ITALY

(Updated 2018)

PREAMBLE

This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Italy, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.

The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Italy.

Italy started having a nuclear programme in the early 1960s with the construction of four nuclear power plants (NPPs) and some fuel cycle research facilities. One additional NPP was under construction in the 1980s and others were planned. However, following the referendum of 1987, which took place in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the decision was taken to stop the nuclear programme and to definitively shut down the operating installations. A referendum was also called in 2011, following the Fukushima accident. On the basis of the result of this last referendum, the government took the decision to stop the new programme, launched in 2009, that aimed to reopen the nuclear option.

As Italy has no nuclear power reactors in operation and is not planning nuclear programmes, its main activities in the nuclear field are related to waste management and decommissioning of existing installations, together with the operation of a few research reactors and the use of radiation sources in medical, industrial and research fields.

1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW

1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION

1.1.1. Energy policy [1]

Italy, relatively poor in conventional energy raw materials, has historically paid great attention to renewable sources, energy efficiency and energy saving as tools to reduce dependence and mitigate the environmental and climatic effects of the energy cycle.

Recent technological progress on renewable sources, means of transport, accumulation systems, energy efficiency and communication technology offers a renewed opportunity to resolve the conflict between competitive prices of energy and support for decarbonization.

With these premises, the Italian energy policy was recently updated by the Minister of the Economic Development and the Minister of the Environment. After public consultation commenced on 12 June 2017, a Ministerial decree was issued on 10 November 2017 for the adoption of the National Energy Strategy for 2030, available on the Ministries’ web sites.

The key themes that have led to the elaboration of a Government proposal for a new national energy strategy are: the country’s increasing competitiveness, owing to its aligning of its energy prices with European ones, improvements in the security of supply and provision, and the decarbonization of the energy system in line with the long term objectives of the Paris Agreement. Already in 1990, the European Union, in An Energy Policy for the European Union, pointed out these three objectives and along these lines it continues to develop its action plan. These actions are slated to continue through 2030, according to the Clean Energy Package, presented in November 2016 by the European Commission. The National Energy Strategy outlines an important milestone and framework for defining a solid foundation to prepare an integrated national plan on energy and climate, as foreseen by the Clean Energy Package.

The Strategy has not included nuclear energy production, and the closed NPPs (about 1400 MW) are in the process of decommissioning, which is being implemented by a state owned company (Società gestione impianti nucleari, SOGIN).

Concerning the first objective, aimed at enhancing Italy’s competitiveness, actions are individuated to narrow cost and price differentials to the benefit of all consumers, to finalize the liberalization processes, and to rely on instruments that protect the competitiveness of energy intensive industrial sectors, while preventing risks of delocalization and safeguarding employment. In particular, price targets aim to narrow the gap between Italian natural gas costs and northern European ones, which amounted to about €2/MWh in 2016, particularly the gaps between Italian electricity prices and average EU ones, which were equal to roughly €35/MWh in 2015 for an average household, or about 25% on average for companies.

With regard to the second objective on sustainable growth, the Strategy sets out objectives and measures to achieve sustainable growth and environmental targets, contributing in particular to a low carbon economy and to the fight against climate change. Renewable resources (RES) and energy efficiency will contribute not only to environmental protection, but also to energy security (by reducing the dependence of the energy system) and economic competitiveness through cost effective pricing of energy. For this objective, strategic actions include:

Further promotion of RES, with a target of 28% final consumption;

  • Support of energy efficiency projects that maximize sustainability, keep system charges low by curbing yearly energy consumption from 2021 to 2030 (10 Mtoe/y by 2030) and allow the achievement of non–Emissions Trading System (ETS) CO2 emission reduction targets, with a particular focus on the residential and transport sectors;

  • Step up decarbonization of the energy system by accelerating the decommissioning of coal-fired thermal power plants by 2025;

  • Increase public resources for research and development (R&D) of clean energy technologies by doubling investments: from €222 million in 2013 to €444 million in 2021.

Concerning the third objective of energy security, the steady improvement of the security and capacity of energy systems as well as the flexibility of gas networks and power grids, will be implemented through:

  • Integration of a growing amount of RES (including distributed ones) and new players, by strengthening and fostering the evolution of networks, grids and markets towards smart, flexible and resilient configurations;

  • Diversification of gas supply sources, to prevent political instability in exporting countries, and further integration into the European markets; in fact, gas will play an essential role in the energy transition, both for electricity generation, services and other uses, including liquid natural gas in heavy and maritime transport.

All objectives will be helped by strengthening innovation and improving governance in the energy sector: the first one is to focus on the priority issues for energy transition and to make spending more effective; the second one requires a more effective role at European tables and a better governance of internal processes.

As an overall result, looking at 2030 the Italian energy system will be even more based on gas and renewable sources, with oil still relevant for transport. This mix convergence will favour convergence of prices.

1.1.2. Estimated available energy

Italy is heavily dependent on imported energy supplies (Table 1). In 2015, the share of imported energy was 76%, but is expected to decrease to 64% in 2030. Renewables are expected to play a key role in the future strategy; already in 2015 they were 17.5% of total final energy consumption and 33.5% of the electricity consumption* (Table 2).

In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world’s largest producers of renewable energy, ranking as the second largest producer in the European Union after Germany and the ninth in the world as well as the world’s fifth largest producer of energy from solar power**.

* SEN 2017; ** IEA, Key World Energy Statistics, 2017.

TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES

Fossil fuels Nuclear Renewables
Solid Liquid Gas Uranium Hydro Other renewables
Total amount in
specific units*
0 81.5 40.5 0 0.0219 0.029

*Solid, liquid: Million tonnes; gas: billion m3; uranium: metric tonnes; hydro, renewable: TW.

Source: World Energy Council, 2016 [2].

1.1.3. Energy statistics

TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS

1980 1990 2000 2010 2015* Compound annual growth rate (%) 2000 to 2015
Energy consumption [EJ]**
Total 6.14 7.18 7.27 6.39 –0.73
Solids 0.61 0.53 0.57 0.52 –0.10
Liquids 3.49 3.64 2.73 2.24 –2.98
Gases 1.63 2.43 2.85 2.31 –0.29
Nuclear**** 0.12 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.28
Hydro 0.11 0.16 0.18 0.16 0.19
Other renewables 0.16 0.28 0.77 0.98 8.29
Energy production [EJ] 1980 1990 2000 2010 2015 Compound annual growth rate (%) 2000 to 2015
Total 1.06 1.18 1.38 1.51 1.56
Solids*** 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Liquids 0.19 0.20 0.24 0.24 1.32
Gases 0.59 0.57 0.29 0.23 –5.46
Nuclear 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Hydro 0.11 0.16 0.18 0.16 0.19
Other renewables 0.16 0.25 0.67 0.87 8.02
Net import (Import–Export) [EJ] 1980 1990 2000 2010 2015 Compound annual growth rate (%) 2000 to 2015
Total 5.33 6.38 6.22 5.09 –0.01

*Latest available data.

**Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import–Export) of secondary energy.

***Solid fuels include coal, lignite.

**** These data come from the “Imports–Electricity” values of the IEA Balance. The nuclear origin of this imported electricity is an approximation of the real mix.

Source: IEA, Italy: Balances for 2015 [3].

1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM

1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process [4]

In 1962, the electric sector was nationalized by Act No. 1643 of 6 December 1962. ENEL (Ente nazionale per l’energia elettrica, Italian Electricity Generating Board) was established to be wholly responsible for electricity production and transmission, and partially responsible for the distribution of electricity.

Over the following three decades, the Italian electricity system — in terms of production, transmission and distribution — was organized along the following model: a large, nationwide company (ENEL); a number of municipal utilities, namely in the large cities such as Rome, Milan and Turin; and a large number of industrial automobile producers.

Starting from the early 1990s, many changes took place in the Italian electricity sector. By Decree No. 333 of 11 July 1992, the Government privatized some state owned industrial and commercial companies. The new companies issued shares for a total value equal to the net fixed assets given in the last balance sheet. The shares were allocated to the Treasury and the revenue obtained by their sale will be used to reduce the national debt and to balance the Government’s books. Thus, in August 1992, ENEL became a joint stock company (ENEL SpA) with its shares in the hands of the Treasury. In November 1995, the law setting up the Independent Regulatory Authority was approved, and the Authority has been operational since the beginning of 1997. In December 1995, the Ministry of Industry issued the new concession to ENEL SpA.

In March 1999, a legislative Decree (the ‘Bersani’ decree) was issued to restructure and liberalize the Italian electricity sector. The purpose of the decree was both to reach a sufficiently large liberalization and to guarantee such general economic interest as, for instance, a universal service, tariff equalization and the development of renewable sources.

According to the Bersani decree, ENEL SpA began a process of complete reorganization. ENEL is now a joint stock company, whose shares of 23.6% are mainly the property of the Ministry of Economy and Finance (former Ministry of Treasury).

The main responsibility for general energy policy lies with the Ministry of Economic Development (MSE), while the Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea (MATTM) is responsible for coordinating climate change policies. Furthermore, the latter body, in coordination with the MSE, is responsible for the promotion and development of renewable energy and for energy efficiency.

The Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MIPAAF) deals with the development and coordination of policy guidelines in the fields of agriculture and forestry at the national, European and international levels. Therefore, it plays a significant role in the bioenergy sector.

The Regulatory Authority for Energy, Networks and Environment (ARERA) has a number of responsibilities regarding renewable energy, such as ensuring fair grid access conditions or allocating support to face renewable energy costs to different consumer groups.

Gestore servizi energetici (GSE) promotes the development of RES and energy efficiency, manages payments of economic incentives, and forecasts and aggregates the production of renewable energy power plants. This also includes the sale of renewable power on the electricity market and supporting policy makers with analysis. GSE is organized as a private company with a sole shareholder, the Ministry of the Economy and Finance (MEF), which exercises its shareholder rights together with the MSE, which is responsible for operational guidelines.

