '.00 million, which entered into force in 2012.
The Act on Environmental Impact Assessment (252/2017) provides that EIAs be compulsory for nuclear facilities.
Several other laws under general legislation also affect nuclear power production:
The Electricity Market Act (386/1995) opened up access to distribution networks and allows foreign ownership in electricity supply.
The Act on Competition Restrictions (480/1992) is compatible with the European Commission law on competition.
The Land Use and Building Act (132/1999) requires a land use plan for power plants and other facilities to be built on plant sites and provides guidelines for their planning.
The Environmental Protection Act (527/2000) outlines various requirements relating to environmental protection.
The completely revised Mining Act was accepted by the Parliament on 15 March 2011 and entered into force the same year.
The requirements presented in the Nuclear Energy Act and Nuclear Energy Decree are specified in several general regulations laid down by Government decrees. These decrees cover the following topics:
General safety regulations for NPPs (STUK/Y/1-5/2016);
General regulations concerning physical protection in the use of nuclear energy (STUK/Y/1-5/2016);
General regulations concerning emergency preparedness for NPPs (STUK/Y/1-5/2016);
Safety of the final disposal of nuclear wastes (STUK/Y/1-5/2016).
Government Report on the National Energy and Climate Strategy for 2030, http://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/79247/TEMjul_12_2017_verkkojulkaisu.pdf
Finnish energy, www.energia.fi
Statistics Finland, http://pxhopea2.stat.fi/sahkoiset_julkaisut/energia2017/html/suom0002.htm
Fennovoima, , https://fennovoima.fi/
TVO Oyj, https://www.tvo.fi
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment, http://www.tem.fi/nuclear-energy
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, http://www.stuk.fi
VTT, Decommissioning of FiR 1 nuclear reactor, https://www.vttresearch.com/services/low-carbon-energy/nuclear-energy/decommissioning-of-finlands-first-nuclear-reactor
The Finnish Approach to Seismic Hazard Analysis '.Case Loviisa, http://www.kolumbus.fi/pentti.varpasuo/Sandberg_Paper_Lyon_09.htm
APPENDIX 1. INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
Finland is a Member State of the following intergovernmental organizations:
IAEA (since 1958);
Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (since 1976);
International Energy Agency (since 1992).
APPENDIX 2. MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|Jorma Aurela, Chief Engineer
(1) European Commission information on nuclear energy, waste management: https://energy.ec.europa.eu/topics/nuclear-energy/radioactive-waste-and-spent-fuel_en