PREAMBLE AND SUMMARY
This report provides information on the status and development of the nuclear power programme in Pakistan. It also summarizes the organizational aspects of the nuclear power programme and provides information about the relevant legislative and regulatory framework in the country.
There are six operating nuclear power plants in Pakistan and one under construction. Adequate infrastructure and human resources are available and being strengthened to support the planned expansion of the country’s nuclear power programme.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
The Government of Pakistan (herein referred to as the Government) has formulated several policies for the development of the power sector in the past. The aims of these policies were elimination of inefficiencies in existing generation, transmission and distribution systems, as well as diversification of the energy generation mix, with maximum utilization of indigenous energy resources to supply reliable, affordable and clean electricity to the general public.
The National Power Policy 2013 issued by the Government aimed to develop an efficient and consumer-centric power generation, transmission and distribution system that could meet the needs of the people and boost the economy of the country in a sustainable and affordable manner. The goals of the policy were explicitly defined, as were the resulting targets and the extent of meeting the targets, which would gauge the success of the policy. Targets of the prescribed policy included complete elimination of load shedding; decreasing the average cost of electricity generation to below 10 Pakistani rupee/kWh; a decrease in transmission and distribution losses from 23–25% to 16%; an increase in the revenue collection from the current 85% to 95%; and a reduction in the time required for decision making at the ministry level or other related departments to a minimum.
In 2015, the Government introduced the Power Generation Policy 2015 to facilitate private investment in the power sector. The policy offers the private sector incentives to not only set up new power generation projects but also to invest in public sector power generation projects in a different phase of development or already developed and looking for divestment. The objectives of this policy are to have sufficient least cost power generation capacity in the country, prioritizing utilization of indigenous resources, facilitating all stakeholders involved in the transaction and safeguarding the environment.
In 2019, the Alternative and Renewable Energy Policy was introduced to assist the development of renewable resources in the country. The main objective of the policy is to produce a conducive development environment for renewable power projects, increase the share of ‘green’ energy capacity by 20% by 2025 and 30% by 2030 and introduce private capital in the area.
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
Pakistan’s energy resources consist of fossil fuels (coal, gas, oil), uranium and renewables (hydropower, wind, solar, biomass, etc.). The fossil fuel reserves and the potential of renewable energy of Pakistan are listed in Table 1.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED ENERGY RESOURCES (AS OF END JUNE 2019)
|Total amount in specific units||7775.5||76.3||22.1||—||60.0||50.0|
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||154.0||3.4||21.0||—||2.8||1.4|
—: data not available.
Specific units for solid and liquid: million tonnes; gas: trillion cubic feet; hydro and wind: GW.
Solid consists of only coal. It has been converted to energy at 19.8 GJ/t.
Liquid consists of crude only. It has been converted to energy at 44.2 GJ/t.
Natural gas has been converted to energy at 950 GJ/million cubic feet.
Hydro power potential has been converted to annual energy resource at 50% plant factor and 10 550 GJ/GW·h.
Wind power potential has been converted to annual energy resource at 30% capacity factor and 10 550 GJ/GW·h.
Sources: Refs  and .
The country has meagre oil reserves and the indigenous oil production is barely enough to meet around 22% of domestic oil needs. This necessitates import of crude oil and other oil products in large quantities to meet around 80% of demand.
The natural gas reserves of the country are also limited and quickly regressing to increasing demand. This has forced the Government to develop new exploratory wells to increase the national gas cache and, in parallel, look for both short term and long term alternatives such as import of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and piped gas. In the fiscal year 2018–19, around 373 million MMBTU (MM stands for million) of LNG, worth around US $3.4 billion, was imported. This corresponds to around 30% of the total natural gas consumption in the country.
In the past decade, coal has been the fuel of choice for electricity generation in Pakistan, with its capacity jumping from almost zero in 2016 to currently touching the 4 670 MW mark. The current coal based electricity generation configuration is relying heavily on imported coal. This trend is likely to change as units based on the Thar field are added to the electricity generation mix. Thar has the largest coal reserves in the country and has been actively developed in recent years. The first Thar plant, with a capacity of 660 MW, became operational in the first quarter of 2019–2020.