The National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) is a public body supervised by the Ministry of Economic Development in cooperation with other ministries. Its purposes are research, technological innovation and the provision of advanced services in the energy and sustainable economic development sector. The Agency’s main research topics are energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear energy, climate and environment, safety and health and new technologies.

Terna is responsible for high voltage electricity transmission and dispatching throughout the national territory. Like GSE, Terna was established as a result of the liberalization of the electricity market in 1999.

The responsibility for energy policy is shared between the Government and the regions. Legislative Decree No. 112 of 1998 made the regions responsible for the administrative duties relating to energy, including renewable sources, electricity, oil and gas, which were not reserved to the state or assigned to local authorities. Under Constitutional Act No. 3 of 2001, the state has legislative power within the renewable energy sector, while the regions have administrative power.

Figure 1 represents a conceptual diagram of the Italian electricity system [5].

FIG. 1. Conceptual diagram of the Italian electricity system.

1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector [4]

Italy has fully unbundled transmission and generation ownership. Slow growth in net demand as a result of a combination of low economic activity, energy efficiency programmes and an increase in renewable capacity has also contributed to a relative surplus of generation. In spite of that, Italy continues to import significant quantities of lower price energy from abroad.

Though natural gas is the largest single source of generation in Italy, its relative share has been declining in recent years in favour of increased solar and wind power generation. In fact, since 2013, total production from thermoelectric plants (natural gas, coal and oil) has declined, with natural gas and coal production falling significantly. Production from renewables, on the other hand, has increased, even if at a slower pace than in previous years.

The role of natural gas generation in the Italian power mix has changed over time as the amount of solar photovoltaic and wind in the system has increased, which has in turn changed the shape of demand in certain parts of the country by reducing peak load on sunny days.

In terms of installed capacity, ENEL is by far the largest producer of electricity (its share is bigger than the next five companies combined), while the second largest, Ente nazionale idrocarburi (ENI), has only around 5% of the market share.

Italy has very low levels of renewables curtailment, though this could change if the increase in penetration of variable renewables outpaces developments in the transmission and distribution system. Over the past years, Italy has made changes to dispatch operations intended at increasing system efficiency, including the introduction of a mechanism to better measure and more generally enhance the performance of frequency regulation.

In order to maintain sufficient system adequacy, the Ministry of Economic Development was instructed via the 2014 budget law to introduce a capacity system intended to remunerate flexible generation. A ministerial decree, dated 30 June 2014, further outlined the new capacity mechanism requirements; system adequacy will be measured, taking into account: i) grid and cross-border interconnection capacity, ii) active demand side management, and iii) the contribution of distributed generation.

Terna, the Italian transmission system operator (TSO) has primary operational responsibility for electricity emergency response. The electricity distribution networks also have an important role in planning electricity emergency response.

Distribution system operators (DSOs) are required to support the TSO in the event of a network crisis. The growing share of intermittent renewables in the electricity supply requires real time information sharing, robust communication and coordination of real time power system management between the TSO and DSOs Arguably, Italy is moving towards an electricity system in which nodes in the distribution networks need to progressively move from being passive to active players. This means that DSOs need to become increasingly capable of exchanging signals with distributed loads and generators as well as with Terna, in order to maintain voltage and current standards, adequate performance in case of relevant incidents and, in general, the security of the Italian power system.

The nature and volume of emergency and other resources available to Terna and other responsible parties to manage emergency events are set out in the Italian Grid Code.

Over the years, operational procedures for emergency operation enclosed in multilateral procedures have been developed with all neighbouring countries. In particular, bilateral agreements have been signed with all neighbours for mutual emergency assistance service to supply real time service in case of any emergency operation. Written agreements which take into consideration emergency procedures have been concluded with all adjacent TSOs between Austrian Power Grid AG (APG) (Austria), Swissgrid (Switzerland), RTE (France), ELES (Slovenia) and HTSO/DESMIE (Greece).

1.2.3. Main indicators

Italy’s total gross output capacity of electricity generating plants in 2016 amounted to 117.1 GW; the list of different energy sources is given in Table 3. Total gross electricity production in 2016 was 310.2 TWh, including wind and photovoltaic for about 60.9 TWh. High voltage transmission lines, connecting power plants with the distribution system, are mainly based on 380 kV and 220 kV lines.

TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

1980 1990 2000 2010 2015 2016* Compound annual growth rate (%) 2000 to 2016
Capacity of electrical plants (GWe) G
Thermal 30.65 39.12 56.43 78.34 68.6 64.9 0.88
Nuclear 1.47  
Hydro 15.9 19 20.66 21.89 22.6 22.6 0.56
Wind***  
Geothermal 0.44 0.51 0.63 0.77 0.82 0.81 1.58
Other renewables 0.37 9.41 28.05 28.7 31.28
Total 48.46 58.63 78.09 110.41 120.07 117.08 2.56
Electricity production (TWh) G  
Thermal 133.35 178.59 220.47 231.25 192.05 176 –1.40
Nuclear 2.21  
Hydro 47.51 35.08 50.90 54.41 46.97 41 –1.34
Wind***  
Geothermal 2.67 3.22 4.71 5.38 6.2 6.2 1.73
Other renewables 0.6 11.03 37.79 60.9 33.48
Total** 185.7 216.9 276.6 302.07 282.99 284.1 0.17
Total electricity consumption
(TWh)
179.5 235.1 298.5 302.06 316.9 310.2 0.24

*Latest available data. Reference year 2016.

**Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.

*** Wind energy is included in other renewables.

—: data not available.

Source: Terna (https://www.terna.it/it-it/sistemaelettrico/statisticheeprevisioni/datistorici.aspx).

TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS


1980


1990


2000


2010


2015

Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita) 103 108.27 126.2 122.81 104
Electricity consumption per capita (KWh/capita) 3104 4144 5299 5493 5100
Electricity production/Energy production (%)   73.68 84.43 78.7 67.41
Nuclear/Total electricity (%) 1.20 0 0 0 0
Ratio of external dependency (%)**   86.84 88.87 85.46 79.6

**Net import/Total energy consumption.

Sources: Terna; IEA.

2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION

2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

2.1.1. Overview [6]

Italy was one of the first countries to use nuclear technology for civil power generation. The Italian history of nuclear technology development can be split into three major periods:

  1. Pioneering period from 1946 to 1965, during which the private industry played a fundamental role;

  2. Planning period from 1966 to 1987, during which the Government planned nuclear development;

  3. Post referenda period from 1988 onward, which is characterized by the efforts to abandon nuclear energy production.

Pioneering Period

In November 1946, CISE (Centro informazioni studi ed esperienze) was founded, with the participation of the elite post-war Italian industries (Edison, Montecatini, FIAT) and some of the most prominent Italian nuclear scientists. Early on, the purpose of CISE was to lay down the foundations of civil nuclear engineering and, later on, to design a natural uranium fuelled, heavy water moderated nuclear test reactor.

In June 1952, the Government established CNRN (Comitato nazionale per le ricerche nucleari), an agency in charge of developing and promoting nuclear technology. In August 1960, the agency was reorganized and renamed CNEN (Comitato nazionale per l’energia nucleare).

In October 1958, the construction of the country’s first NPP, Latina, began. This 200 MW(e) gas–graphite reactor (Magnox, from magnesium alloy used in the fuel cans) was connected to the electric grid in May 1963. It was ordered by SIMEA, an ENI subsidiary, and contracted from the Nuclear Power Plant Company (NPPC) of the United Kingdom. The UK’s Atomic Energy Authority was to offer support for the safety aspects.

In November 1959, construction work on the Garigliano NPP began. A boiling water reactor (BWR) prototype was ordered by SENN (Società elettro nucleare nazionale) from the International General Electric. In January 1964, the 150 MW(e) Garigliano reactor started operation.

The Trino Vercellese NPP, a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) with two separate turbine systems, was ordered by SELNI (Società elettro nucleare Italiana), a subsidiary of the Edison group. Construction on the 260 MW(e) Trino Vercellese began in August 1961. It entered commercial operation in October 1964.

A general rule, Act No. 1860, to regulate the peaceful use of nuclear energy, was issued for the first time in December 1962. This law assigned CNEN the role of nuclear regulatory body and foresaw the issuance of a subsequent law for radioactive protection of population and workers.

The safety criteria during this pioneering period were adopted from countries exporting nuclear technology (mainly the UK and the United States of America).

In 1962, after a long political struggle, the electric sector was nationalized and ENEL was established as the sole utility.

In February 1964, the Italian Government issued a complete set of regulations, the Decree of the President of Republic (DPR) No. 185/64 to cover in detail the different aspects of nuclear safety and radiation protection. CNEN was confirmed as the official regulatory body. However, this responsibility created an inherent conflict of interest between its role as a public promoter of nuclear technology and as a regulator.

In 1964, the ownership of Latina NPP was transferred to ENEL, and, in 1965, the Garigliano and Trino units were also transferred to ENEL, hence closing the first period of Italian nuclear history.

Planning Period

In December 1966, ENEL announced a huge nuclear programme, forecasting 12 000 MW of nuclear power by 1980. A year later, in 1967, CIPE (Comitato interministeriale per la programmazione economica) — a committee in charge of coordinating the activities of ministries involved in the country’s economic planning and of defining the nuclear programme of ENEL — reorganized the nuclear sector. Among the most important actors (all state owned companies) were:

ENEL, which maintained its position as the sole utility;

  1. ENI, which was in charge of nuclear fuel;

  2. Ansaldo, which was in charge of collaborating with foreign supplier(s) and later became the Italian nuclear components supplier.

In 1967, an agreement was signed by CNEN and ENEL to develop an Italian version of the Canadian CANDU. This reactor type, called CIRENE, was designed to use heavy water as a moderator and boiling water as a coolant. In 1972, Ansaldo got an order to build a 40 MW(e) prototype close to the Latina NPP. CISE actively participated in the design and construction of the CIRENE reactor, which, however, never became operational due to technical problems and the lack of economic resources. Its construction was suspended in 1988.

In 1969, ENEL decided to build a BWR (General Electric BWR 4, Mark 2) on the site of Caorso. One year later, Ansaldo, in a joint venture with GE, officially received the order. The Caorso site construction began in 1970. After several delays in implementing improvements in the suppression pool and bolstering thermal fuel performance, this 860 MW(e) unit finally started commercial operation in 1981.

Following oil crises in 1974, the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Crafts (hereafter referred to as the Ministry of Industry) approved a National Energy Plan that foresaw the construction of 20 NPPs in order to reduce the share of oil in the Italian energy balance. The main effort during that period was to achieve a certain level of technological independence from the United States licenser(s). Political indecision led the industry to spread technical and economic resources over five different reactor types, namely, the GE BWR, the Westinghouse and Babcock PWRs, the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited CANDU, and the indigenous CIRENE.

To attain the goals of the new energy plan, the Italian Government in 1973 joined the Eurodif consortium. AGIP Nucleare, a subsidiary of ENI, and CNEN were in charge of providing the country with enriched uranium for fuel fabrication. Meanwhile, in 1972, Ansaldo — in a joint venture with GE — completed the Fabbricazioni nucleari (Bosco Marengo) to manufacture the fuel elements for the future BWRs. The plant was able to produce 100 tonnes of fuel annually. It started operation in 1976 and has produced more than 500 tonnes of fuel for the Italian nuclear power stations and Leibstadt nuclear power station in Switzerland.

Later, in December 1973, three major European utilities signed an agreement to build a Superphénix, 1200 MW(e) fast breeder reactor in France. A second smaller station was planned in the Federal Republic of Germany. The three original partners were Électricité de France (EDF), ENEL and Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk (RWE). Subsequently, RWE was substituted by Schnell-Bruter Kernkraftwerkgesellschaft (SBK), a joint enterprise of RWE, Belgian and Dutch utilities and, to a lesser extent, the British Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB). Under the terms of this agreement the NERSA company was created in 1974 to undertake the construction of the Creys-Malville station. EDF’s share of NERSA was 51%, ENEL had 33% and SBK 16%. Preliminary work on the Creys-Malville site started in December 1974. The first concrete was laid in December 1976. The reactor began operation in January 1986. Earlier, in 1983, construction had begun in Italy of the PEC (Prova elementi di combustible) plant for testing fast breeder fuel elements. This was intended to strengthen Italy’s participation in the Superphénix venture.

In 1976, Montalto di Castro was selected as the site for two new BWRs (GE BWR 4, Mark 3). The site permit was issued in 1979, exactly one month before the Three Mile Island incident. This, along with the active opposition of environmental movements, delayed the implementation of the energy plan. Moreover, ENEL faced increasing difficulties with its nuclear power stations and conventional power plants with the construction of the transmission system. During the 1980s, the nuclear option became a major political issue, almost completely halting all nuclear activities despite the commitments of several energy plans.

The National Energy Plan of 1982 reflected mixed attitudes. It called for two nuclear units at Montalto di Castro and six other units on three different sites (Piemonte, Lombardia and Puglia). The plan also identified the development of the so-called PUN (Progetto unificato nazionale), a Westinghouse PWR, as the final reactor type for the country. The most important characteristic of PUN design was to standardize nuclear plant design and construction. ENEA (Ente nazionale per la ricerca e lo sviluppo dell’energia nucleare e delle energie alternative), formerly CNEN, was split into two major branches: ENEA, responsible for research and promotion of nuclear technology, and ENEA/DISP, an independently acting nuclear regulatory body.

Post Referenda (Disengagement) Period

In 1986, a few months before the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, CIPE reaffirmed its commitment to the two BWR units at Montalto di Castro and the six PUN type PWRs. However, the impact of the Chernobyl disaster on public opinion was enormous and a general debate on the implications of the use of nuclear energy inflamed the contest in the political arena. In November 1987, three referenda were passed essentially stopping any activity in the nuclear sector.

In December 1987, CIPE halted construction of the Montalto di Castro and Piemonte plants. These were the only two sites where construction work was effectively in progress. A nuclear moratorium period of five years became effective.

In June 1988, the Government ended all nuclear construction. The Caorso reactor, which was shut down in October 1986 for annual refuelling remained in cold shutdown for a complete safety review and assessment. In 1989, an operational safety assessment review team (OSART, under the aegis of the IAEA) inspected the Caorso plant. Despite the positive results of both reviews, CIPE decided in July 1990 to close down the plant. At the same time, the Trino NPP was closed. The remaining units of Garigliano and Latina had already been closed down in August 1978 and November 1986, respectively.

At the same time, ENEA decided to close a number of facilities relevant to the fuel cycle: IFEC (Impianto di fabbricazione elementi di combustibile), EUREX (enriched uranium extraction), ITREC (Impianto di trattamento e rifabbricazione elementi di combustibile) and the plutonium plant at its Casaccia Centre. In fact, Italy is currently inactive in the nuclear energy sector.

Post Referenda Period

In 2009, the Italian Government, with the aim of restarting the nuclear power programme, promulgated Act No. 99, establishing the necessary legislative provisions. Other legislative decrees were subsequently issued or were in preparation, but, after the Fukushima event, the Government decided on a moratorium for the planned programme and consequently changed the new laws. A national public referendum, held in June 2011, showed that Italian citizens did not want to proceed with the construction of new NPPs. It should be noted that, as provided by Article 29 of Act No. 99, a new Nuclear Safety Agency with the role of regulatory body was established. This new agency will be composed by the structures and resources of the nuclear department of ISPRA (Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and by resources from the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). However, since this new safety authority has yet to be fully established, the nuclear department of ISPRA, as described in Section 3.1.1, continues to perform the functions of the regulatory body.

More recently, Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010 establishes a new procedure for the localization and construction of a national repository for low level waste (LLW) disposal and intermediate–high level waste (ILW-HLW) long term storage, and assigns SOGIN responsibility for the construction and operation of the repository. Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010 also assigns SOGIN responsibility for proposing areas suitable for the location of the repository, based upon criteria established by the IAEA and the new national Agency for Nuclear Safety and taking into account results of the Strategic Environmental Evaluation. The steps to take in order to realize a national storage facility, including public consultation, are described, together with the time frames to perform each of them.

In connection with the commitments made in the intergovernmental agreement between Italy and France regarding the return of the waste resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel, Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010, as subsequently amended, establishes all the steps and timeframes, including public consultation, for the siting procedure of the national site for the LLW repository and for the ILW-HLW long term storage. The same decree assigns SOGIN responsibility for the siting, construction and operation of the national repository.

2.1.2. Current organizational structure [7]

In the context of the privatization and liberalization of the electric energy market, and in accordance with Legislative Decree No. 79 of 16 March 1999, all ENEL’s liabilities and assets (and all capabilities and resources) connected to nuclear power were assigned to the newly established company SOGIN, which has been operational since 1 November 1999. Its shares were transferred in 2000 to the Ministry of Treasure (now Ministry of Economy and Finance); however, SOGIN acts according to guidelines issued by the Ministry of Economic Development (MSE, formerly the Ministry of Industry).

The mission of SOGIN covers:

The decommissioning of NPPs in Italy;

  1. The decommissioning of fuel cycle plants, which are the property of ENEA and Fabbricazioni nucleari, but whose licences have been transferred to SOGIN;

  2. The disposal of low and intermediate radioactive waste resulting from past operation and dismantling activities;

  3. The temporary storage of high level waste (resulting from the reprocessing of fuel) and of the non-reprocessed spent fuel.

Authorizations are granted by the Ministry of Economic Development, on the basis of the technical advice of ISPRA, the national nuclear authority.

ISPRA is a technical body governed by public law with operational and administrative autonomy. It is responsible for the regulation and supervision (by inspection) of nuclear installations in the matter of nuclear safety and radiation protection.

The Ministry for the Environment is the authority responsible for determining the environmental compatibility of nuclear projects, including decommissioning of nuclear power stations and other reactors.

2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW

2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants [8]

TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Reactor Unit Type Net
Capacity
[MW(e)]
Status Operator Reactor
Supplier
Construction
Date
First
Criticality
Date
First Grid
Date
Commercial
Date
Shutdown
Date
UCF
for
2017
CAORSO BWR 860 Permanent Shutdown SOGIN AMN/GETS 1970-01-01 1977-12-31 1978-05-23 1981-12-01 1990-07-01
ENRICO FERMI PWR 260 Permanent Shutdown SOGIN EL/WEST 1961-07-01 1964-06-21 1964-10-22 1965-01-01 1990-07-01
GARIGLIANO BWR 150 Permanent Shutdown SOGIN GE 1959-11-01 1963-06-05 1964-01-01 1964-06-01 1982-03-01
LATINA GCR 153 Permanent Shutdown SOGIN TNPG 1958-11-01 1962-12-27 1963-05-12 1964-01-01 1987-12-01
CIRENE HWLWR 35 Cancelled Constr. ENELENEA ANSALDO 1979-01-01 1988-01-01
MONTALTO DI CASTRO-1 BWR 982 Cancelled Constr. ENEL AMN/GETS 1982-07-01 1988-01-01
MONTALTO DI CASTRO-2 BWR 982 Cancelled Constr. ENEL AMN/GETS 1982-07-01 1988-01-01
Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).
Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.

FIG 2. Location of NPPs and other facilities.

2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals

Not applicable. Please refer to Section 2.1.1.

2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process [9]

In 1987, a referendum was held on the use of nuclear energy. The results of the referendum were interpreted as the desire to abandon the use of nuclear energy for electricity production. After a 5 year moratorium, the decision to definitively shut down all Italian NPPs was taken.