The estimated total hydropower potential of Pakistan is around 60 000 MW, of which nearly 16% is currently exploited. The hydropower potential is concentrated in the northern mountainous region of the country, located far from load centres. The high investment cost for the installation of hydroplants, development of an electricity transmission network and resettlement of the affected population are a few reasons for hydropower not being exploited to its full capacity.
Pakistan has wind corridors that can accommodate about 50 000 MW  of wind based capacity and the potential for solar power is also high, as sunlight is available abundantly almost throughout the country. Currently, the capacity share of these renewable resources is small, but it is expected to increase sharply, as reflected in the Alternative and Renewable Energy Policy 2019.
1.1.3. Energy Consumption Statistics
Energy consumption statistics are given in Table 2. During the past two decades, the energy consumption (including bioenergy) of the country almost doubled, at an average growth rate of 4.4%. During the past decade, 2000–2010, oil consumption remained almost static while the consumption of natural gas increased significantly. During 2009–2019, indigenous oil production remained at a level above 65 000 to a maximum of 95 000 barrels per day (equivalent to about 16–21% of the country’s oil consumption) while the natural gas production in the fiscal year 2018–19(1) was 3 936 million cubic feet per day.
Coal consumption saw the highest growth rate during the year 2018–19, due to an increase in its use in cement and other industries. During 2018–19, local coal production was 5.5 million tonnes, while 15.7 million tonnes of coal was imported.
During 2018–19, the residential sector consumed almost half of the total electricity consumed, while hydropower provided 21.3% of the electricity in Pakistan.
Nuclear power contributed 8.4% to the total electricity generation of Pakistan in 2020–21 while its share in the total installed capacity was 6.3%. One unit of KANUPP-2/KANUPP-3, out of the two, became operational on 18 March 2021, making it the country’s sixth operational nuclear power plant and increasing the cumulative generating capacity to 2 530 MW, while the other unit of 1100 MW is under construction.
TABLE 2. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
|Final Energy consumption [PJ]||2000||2005||2010||2015||2019||Compound
rate 2000–2019 (%)
|Total||2 147||2 636||2 973||3 404||4 065||3.42|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||67||148||169||205||328||8.72|
|Bioenergy and Waste||987||1 112||1 244||1 383||1 503||2.24|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Total energy derived from primary and secondary generation sources. Figures do not reflect potential heat output that may result from electricity co-generation.
—: data not available.
Source(s): United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
Historically, the power sector of Pakistan has been under the ownership of two public utilities: the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC). KESC was responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electric power for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas, and WAPDA was responsible for the country’s remaining electricity supply system. The sharply rising demand for electricity at the turn of the past century surpassed all expansion expectations and the electricity generation infrastructure became inadequate
To improve the performance of the power sector, a new institutional framework was set up. The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) was established in 1997, as an independent regulator, to ensure a transparent, competitive and commercially oriented power market in Pakistan.
The Private Power Infrastructure Board (PPIB) was established to facilitate private investment in the power sector. The Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) was created to oversee the development of renewable energy resources. Development of nuclear power remained the responsibility of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).
The overall planning of the electricity system is under the control of the National Economic Council (NEC), which is the supreme body responsible for development activities in the country. It was created in December 1962 under Article 145 of the Constitution of Pakistan. The NEC is headed by the Prime Minister. Its members include Federal Ministers, the Governors/Chief Ministers of the provinces, and the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission.
The Planning Commission is the chief instrument for formulating the national plans, while the Energy Wing of the Planning Commission formulates energy plans based on information obtained from all concerned entities. The National Transmission and Despatch Company (NTDC) formulates detailed short and long term national electricity system expansion plans. The NEC approves all plans and policies relating to development of the energy and electricity sector. The Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC) supervises the implementation of the energy policy laid down by the Government, and approves any energy sector project to be built by the public sector.