Caorso

In November 1986, the plant was shut down. Initially, the decommissioning strategy of a deferred dismantling for a period of 40 to 60 years (SAFESTORE) was envisaged. In 2000, the decommissioning strategy was changed to immediate dismantling due to a new Governmental decision.

All preliminary activities authorized by a specific ministerial decree of 8 April 2000 (turbine dismantling, partial dismantling of RHR building, decontamination of primary circuit, removing of insulating materials, dismantling of off gas systems, shipment of spent fuel to the reprocessing plant) were completed. A new decommissioning licence for the execution of remaining activities was granted in 2014. Civil works for the realization of buffer areas and a waste treatment facility in the turbine building are ongoing, together with preliminary activities for treating spent ion exchange resins abroad and a plan for restructuring temporary repositories for radioactive waste storage.

Trino

In March 1987, the plant was shut down for refuelling, which was completed in about two months. Then the plant was left in cold shutdown. The plant was in cold shutdown until 1992, when it was defuelled.

A number of systems in the conventional area have been partially or entirely dismantled or removed; the following main activities have already been performed:

Dismantling of cooling towers (1999–2003);

  • Dismantling of emergency diesel generators and demolition of the diesel building (2003);

  • Decontaminating the primary circuit (2004);

  • Dismantling of the thermal cycle (2001–2005);

  • Dismantling of dam (2005);

  • Removal of hazardous waste from controlled and conventional areas, in particular of insulation materials containing asbestos (1999–2008);

  • Removal of spent fuel (2015);

  • Removal of components from the radwaste building (2015);

  • Removal of non-contaminated components from the controlled area, in particular from auxiliary buildings and reactor building (2010–2016);

  • Refurbishment of the test tank building (2016);

  • Dismantling of the ECCS tanks and other components (2016).

On 2 August 2012, the ministerial authorization for final decommissioning was issued and in September 2015 all the spent fuel still on site was shipped to a reprocessing plant in France.

Non-contaminated materials and systems in controlled areas have been dismantled and partially sent to the final characterization in order to release them.

Some of the main constraints reported in the decommissioning licence require the availability of storage buildings, treatment and conditioning facilities and of a suitable radwaste system to manage waste and liquid effluents before starting decommissioning activities:

Refurbishment of the on-site temporary storage buildings (D1 and D2);

  • Alternative radwaste system (ARWS);

  • Materials management station (MMS);

  • Cementation station (CS);

  • Primary system (PS) dismantling;

  • Vessel and internals dismantling.

The new company strategy, reviewed in 2017, aims at anticipating some activities concerning the reactor pressure vessel and its internal structures. The final design phase is ongoing.

Garigliano

In August 1978, the plant was shut down for a crack in one of the secondary steam generators. After a number of technical analyses and following the 1980 earthquake, new safety margins were required. For economic reasons, in 1982 it was decided to close the plant and begin studies for decommissioning (SAFESTORE).

All activities for safe storage condition of the nuclear island have been performed, including sealing the reactor building and installing a new passive ventilation system. After the change of strategy, retrieval and treatment of the previously buried dry active waste (DAW) is ongoing. The procedure for granting the new decommissioning licence is also ongoing. On 28 September 2012, the ministerial authorization for final decommissioning was issued. The main decommissioning projects are: adaptation of the present radioactive waste deposits, waste management facility, dismantling of the primary circuit and vessel, final remediation of the site and demolition of the off-gas chimney.

Latina

In November 1986, the plant was shut down for planned maintenance. In 1987, following the referendum, the plant was taken out of service by a governmental decision.

Almost all activities for safe storage condition of the nuclear island had been performed, according to the previously selected strategy (SAFESTORE).

The issuance of the Authorization Decree for the Prompt Decommissioning of Latina NPP (1st phase) by the Ministry for Economic Development (formerly of Productive Activities) is currently pending.

At present, the status of decommissioning activities is as follows:

Clean up and decontamination operations on pond — Step 1: Big components removal.

  • Dismantling of upper ducts of the primary system.

  • Demolition of turbine building.

  • Demolition of the jetty linked to sea pumps.

  • Construction of a new LLW temporary repository.

  • Dismantling of primary coolant circuit blowers’ shell.

Ongoing activities:

Laboratories renovation.

  • Clean up and decontamination operations on pond — Step 2: Radioactive parts removal and sludge transfer.

  • Extracting and conditioning sludge system (LECO).

TABLE 6. STATUS OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Reactor unit Shutdown reason Decommission strategy Current decommissioning phase Current fuel management phase Decommissioning licensee Licence termination year
Latina Public acceptance or political reasons
Others
Immediate dismantling and removal of all radioactive materials Waste conditioning on-site — only for decommissioning waste. Final dismantling SOGIN 2042
Garigliano Changes in licensing requirements after an operating incident Immediate dismantling and removal of all radioactive materials Waste conditioning on-site — only for decommissioning waste. Partial dismantling. Final dismantling SOGIN 2033
Trino Vercellese — Enrico Fermi Public acceptance or political reasons
Others
Immediate dismantling and removal of all radioactive materials Waste conditioning on-site — only for decommissioning waste. Waste shipment off-site — only for decommissioning waste. Partial dismantling. Final dismantling. Final survey SOGIN 2036
Caorso Public acceptance or political reasons
Others
Immediate dismantling and removal of all radioactive materials Waste shipment off-site — only for decommissioning waste. Final dismantling SOGIN 2034

In 2017, an international peer review of SOGIN’s decommissioning and waste management programme was organized upon request of the Italian Government in order to obtain an independent review of activities associated with the planning and implementation of decommissioning of nuclear facilities, along with associated waste management.

The peer review team based its conclusions and recommendations on the IAEA’s international safety standards, good international practice and other relevant IAEA recommendations in this field.

In July 2017, the team of experts convened for the IAEA Integrated Review Service for Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management, Decommissioning and Remediation (ARTEMIS), carrying out a 12 day mission to Italy to review the programme for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including activities related to the management of radioactive waste.

In undertaking the peer review, the team concluded that the cost estimate process was robust and thorough and aligned with recognized methodologies; the sequencing and approach to decommissioning activities were appropriate, when constraints such as the availability of radioactive waste disposal capacity are taken into consideration; and the techniques and technologies utilized are proven and well tested.

2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR

At this moment, there are no nuclear power development programmes in Italy.

2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy

Not applicable.

2.3.2. Project management

Not applicable.

2.3.3. Project funding

Not applicable.

2.3.4. Electric grid development

Not applicable.

2.3.5. Sites

Not applicable.

2.3.5. Public awareness

Not applicable.

2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs

Due to the historical development of nuclear technology in Italy in the pioneering period, it was not possible to develop separate organizations for the roles of architect engineer and nuclear steam systems supplier. Both activities were performed mainly by foreign companies. For example, for the Caorso NPP the supplier was a joint venture of Ansaldo and GE (AMN/GETS), while the architectural engineering services were provided by Gibbs & Hill of the USA. For PUN, it was foreseen that ENEL would fulfil the role of architectural engineering, and Ansaldo would have been the nuclear supplier.

2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs

At present, there are no operating NPPs in Italy.

2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs [10]

The Ministry of Economic Development, with the Ministerial Decree of 2 December 2004, updated the strategic objectives assigned to SOGIN, and envisaged the decommissioning of all NPPs and nuclear fuel cycle facilities in a 20 year time frame, provided that adequate storage capacity of the resulting waste would be available. In the context of the ongoing authorization process of the NPP decommissioning plans, the regulatory body ISPRA (at that time APAT), in fact took the position that before the startup of dismantling activities of the nuclear island, in the event that the final national repositories were unavailable, the licensee was to provide an adequate on-site interim storage capacity to be authorized. In this new context, on the basis of the governmental decision to move to a decommissioning strategy involving the dismantling of structures and components in the span of 20 years, SOGIN has submitted comprehensive plans to the Ministry of Economic Development for Garigliano, Caorso, Trino and Latina NPPs in order to obtain the appropriate decommissioning licences.

It is to be noted that the Italian legislation regulates the decommissioning of nuclear installations as a comprehensive set of actions whereby authorizations can be granted for subsequent phases leading up to planned and definite intermediate states. Such a possibility, however, is recognized on condition that the proposed subdivision into phases is shown to be part of an overall decommissioning plan leading up to a final site release and defining, inter alia, the destination of resulting radioactive materials.

In addition, the national legislation requires that the decommissioning plans be authorized only in the presence of the results of the environmental impact assessment.

2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT [11]

In Italy, there are no facilities for enriching uranium. Several installations have the capability to manufacture fuel elements; however, all are closed.

Fuel fabrication plants and research facilities are no longer in operation and will need to be decommissioned. The situation is summarized in Table 7.

TABLE 7. FUEL FABRICATION AND RESEARCH FACILITIES

Facility
Main past activities
Main decommissioning issues
EUREX: Pilot reprocessing plant (Saluggia)
Spent fuel reprocessing
Solidification of liquid waste
FN: Industrial fabrication plant (Bosco Marengo)
Fabrication of fuel assemblies for LWR
Residual nuclear material removal
OPEC: Post irradiation examination facility (Rome)
Post irradiation examination of spent fuel
Spent fuel encapsulation
Removal of spent fuel scrap

Waste management
PLUTONIUM: Pilot fuel fabrication plant (Rome)
Sol-gel process development
Fuel fabrication for AECL Chalk River Reactor
Removal of residual nuclear material
Glovebox dismantling
ITREC: Pilot reprocessing and re-fabrication plant (Trisaia)
Reprocessing of Elk River spent fuel (U-Th) assemblies
Solidification of U-Th highly radioactive solution

Licences were transferred to SOGIN at the end of 2003. Decommissioning of these facilities is mainly a waste management problem, due to the peculiarity of the waste present on these sites.

In the mid-1990s, ENEL decided to terminate nuclear fuel reprocessing, based on an economic and technical evaluation. It also decided to proceed with interim dry storage of the remaining spent fuel of LWRs. At the moment, only the fuel related to contracts already issued is sent to British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) for reprocessing. It was in fact recognized that, in the light of the Italian situation, reprocessing would not have brought important advantages in term of final disposal, since very high level waste (VHLW) would have to be disposed of anyway together with other reprocessing generated wastes; moreover, the waste form would not have implied specific advantages in terms of final disposal, where only geological barriers could be credited. The strategy now is to store fuel elements in dual purpose (transport and storage) metallic casks in interim storage spaces on nuclear sites. Once the national repository for radioactive waste is in operation, the storage will be continued there, waiting for a final (geological) disposal.

On the implementation side, activities include:

Completion of the transport activities of spent fuel from Caorso NPP to France for reprocessing, in the frame of the agreement between the Italian and the French Government;

  • Finishing of transport operation from Trino NPP;

  • Startup of transport operation from Avogadro storage facility;

  • Issuance of the decommissioning licence for Bosco Marengo fuel fabrication facility and subsequent final dismantling of the production line; completion of the licensing process for the approval of the upgrading of the existent building used for waste interim storage facilities and startup of construction on the sites of Bosco Marengo;

  • Completion of the regulatory review process of the decommissioning plan for Trino and Garigliano NPP;

  • Completion of the remediation campaign of the EUREX facility pool with the removal of the stored spent fuel and of the existing components, tools and internal structures and with the emptying of the pool itself;

  • Completion of the licensing process for the approval of the detailed design for treatment and conditioning of the liquid ILW-HLW on the site of EUREX reprocessing plant and subsequent beginning of the construction of the CEMEX plant;

  • Approval and start of construction of new waste interim storage facilities on the sites of Garigliano and Latina NPPs, Casaccia Research Centre and Saluggia reprocessing plant;

  • Completion of the licensing process for a new interim storage facility at the EC JRC of Ispra (Varese);

  • Completion of the licensing process of a project for the treatment and conditioning of U-Th solution at the ITREC plant, and subsequent beginning of the construction of the ICPF facility for the treatment and conditioning of liquid waste.

The safety assessment and review of the new on-site interim storage facilities has been made, taking into account the IAEA Safety Standards and the WENRA storage Safety Reference Levels.

Waste management and disposal

The sources of radioactive waste in Italy include the power plants formerly operated by ENEL, the fuel cycle plants operated by Fabbricazioni nucleari SpA, ENEA research laboratories and experimental facilities, and non-energy applications (e.g. biomedical and other uses).

Criteria applicable to the classification, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste are set forth in ENEA/DISP’s Technical Guide No. 26, issued in May 1988 and updated in 1997. These rules allow above ground disposal of treated low level waste (Categories I and II) and prescribe suitable final disposal solutions (such as deep disposal) for high level waste (Category III). As for Categories I and II, solid low level waste is to be super-compacted and cemented. Liquid low level waste is to be cemented in containers suitable for above ground storage.

Part of the radioactive waste in Italy was produced during the operation of the nuclear installations connected to the national nuclear power programme. Another significant amount of waste will result from the decommissioning activities, as well as from the return of the high and intermediate levels of reprocessed and conditioned waste.

In addition, an annual quantity of radioactive waste to be managed is produced by R&D, medical and industrial uses.

At present, almost all the waste generated by the operation of nuclear installations is stored on-site.

In March 2008, the Ministry of Economic Development appointed a committee with representatives from ministries, regions, ISPRA and ENEA with a mandate to define the procedures for identifying suitable areas and for selecting a national site for the storage of radioactive waste. This committee issued a report in September 2008.

More recently, in connection with the road map associated with the agreement for the reprocessing in France of the 235 tonnes of spent fuel, Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010 establishes the new procedure for the localization and construction of a national repository for LLW disposal and ILW-HLW long term storage, and assigns SOGIN responsibility for the construction and operation of the national repository.

Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010 also assigns SOGIN responsibility for proposing areas suitable for a site based upon criteria established by the IAEA and the new national Agency for Nuclear Safety and taking into account the results of a strategic environmental assessment.

The steps to be taken in order to realize a national storage facility are described below, together with the time frames to perform each of them.

First, a list of suitable areas is proposed by the implementer (SOGIN). Such a list should be defined based upon requirements from the IAEA and the new Italian Agency for Nuclear Safety.

After this preliminary selection, a period for public consultation is foreseen. SOGIN will organize a public presentation and invite the central and local interested administrations.

Once the potential sites are approved by the Agency for Nuclear Safety, SOGIN will invite the regions involved to present their interest within 60 days. Once one (or more) region shows interest, SOGIN will investigate the site extensively and submit a request for authorization to the regulatory body. A one step licence is envisaged (i.e. the authorization is given for construction, operation and closure).

In the event of a lack of interest, SOGIN will submit to the Ministry of Economic Development the list of the candidate areas, indicating the three most suitable sites, and within 30 days an interinstitutional committee will be created, with the participation of representatives from different ministries and regions, and with the task of reaching an agreement with one of the interested regions.

While waiting for a national repository site to become available, the radioactive waste will continue to be stored in the nuclear installations of origin. Interventions are in progress to enhance the safety level of waste by implementing specific treatment and conditioning projects and by refurbishing existing buildings or utilising authorized new interim storage facilities on-site, in order to ensure temporary storage capacity for waste resulting from decommissioning preliminary activities.

2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

2.8.1. R&D organizations

Nuclear research is conducted by several agencies, institutions and universities. The leading agency for applied nuclear research is ENEA, with its Energy Research Centre (CRE) at Casaccia, near Rome, and at Bologna and Brasimone in Emilia Romagna.

Theoretical research in the nuclear field is performed mainly under the aegis of CNR (Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche) and INFN (Istituto nazionale di fisica nucleare) in its four main laboratories: Laboratori nazionali di frascati, Laboratori nazionali di legnano, Laboratori nazionali del sud and the new Laboratori nazionali del gran sasso.

In nuclear engineering, the universities with degree programmes are the Sapienza University of Rome, the University of Pisa, the Polytechnic University of Milan, the Polytechnic University of Turin and the University of Palermo.

Research and study of the emerging technologies in the field of decommissioning and waste management is engaged in by SOGIN itself or in cooperation with universities and research centres.

2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies

Some research activities, experiments and studies, mainly in connection with the universities and agencies listed in Section 2.8.1, are still conducted at the facilities equipped with research reactors, as shown in Table 8.

TABLE 8. RESEARCH REACTORS

Site
Power
Operator
Status
Palermo
20 W
University of Palermo
In operation
Roma (Casaccia)
1 MW
ENEA/TRIGA
In operation
Roma (Casaccia)
5 kW
ENEA/TAPIRO
In operation
Pavia
250 kW
University of Pavia
In operation
Source: IAEA Research Reactor Database.

2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives

In 2003, Italy and Russia signed an agreement allocating €360 million for cooperation in the field of nuclear submarine dismantling and safe handling of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The agreement includes projects on nuclear submarine, nuclear surface ship and service ship dismantling; reprocessing, transportation and storage of radioactive waste; creation of a nuclear site physical protection system; radiation site rehabilitation; and creation of infrastructure for nuclear submarine dismantling. The Russian Atomic Ministry and the Italian Ministry of Productive Activities (now Ministry of Economic Development) are responsible for the projects. The agreement is valid for 10 years, and extends automatically for additional 2 years if the parties do not cancel the agreement before its expiry.

In the frame of Gen-IV nuclear fission, the activities performed in Italy are related to the design and technological development of lead cooled fast reactors (LFRs). These activities are led by ENEA in synergy with the national industries, mainly Ansaldo nucleare, and supported by an interuniversity consortium for technological nuclear research (CIRTEN).

Presently, the R&D programme is supported by national funds (Programme Agreement MSE-ENEA) and European funds (Euratom, H2020). Thanks to such efforts the readiness of LFR technology has moved forward significantly, and is constantly increasing, attracting a strong interest worldwide.

At the European level, ENEA, Ansaldo nucleare and ICN (Romania), with many other supporting organizations, are collaborating on an advanced lead cooled fast reactor European demonstrator (ALFRED) programme, an undertaking presently representing the last step required for industrial deployment. Leveraging on this, the project has secured a firm commitment by the Romanian Government and the support of the Italian Government.

Owing to its increased safety margins, robust design and scalable size, ALFRED is considered the optimum candidate to bridge the gap between research and commercial deployment. Since the end of 2013, an international consortium fostering ALFRED construction (FALCON) has been set up, acting as the incubator of the initiative and a pole of attraction for partners interested in LFR technology, paving the way for the construction in Romania of the first Gen-IV LFR demonstrator.

Italy also participates in several international cooperation projects developed under the aegis of the European Community, NEA/OECD and the IAEA. Two important research centres are the Joint Research Centre of ISPRA and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, a branch of the IAEA.

In the area of nuclear safety and environmental protection, bilateral agreements have been signed with the NRC (USA), NII (UK), CSN (Spain), NNSA (China) and DSIN (France).

Due to the forthcoming shutdown of the Canadian NRU reactor and the contemporary stoppage of the authorization process of the MAPLE-1 reactor (Canada), a serious worldwide shortage of 99mTc, the central radiopharmaceutical product in nuclear-medical diagnostics is foreseen. Thus, ENEA recently started a project aimed at producing 99Mo (precursor of 99mTc) by neutron activation of 98Mo target at TRIGA Research Reactor, operated at ENEA Casaccia Research Centre.

Some noteworthy activities in progress are in the field of nuclear fusion, with participation in international projects.

2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

Current regulation establishes specific qualification requirements for the staff involved in the safe management of NPPs, research reactors, fuel reprocessing facilities and the like. These requirements are also applicable to radioactive waste and spent fuel management facilities which, as already noted, are operated under the licensing conditions of the main nuclear installations they belong to.