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
The Ministry of Water and Power has recently been divided into the Ministry of Energy, responsible for development of power resources, and the Ministry of Water Resources, responsible for water resources in the country. The Ministry of Energy (Power Division) handles all issues related to electricity generation, transmission, distribution and pricing, exercising this function through respective organizations. It also performs specific functions such as coordination of power sector plans and formulation of policies and specific incentives, and liaises with provincial governments on all related issues.
The following entities are major stakeholders in the electricity sector of Pakistan.
18.104.22.168. Public Sector Generation Companies (GENCOs)
There are four GENCOs operating in Pakistan. Jamshoro Power Co. Ltd (GENCO-I) has one plant with a generation capacity of 880 MW. Central Power Generation Co. Ltd (GENCO-II), with a total generation capacity of 1790 MW, has four generation plants. Northern Power Generation Co. (GENCO-III), with a capacity of 2061 MW, includes three generation plants and, finally, Lakhra Power Generation Co. Ltd (GENCO-IV) has only one coal powered plant in Lakhra with 150 MW capacity.
22.214.171.124. Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA)
WAPDA is responsible for planning and execution of large hydropower projects. At present, WAPDA operates at 9389 MW hydroelectric capacity.
126.96.36.199. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
PAEC is responsible for planning, implementation, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. At present, a total of 2530 MW of nuclear capacity is installed, comprising six nuclear power plants: KANUPP (originally 137 MW, de-rated to 100 MW), CHASNUPP-1 (325 MW), CHASNUPP-2 (325 MW), CHASNUPP-3 (340 MW), CHASNUPP-4 (340 MW) and KANUPP-2 (1100 MW). The second unit at the KANUPP-2/KANUPP-3 site, which is under construction, has the same installed capacity of 1100 MW and will be operational by April 2022.
188.8.131.52. National Transmission and Despatch Company
NTDC is responsible for constructing, operating and maintaining the electricity transmission infrastructure of the country, which comprises transmission lines of 220 kV and 500 kV and grid stations linking all power plants of the country. It also provides services to the distribution companies in the design and construction of 132 kV transmission lines and grid stations.
184.108.40.206. Distribution companies
There are currently eleven electricity distribution companies operating in the country: Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO), Islamabad Electric Supply Company (IESCO), Gujranwala Electric Power Company (GEPCO), Lahore Electric Supply Company (LESCO), Faisalabad Electric Supply Company (FESCO), Multan Electric Power Company (MEPCO), Hyderabad Electric Supply Company (HESCO), Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO), Sukkur Electric Power Company (SEPCO), Tribal Areas Electricity Supply Company Ltd (TESCO) and K-Electric.
All these distribution companies, except K-Electric, are public entities. K-Electric, responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of power to the city of Karachi and surrounding areas (Uthal and Bela districts), has been privatized. It owns and operates a 2294 MW electricity generation capacity.
220.127.116.11. Private Power and Infrastructure Board
PPIB provides support to the private sector in implementing conventional power generation projects, including hydropower projects with a capacity of more than 50 MW. In Pakistan, 41 thermal independent power producers (IPPs) with a total installed capacity of 17 642 MW and 8 hydro IPPs with a total installed capacity of 472 MW are operational.
18.104.22.168. Alternative Energy Development Board
AEDB is responsible for promoting and facilitating the development of renewable energy resources in Pakistan. As of June 2020, 24 wind power plants with a total capacity of 1248 MW are operating. Twelve more wind power plants with a total capacity of 610 MW are under construction [3, 4]. Furthermore, 530 MW of installed capacity based on solar power and 369 MW based on bagasse is operating in the country.
National Electric Power Regulatory Authority
NEPRA is responsible for: (i) granting licenses for the generation, transmission and distribution of electric power; (ii) determining electricity tariffs for the consumers, transmitters, distributors and producers; and (iii) prescribing and implementing performance standards for generation, transmission and distribution companies.
Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA)
PNRA is responsible for granting licenses to all nuclear installations in the country, including nuclear power plants. The authority formulates and implements effective regulations to ensure safe operation of all nuclear installations, including nuclear power plants.
Indus River System Authority (IRSA)
IRSA is responsible for regulating and monitoring the distribution of water sources of the Indus River in accordance with the Water Accord amongst the provinces. The Indus River hosts all major domestic hydropower plants.
1.2.3. Main indicators
Table 3 reports the data of electricity production in the country over the past two decades and Table 4 provides energy related ratios.
TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
|Electricity production (GWh)||2000||2005||2010||2015||2019||Compound
rate 2000–2019 (%)
|Total||68 116||93 629||94 384||111 298||147 234||4.14|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||241||129||88||148||14 665||24.14|
|Oil||26 904||18 868||33 186||35 362||16 406||-2.57|
|Natural gas||21 780||41 286||25 879||35 001||53 132||4.81|
|Bioenergy and Waste||0||0||0||556||1 068|
|Hydro||17 194||30 862||31 811||34 633||44 884||5.18|
|Nuclear||1 997||2 484||3 420||4 605||11 268||9.53|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
—: data not available.
Source: United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Nuclear/total electricity (%)||-||2.8||2.6||4.4||7.1|
*Latest available data.
Source: RDS-1 and RDS-2
—: data not available.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
PAEC was established in 1955. The Ordinance for Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission was promulgated by the President of Pakistan and later approved by the National Assembly in 1965. The functions of PAEC include research work necessary for the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the fields of agriculture, medicine and industry, and the execution of development projects, including nuclear power plants for generation of electric power. The Commission is guided by the instructions, if any, given to it by the Government.
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
PAEC has a Chairman and nine full time members.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
Pakistan started construction of its first nuclear power plant, KANUPP, in 1966 in Karachi. The plant was connected to the national grid on 18 October 1972. KANUPP, a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) of 137 MW gross capacity, was constructed by Canadian General Electric (CGE) under a turnkey contract. In 1976, vendor support for the supply of spare parts and fuel was withdrawn. PAEC started manufacturing the required spare parts and nuclear fuel on an emergency basis and, since 1980, KANUPP has been successfully operating using fuel manufactured locally by PAEC.
Despite Pakistan’s interest in additional electricity generating nuclear power plants, the construction of the second nuclear power plant in the country started more than two decades later. This was due to international embargoes imposed on the access to nuclear technology coupled with a lack of domestic technological and industrial infrastructure. The construction of Pakistan’s second nuclear plant, CHASNUPP-1, a pressurized water reactor (PWR), was made possible in 1993 with the help of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). The plant started commercial operation on 15 September 2000 and has a gross capacity of 325 MW. Another unit at the same site and with the same design and capacity, named CHASNUPP-2, started commercial operation on 18 May 2011. Next to come at the same site was CHASNUPP-3, which started commercial operation on 6 December 2016 and has a gross capacity of 340 MW. Then another unit, CHASNUPP-4, with similar characteristics to CHASNUPP-3, started commercial operation on 19 September 2017. The Chashma site now has a total of four nuclear power units with a total installed capacity of 1330 MW. First concrete pours to mark the start of the construction of Karachi Coastal Power Project — a project containing two nuclear units, KANUPP-2 and KANUPP-3 (1100 MW each), based on an improved PWR design — were conducted on 20 August 2015 and 31 May 2016, respectively. One of these units was connected to the grid on 18 March 2021, while the other one is expected to start operation by April 2022.
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
Table 5 reports the status and performance of nuclear power plants in Pakistan.
TABLE 5: STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
* Net capacity factors for the year 2020 (from 1 January to 31 December)
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and license renewals
KANUPP, the oldest of the nuclear fleet of Pakistan, was designed to operate for 30 years. PAEC started working on life extension of KANUPP well before its design life came to an end, in 2002. Plant monitoring and periodic inspection indicated that major plant equipment, including fuel channels, steam generators, steam condensers, turbine generators, primary heat transport pumps and feeders, were all in good condition.