Additionally, staff qualification for the performance of any safety related activity is among the relevant aspects assessed during the licensing process. Moreover, technical and operating staff undertake training regarding technical and legal issues, according to the specific company policy of SOGIN, which has created the Radwaste Management School (RMS) where SOGIN personnel and operators of qualified companies selected to work in the decommissioning activities are trained.

RMS has been operating since 2008, providing education and training to the staff of SOGIN Group and external companies, in accordance with international safety standards and requirements established by the Italian Safety Authority. In this way, RMS guarantees the highest levels of safety in the field of decommissioning and radioactive waste management.

The Radwaste Management School aims to:

Train the staff of SOGIN Group, with particular emphasis on disciplines related to nuclear safety regarding spent fuel and radioactive waste management;

  • Promote, improve and extend best practices in the nuclear safety culture, radiation protection and environmental safeguards;

  • Assure integration, promotion and sharing of knowledge management systems;

  • Involve universities and international nuclear training centres;

  • Train young graduates and undergraduates in the field of nuclear decommissioning and radioactive waste management activities.

Over the past 10 years, SOGIN has developed a series of partnerships with certified national and international training organizations, R&D institutes, universities and scientific associations in order to integrate educational programmes.

The Radwaste Management School has been certified ISO 9001/2015 (Quality Management System), ISO 14001/2015 (Environmental Management System) and OHSAS 18001/2007 (Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems).

In Italian nuclear installations (NPP and fuel cycle facilities), the rules governing the organization and the roles of the technical and operating staff to ensure safe management of the facility, both during ordinary and emergency conditions, are stated in a specific document — Regolamento di esercizio (Operating regulation) as required by Italian law. This document also covers the activities related to waste management and dismantling operations. According to that document only licensed personnel can operate in spent fuel management facilities. In other installations, staff qualification requirements are established on a case by case basis.

2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT

The Government and each public agency support the stakeholder communication process through periodic meetings and continuous reporting activity. In particular, for the decommissioning programme of NPPs, SOGIN, by publishing its Sustainability Report every year, carries out one of the main transparency initiatives towards its stakeholders, making all social and environmental information available.

2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

Any nuclear facility has an emergency plan, established by national legislation and coordinated by the Ministry of the Interior through local authorities and the National Nuclear Regulatory Authority.

3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS [12]

3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)

The Italian regulatory system related to nuclear and radiation safety is the result of an evolution of rules and standards that began in the early 1960s and that took into account the experiences of the licensing and operation of different types and generations of NPPs and other nuclear installations. The system also covers the regulatory framework for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste.

The main regulations are acts of Parliament, legislative decrees, Governmental or ministerial decrees binding in law. Technical positions and guides issued by the National Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ISPRA, formerly APAT) are also considered.

The legislative and regulatory framework, established since the early 1960s, envisages a system of licensing of nuclear installations and activities as well as regulatory control. This system fully applies to spent fuel and radioactive waste management activities.

Nuclear Safety Authority

In the framework of the new nuclear power programme launched by the Government in 2008, Article 29 of Act No. 99 of 23 July 2009 established the Nuclear Safety Agency (Agenzia per la sicurezza nucleare).

As a consequence of the abandonment of the new nuclear power programme, the Nuclear Safety Agency never become effective and was abolished by Act No. 214 of 22 December 2011. Its functions and duties devolved to ISPRA, which is continuing its work as a nuclear regulatory authority, waiting for a definitive asset of the national regulatory organization.

In fact, Legislative Decree No. 45 of 2014, which transposes the EU Directive 2011/70/Euratom, establishing a community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, also included provisions for the establishment of a new competent regulatory authority (Inspectorate for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, ISIN) fully dedicated to regulation and control in the nuclear field, with strengthened independence and human and financial resources, based on ISPRA. The enactment of further legislative provisions is required for the full and formal establishment of the new regulatory authority.

According to the same decree, until the entry into force of ISIN, the functions of competent regulatory authority shall continue to be carried out by the National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of ISPRA.

Prime Minister

Pursuant to Decrees No. 230 of 1995 and 241 of 2000, the Prime Minister is empowered to adopt basic decrees such as those laying down the application thresholds of Decree No. 230 of 1995, dose limits for workers and the public and the reference dose levels for nuclear emergencies.

Under the authority of the Prime Minister, the Department of Civil Protection is entrusted with a number of regulatory and administrative tasks in the fields of public protection and radiation emergencies in conjunction with other competent ministries.

In the framework of the structured process of licensing the national repository pursuant to Decree No. 31 of 2010, the Prime Minister is empowered to adopt a decree pushing the local authority involved to give its consensus to the licence and, possibly, following a decision of the Council of Ministers attended also by the President of the region involved, in substitution of the consensus of the local authority.

Moreover, it is worth noting that according to Legislative Decree No. 45 of 2014 the Prime Minister is in charge of issuing (by his own decree) a national programme for the safe management of radioactive waste, required by the EU Directive 2011/70/Euratom. The Ministry of Economic Development and the Ministry of Environment and Protection of Land and Sea are responsible for proposing the national programme.

Ministry of Economic Development

Act No. 1860 of 1962 on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy bestows upon the Ministry of Economic Development the necessary powers to make regulations and issue the licences required in the nuclear field. The Ministry is therefore the competent authority for matters relating to nuclear power plants (Chapter II of Act No. 1860 of 1962). In addition, it authorizes the operation of installations for the production and use of nuclear energy for industrial purposes, as well as of plants for the processing and use of ores, source materials, special fissile materials, enriched uranium and radioactive materials (Article 6 of Act No. 1860 of 1962).

In implementation of Legislative Decree No. 230 of 1995 (Articles 15, 32, 34–36 and 55), the Ministry of Economic Development, in agreement with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministries of Labour, Health and the Environment, issues decrees laying down the levels of radioactivity and other conditions for different activities involving ionizing radiation pursuant to which a licence is required. Such activities include the mining industry, commercial operations and utilization for industrial and research purposes. The Ministry also issues the procedure for applying for a licence. In addition to authorizing the activities mentioned, the Ministry also authorizes the transfer of radioactive substances within the European Union, the operation of radioactive waste disposal sites, and so on. Decree No. 241 of 2000 extended the licensing powers of the Ministry of Economic Development to other activities such as the addition of radioactive materials to consumer goods, export and import of such goods and transfer of materials subject to Directive 92/3/Euratom.

The Ministry of Economic Development may also determine the amount and terms of financial security covering third party liability of the operator of a nuclear installation. It approves the general conditions of the insurance policy or other forms of financial security by decree, in agreement with the Ministry of Economy and Finance and after consultations with the Attorney General (Articles 19, 21 and 22 of Act No. 1860 of 1962, as amended by Presidential Decree No. 519 of 10 May 1975).

In accordance with Act No. 58 of 28 April 2015, the Ministry of Economic Development is also the competent authority for the physical passive protection of nuclear materials and installations and for the modalities for the drafting of physical protection plans, as defined by the successive decree of 8 September 2017, whose procedures also involve the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Environment and Protection of Land and Sea.

Pursuant to Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010, the Ministry of Economic Development, in agreement with the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea, will authorize the publication of a national chart of the potentially eligible areas proposed by SOGIN. Moreover, the Ministry will attend a national seminar with the other institutions involved, in order to discuss all technical aspects related to the national repository, including a potential technology park.

The Ministry himself, with its own decree, in consultation with the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea and the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, based upon the advice of ISPRA, will adopt the national chart of eligible areas.

The Ministry of Economic Development, based upon ISPRA’s binding advice, and in consultation with the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea and the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, as well as the Ministry of Education, University and Research for aspects related to research activities, will identify by ministerial decree a site suitable for the construction of the technology park.

The Ministry of Economic Development, based upon ISPRA’s binding advice, and in consultation with the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea and the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, will grant the authorization for construction and operation of the national repository.

The Ministry of Economic Development shall grant the authorization of final dismantling of the national repository in consultation with the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea, the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies and the Ministry of Health.

Finally, the Ministry of Economic Development sets out the strategic guidelines for the decommissioning activities of SOGIN.

The import of ores, source materials and radioactive materials is subject to authorization by the Ministry of Economic Development (the former Ministry of Foreign Trade has been incorporated into it) when such authorizations are required by financial and currency regulations. The Ministry of Economic Development, together with the Ministry of Economy and Finance, has laid down the rules for importing goods. These rules establish which goods require an import licence, including radioisotopes and ionizing radiation emitting equipment (Article 4 of Act No. 1860 of 1962 and Ministerial Decree of 30 October 1990 promulgating the list of goods requiring an import licence). Legislative Decree No. 89 of 24 February 1997 established the list of dual use goods which are subject to licensing, before its abrogation by Decree No. 96 of 2003, following the entry into force of European Regulation (CE) No. 1334 of 2000.

Ministry of Labour and Social Policy

The Ministry of Labour and Social Policy is generally responsible for the radiation protection of workers engaged in nuclear activities (Article 59 of Decree No. 230 of 1995). In agreement with the other ministries concerned, it establishes rules governing radiation protection and monitors their application through the controls of health and safety inspectors and through the competent bodies of the National Health Service in each region. It also sets out rules governing the qualifications of experts and of authorized doctors.

Pursuant to Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010, Ministry of Labour and Social Policy shall give its advice on the authorization for the closure of the national repository together with the other ministries involved.

Ministry of Health

Responsibility for protecting public health against the hazards of ionizing radiation lies with the Ministry of Health, the National Health Service and ISPRA. The aim of ISPRA is to prevent, by inspections or otherwise, the possibility of radiation contamination of the population or of any part of the natural environment, foodstuffs and beverages (Article 97 of Decree No. 230 of 1995). Furthermore, the Ministry submits proposals to the Prime Minister concerning dose limits for workers and for the public (Article 96).

The Ministry of Health is also empowered to establish thresholds below which certain electrical equipment that emits radiation may be circulated (Article 98). Furthermore, the Ministry may carry out controls on foodstuffs and beverages (Article 104).

The Higher Institute of Health (a support organization to the Ministry of Health) and the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work (a support organization to the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy) are consulted with regard to a number of ministerial decrees implementing Decrees Nos. 230 of 1995 and 241 of 2000 concerning, among others, dose limits, reference dose levels for emergencies or official approval of certain radioactive sources.

A standing commission was created in the Ministry of Health and the essential task of this commission is to prepare information for the public in the event of a nuclear emergency.

With regard to radiation protection during medical exposure, Decree No. 187 of 2000 entrusts the Ministry of Health with quasi-exclusive powers in relation to the training of personnel, criteria governing the authorization of radiological equipment, justification of certain exposure and the like. Control over the implementation of Decree No. 187 of 2000 is vested exclusively in the National Health Service.

Pursuant to Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010, the Ministry of Health shall give its advice on the authorization of final dismantling of the national repository together with the other ministries involved.

Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea

Act No. 349 of 8 July 1986 established the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea, which has since then been involved in decision making in collaboration with other competent ministries. Although the Ministry is not expressly given any functions in the nuclear field in Act No. 349 of 1986, Article 2 provides, in general, that the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea will perform its functions with a view to ensure protection of the soil, air and water. Moreover, the Ministry, in agreement with the Ministry of Health, proposes to the President of the Council the maximum concentration limits and maximum exposure doses with respect to chemical, physical or biological contamination (Article 2(14)). With regard to the establishment of limits governing the exposure of workers, the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy must be consulted before the proposal is submitted to the Prime Minister. In addition, whenever construction of an installation capable of having an impact on the surrounding environment is being planned, the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea reports on the compatibility of the project with environmental protection requirements.

The Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea has assumed some of the responsibilities of the Ministry of Health, in particular, the monitoring of environmental radioactivity (Article 104 of Decree No. 230 of 1995). The Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea is also competent to establish, in cooperation with other ministries concerned, the derived reference dose levels which correspond to the dose levels established by the Prime Minister in relation to the planning of emergency interventions (Article 26 of Decree No. 241 of 2000, which replaces Article 115 of Decree No. 230 of 1995). The Ministry must be consulted during the drafting of certain implementing decrees for Legislative Decree No. 230 of 1995, including those related to the scope of application, declaration of practices and dose limits.

Pursuant to Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010 the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea is closely involved in the process of siting, licensing, construction and operation of the national repository (see previous information for the Ministry of Economic Development).

Ministry of the Interior

In accordance with Decree No. 230 of 1995, the Ministry of the Interior, which is generally responsible for public security, assists in the drafting of regulations by other ministries in connection with the classification and licensing of commercial activities using nuclear and radioactive materials.

The same decree provides that each nuclear installation must have an off-site emergency plan to ensure protection of the public against the harmful effects of a nuclear accident. Such plans consist of a series of coordinated measures to be taken by those responsible in the event of an incident at a nuclear installation which might put public safety at risk. The Ministry of the Interior contributes to the establishment of the national radiological emergency plan (Article 121 of Decree No. 230 of 1995), in conjunction with the Department of Civil Protection.

In addition, in accordance with Act No. 996 of 8 December 1970, the Ministry of the Interior and its services are responsible for taking the measures required to protect the public in the event of catastrophes.

As the authority associated with the Ministry of the Interior in each region, the prefect is competent to grant a clearance certificate for the use of Category B radioactive substances, and for the appliances that contain them, in industry and research. The prefect is also responsible for preparing and updating the emergency plan in the province over which he or she has authority (except the medical aspects) and for its application as part of the national emergency plan.

Pursuant to Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010, the Ministry of the Interior shall give its advice on the authorization of the closure of the national repository together with the other ministries involved.

Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport

This Ministry, established by Act No. 537 of 24 December 1993, results from the merger of two former ministries: the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of the Merchant Navy. The duties carried out by these two ministries have been transferred to the Ministry of Transport and Navigation (now Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport). Thus, the latter Ministry is, at present, the competent authority, in conjunction with the Ministry of Economic Development, to grant licences for the transport of nuclear and radioactive materials by road, rail, air and sea (Article 5 of Act No. 1860 of 1962, as amended by Presidential Decree No. 1704 of 1965). The Ministry is also responsible for the adoption of regulations governing these different modes of transport (Article 21 of Decree No. 230 of 1995).

Pursuant to Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010 the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport is closely involved in the process of siting, licensing, construction and operation of the national repository (see previous information for the Ministry of Economic Development).

Ministry of Education, University and Research

Public institutions possessing radioactive materials for teaching or scientific research are required to report them to the Ministry whene the quantity of materials involved exceeds the prescribed levels (Article 3 of Act No. 1860 of 1962, as amended by Article 1 of Presidential Decree No. 1704 of 1965). Pursuant to the amendments introduced following the adoption of Decree No. 241 of 2000, practices involving the possession of such materials are also subject to prior notification.

The Ministry is also involved in licensing the use of radioisotopes above certain quantities (Article 13, as amended by Article 3 of Presidential Decree No. 1704 of 1965).

The Ministry is responsible for the coordination at the national and international level of all measures to promote the development of scientific and technical research. It is consulted by the Ministry of Economic Development in connection with ENEA research and development programmes and its scientific, technical and industrial cooperation with international or foreign organizations (Article 1 of Legislative Decree No. 36 of 30 January 1999). The Ministry of Education, University and Research is also involved in determining the radiation protection qualifications of personnel in radiology and nuclear medicine (Article 7 of Decree No. 241 of 2000).

The Ministry is also involved in the licensing process of the national repository due to the research activities on decommissioning and management of radioactive waste to be implemented in the technology park hosting the national repository.

Ministry of Economy and Finance

The Ministry of Economy and Finance is required to approve the general conditions of the financial security for the third party liability of nuclear operators when such security is not in the form of an insurance policy. Furthermore, notice of summons in respect of actions for compensation of nuclear damage is submitted to the Ministry, which may, in all cases, intervene in the proceedings (Articles 22 and 25 of Act No. 1860 of 1962, as amended by Article 2 of the Presidential Decree of 10 May 1975). The Ministry owns 100% of SOGIN SpA shares.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

The Ministry operates through a network of offices throughout the world, in particular with permanent missions to the international organizations, ensuring that the international and European activities of Italy’s other ministries and government offices are consistent with the country’s international policy objectives.

The Ministry is the main governmental office leading the process of ratification by Parliament of acts of international conventions and agreements in the nuclear field, such as, inter alia, the Paris and Vienna Convention for Third Party Liability with related Amendment Protocols, the Convention on Nuclear Safety, the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is also consulted by the Ministry of Economic Development in connection with the activities of the ENEA in the field of international cooperation (Article 1 of Legislative Decree No. 36 of 30 January 1999).

3.1.2. Licensing process

The licensing body is the Ministry of Economic Development, based upon the cooperation of other competent ministries and the binding technical advice of ISPRA, which is entrusted with the role of regulatory authority, performing assessments and inspections of nuclear installations.

The main competencies of regulatory authorities and their role in the licensing process are described in the previous paragraph.

More recently, Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010 establishes a new procedure for the localization and construction of a national repository for LLW disposal and ILW-HLW long term storage, and assigns SOGIN responsibility for the construction and operation of the repository. Legislative Decree No. 31 of 2010 also assigns SOGIN responsibility for proposing areas suitable for the localization of the repository, based upon criteria established by the IAEA and the new national Agency for Nuclear Safety and taking into account the results of the strategic environmental assessment. The steps to be taken in order to realize a national storage facility, including public consultation, are described, together with the time frames to perform each of them.

3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER

The system for licensing nuclear installations is governed by the following laws and regulations.

1. Framework Act on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (No. 1860 of 31 December 1962) introduces a general regime based on a series of procedural requirements such as notifications and licences for nuclear installations and materials and regulates nuclear third party liability by implementing the provisions of the Paris and Brussels Conventions on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. Amendments were subsequently made under which small quantities of special fissile materials, raw materials and other radioactive materials were no longer subject to such formalities (Act No. 1008 of 9 December 1969, Ministerial Decree of 15 December 1970).

2. Legislative Decree No. 230 of 17 March 1995, as amended inter alia by Legislative Decree No. 241 of 26 May 2000, related to the safety of nuclear installations and the protection of workers and the general public against the hazards of ionizing radiation arising from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. This decree provided, inter alia, for the implementation of existing Euratom directives on radiation protection (i.e. 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom and 2006/117/Euratom), on nuclear safety of nuclear installations (i.e. 2009/71/Euratom) and on responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (i.e. 2011/70/Euratom).

3. Legislative Decree No. 187 of 26 May 2000, which implements Council Directive 97/43/Euratom of 30 June 1997 on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure, and repealing Directive 84/466/Euratom.

4. Legislative Decree No. 23 of 20 February 2009, on the implementation of Directive 2006/117/Euratom on the monitoring and control of shipments of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, which amended the relevant administrative provisions previously contained in Decree No. 230/95 on cross-border shipments of radioactive waste.

5. Legislative Decree No. 31 of 15 February 2010, as amended by Legislative Decree No. 34 of 31 March 2011, converted into Act No. 75 of 2011, implementing the enabling provisions of Act No. 99 of 2009, establishes the siting process as well as the construction and operation process of a national repository and technological park to permanently accommodate low and intermediate level radioactive waste, and temporarily store high level radioactive waste.

6. Legislative Decree No. 185 of 19 October 2011, on the implementation of Directive 2009/71/Euratom, establishing a Community framework for the safety of nuclear installations.

7. Legislative Decree No. 45 of 4 March 2014, which transposes the EU Directive 2011/70/Euratom establishing a community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. Legislative Decree No. 45 of 2014 has modified and integrated, inter alia, Legislative Decree No. 230 of 1995.

8. Act No. 58 of 28 April 2015, concerning ratification and implementation of the Amendments to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials of 3 March 1980, adopted in Vienna on 8 July 2005, and rules for the adaptation of internal law.

9. Decree of 7 August 2015 of the Minister of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea and the Minister of Economic Development on the classification of radioactive waste, pursuant to art. 5 of Legislative Decree No. 45 of 4 March 2014, which establishes a new classification of radioactive waste, replacing the one in Technical Guide No. 26 of ISPRA.

10. Act No. 153 of 28 July 2016, on the rules for countering terrorism, as well as ratification and execution: a) of the Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, in Warsaw on 16 May 2005; b) of the International Convention for the Suppression of Nuclear Terrorist Acts, in New York on September 14, 2005; c) of the Protocol of Amendment to the European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, in Strasbourg on 15 May 2003; (d) the Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism, in Warsaw on 16 May 2005; e) of the Additional Protocol to the Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, in Riga on 22 October 2015.

11. Decree of 8 September 2017, concerning the requirements for physical passive protection and modalities for the drafting of physical protection plans.

12. Legislative Decree No. 137 of 15 September 2017, on the implementation of Directive 2014/87/Euratom amending Directive 2009/71/Euratom establishing a community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations.

REFERENCES

[1] SEN 2017, Strategia energetica nazionale, http://www.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it/...

[2] Energy Resources, World Energy Council,

https://www.worldenergy.org/data/resources/country/italy/

[3] IEA, Italy: Balances for 2015, http://www.iea.org/statistics/...

[4] Energy Policies of IEA Countries, 2016 Review: Italy,

https://webstore.iea.org/...

[5] European Energy Market Reform, Country Profile Italy, Deloitte Foundation, 2015.

[6] Il Nucleare in Italia, special edition of Professione Ingegnere 5 19/20 (July–Dec., 1992).

[7] Cumo, M., Tripputi, I., Spezia, U., Nuclear plant decommissioning: Technology, cost evaluation, management, regulation, safety, health and environmental protection,

Università di Roma La Sapienza, Scuola di Specializzazione in Sicurezza e Protezione, Rome (2004).

[8] IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).

[9] Bilancio di sostenibilità del gruppo SOGIN.

[10] Osservatorio sulla politica energetica Fondazione Einaudi,

Il decomissioning degli impianti nucleari e la sistemazione dei materiali radioattivi, a cura di U. Spezia e I. Tripputi, introduzione di F. Velonà, Laboratori Opef (2008).

[11] Decommissioning degli impianti nucleari e gestione dei rifiuti radioattivi, G. Guidi,

Editore Gangemi, Rome (2012).

[12] Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries: Italy,

https://www.oecd-nea.org/law/legislation/italy.html (2016 review to be published),

[13] The international fusion experiment ITER,

https://www.iter.org/

[14] Spezia, U., Italia nucleare. Dalla pila di Fermi al dissesto energetico, Edizioni 21/mo Secolo (2009).

[15] Il regime giuridico dell’impiego pacifico dell’energia nucleare, Vols I, II and III, ENEA, Rome (1986) (Volumes II and III present the whole set of international agreements in which Italy participates).

[16] Energia, ambiente, innovazione dal CNRN all’ENEA, a cura di G. Paoloni, Laterza, Bari (1992).

[17] Ippolito, F., Simen, F., La questione energetica: Dieci anni perduti 1963–1973, Feltrinelli, Milan (1974).

[18] Berra, P., Ninni, A., Vaccr, S., Il ruolo dell’organizzazione industriale nello sviluppo nucleare, Economia delle fonti di energia XXXII 42 (1990).

APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

In the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, international cooperation is recognized to be fundamental, and the Italian regulatory authorities, nuclear power and waste management operators and research institutes maintain connections with international organizations. In this respect, it is worthwhile to mention the activities of the IAEA and OECD/NEA and the R&D framework programmes of the European Union. ISPRA is also actively participating in the ENSREG and WENRA (Western European Nuclear Regulators Association) initiatives for the harmonization of spent fuel and radioactive waste storage safety requirements.

Agreements with the IAEA
Amendments to Articles VI and XIV of the Agency statute
Not ratified

Agreement on Privileges and Immunities
Entry into force:
20 June 1985
NPT related Safeguard Agreement

Entry into force:
21 February 1977
Additional Protocol
Entry into force:
30 April 2004
Supplementary Agreement on Provision of Technical Assistance by the IAEA
Not applicable

Euratom
Member

Main international treaties, etc.
NPT
Entry into force:
2 May 1975
Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
Entry into force:
6 October 1991
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident
Entry into force:
11 March 1990
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency
Entry into force:
25 November 1990
Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage
Not applicable

Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy
Entry into force:
17 September 1975
Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna and Paris Conventions
Entry into force:
27 April 1992
Protocol to amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage
Signature:
26 January 1998
Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
Not signed

Convention on Nuclear Safety
Entry into force:
14 July 1998
Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management
Entry into force:
9 May 2006
Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
Entry into force:
8 May 2016
Other relevant international treaties and undertakings
Improved procedures for designation of safeguards inspectors
Rejected, but agreed to special procedures

ZANGGER Committee
Member

Nuclear Export Guidelines
Adopted

Acceptance of NUSS Codes
Summary: National regulations are in conformity with revised codes. Codes are sound international safety standards which should be made obligatory in all states operating NPPs. Letter:
27 December 1989
Nuclear Suppliers Group
Member

Establishment of CERN with 12 other European countries
Paris
July 1953
Halden boiling water reactor project; Italian representative: ENEA

June 1958
Joint European Torus Undertaking; Italian representatives: ENEA and CNR
Brussels
May 1978
ITER [13]
The ITER Agreement was officially signed in Paris on 21 November 2006 by ministers from the seven ITER Members. The ITER Organization was officially established on 24 October 2007
October 2007

APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES

Organization
Address and telephone
URL
Email
Main activities
Presidency of the Council of the Ministers — Department of Civil Protection
Via Ulpiano, n. 11 00193 Rome (+39) 0668201
www.protezionecivile.gov.it
segreteriacd@protezionecivile.it
Competent for regulatory and administrative tasks in the fields of public protection and radiation emergencies
Ministry of Economic Development — DG for Electricity Market, Renewables and Energy Efficiency, Nuclear
Via Veneto, 33 00187 Rome
(+39) 0647052531
www.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it
dgmereen.segreteria@mise.gov.it
Responsible for regulations and licences required in the nuclear field
Ministry of Labour and Social Policy — DG for Labor Relations and Industrial Relationships
Via Fornovo, 8 00192 Rome (+39) 0646834200
www.lavoro.gov.it
DGRapportiLavoro@lavoro.gov.it
Responsible for the radiation protection of workers engaged in nuclear activities
Ministry of Health — DG for Health Prevention
Viale Giorgio Ribotta, 5
00144 Rome (+39) 0659942878
www.salute.gov.it
segr.dgprev@sanita.it
Responsible for protecting public health against the hazards of ionising radiation
Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea — DG for Waste and Pollution
Via Cristoforo Colombo, n. 44 00147 Roma (+39)0657228615
www.minambiente.it
RIN(UDG@minambiente.it
Responsible for performing functions with a view to ensure protection of the soil, air and water
Ministry of the Interior — Department of Public Security

Piazza del Viminale, 1 00184 Rome (+39) 0646521
www.interno.gov.it
dipps.uffammgen.ps@interno.it
Responsible for public security and for authorization of off-site emergency plan to ensure protection of the public against the harmful effects of a nuclear accident
Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport — Department for Transport, Navigation, General Affairs and Personnel
Via Giuseppe Caraci, 36 00157 Rome
(+39) 0641586672
www.mit.gov.it
dgmot.segr@mit.gov.it
Competent authority to grant licences for the transport of nuclear and radioactive materials by road, rail, air and sea
Ministry of Education, University and Research — DG for coordination, promotion and enhancement of research
Via Michele Carcani, 61
00153 Rome
(+39) 0697727131
www.miur.gov.it
DGRIC.segreteria@miur.it
Responsible for the coordination at the national and international level of all measures to promote the development of scientific and technical research
Ministry of Economy and Finance — General Accounting of the State

Via Venti Settembre, 97 00187 Rome
(+39) 0647611
www.rgs.mef.gov.it
salvatoresebastiano.vizzini@mef.gov.it
Responsible for approving the general conditions of the financial security for third party liability when different from an insurance policy
Ministry of Foreign Affairs — DG for political and security affairs

Piazzale della Farnesina, 1
00135 Rome
(+39) 0636912174
www.esteri.it
dgap.segreteria@esteri.it
Competent for leading the process of ratification by Parliament of acts of international conventions and agreements in the nuclear field
ISPRA — National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection

Via Vitaliano Brancati, 48
00144 Rome
(+39) 0650071
www.isprambiente.gov.it
cn(nuc@isprambiente.it
Competent Nuclear Safety Authority on the regulation and control of nuclear installations safety and radiation protection, independent in human and financial resources
SOGIN S.p.A.

Via Marsala, 51/c 00185 Rome
\(+39) 06830401
www.sogin.it
info@sogin.it
Competent for decommissioning of NPPs and fuel cycle plants and relevant LLW/ILW disposal as well as temporary storage of HLW
ENEA — National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development

Lungotevere Thaon di Revel 76
00196 Rome (+39) 0694005664

www.enea.it
fsn@enea.it
Public research activity and technological innovation in the sector of energy and sustainable economic development, in synergy with national industries

CNPP report coordinator
Institution
Address and telephone
Email
Mr. Mariano Giuseppe Cordone
Head of Division V, Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, Research and Management of Nuclear Materials and Waste
Ministry of Economic Development — DG for Electricity Market, Renewables and Energy Efficiency, Nuclear
Via Veneto, 33
00187 Rome
Italy
(+39) 0647052352
mariano.cordone@mise.gov.it