The project Safe Operation of KANUPP (SOK) was undertaken with the technical support of the IAEA to ensure safe operation by averting plant degradation due to ageing by introducing and adopting modern operational practices, in addition to improving the design to some extent. The scope of this project was later extended to include subproject Improve Safety Features of KANUPP (ISFK) and subproject Long Term Safety of KANUPP (LSFK).
Under a comprehensive balancing, modernization and rehabilitation (BMR) project, conventional equipment of KANUPP was upgraded (e.g. building chillers, service air compressors, power cables, condenser tubing, boiler cleaning and rehabilitation, etc.). KANUPP also replaced its obsolete regulating computers, control and instrumentation under the Technological Upgrade Project (TUP). Under TUP, most of the critical control and instrumentation loops and computers were replaced.
Various inspections and reviews of KANUPP were carried out after rehabilitation by international experts. On fulfilling the regulatory requirements of PNRA, KANUPP was granted a license to operate until 31 December 2010, but at a lower reference unit power level of 90 MW. The operation of KANUPP restarted in January 2004 and the refurbished plant operated safely after its makeover.
The plant then was shut down on 20 November 2010 for planned maintenance. The shutdown period was later extended to 6 June 2011 to complete tasks required for another license renewal. The major jobs carried out during this outage were: a fuel channel integrity assessment, an assessment of the habitability of the emergency control centre, water lancing of the steam generator and the creation of a critical safety parameter display system. After completion of these specified jobs, PNRA issued a permit on 6 June 2011 to allow KANUPP to operate up to a power level of 98 MW. In May 2013, KANUPP’s gross capacity was formally de-rated from 137 MW to 100 MW, effective from January 2004. The plant was permanently shut down on 1 August 2021.
After the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the Fukushima Response Action Plan was formulated for all the nuclear power plants in the country. Under the plan, internal safety reviews were carried out, the design safety of future plants was enhanced, safety against external hazards was upgraded and emergency response programmes were strengthened.
2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
Pakistan’s first nuclear power plant, KANUPP, was shut down on 1 August 2021, after 50 years of successful operation.
TABLE 6. STATUS OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor Unit||Shutdown reason||Decommission strategy||Current decommissioning phase||Current fuel management phase||Decommissioning license||License terminated year|
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The government, realizing the importance of nuclear power in securing electric supply, fuel diversity, environment, technological advancements, job creation etc., is keen to maintain a significant share of nuclear electricity in the energy mix of Pakistan. In line with these objectives, PAEC plans to improve the existing nuclear infrastructure and manpower to keep up with future nuclear power requirements. The plan also puts an impetus on nuclear technology indigenization that in turn will reduce import dependence and nuclear electricity generation cost.
TABLE 7. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit/ Project name||Owner||Type||Capacity (MW(e))||Expected construction start year||Expected commercial year|
|Future nuclear power plant||PAEC||PWR||1100||2021||2028|
2.3.2. Project management
The existing nuclear power plants of Pakistan and those under construction are considered turnkey projects. During construction and installation, PAEC has been involved in various project management activities. This experience will help PAEC to manage the construction phase of future nuclear power plants. The engineering and design offices of PAEC provide design and engineering services to the operational nuclear plants and those under construction, and will contribute to the construction of future nuclear plants in the country.
2.3.3. Project funding
CHASHUPP-1 was funded through government funds only. All other operating and under construction nuclear power plants were funded through net revenues from operating power plants, government funds and loans from banks. The funding for future nuclear power plants will be available from (i) government allocations for the power sector, (ii) income from sale of electricity from operational nuclear power plants, and (iii) loans from banks/ financial institutions.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
The construction, expansion and upgrading of the national electric grid are the responsibilities of NTDC.
PAEC has conducted detailed studies for all sites of existing nuclear power plants and those under construction. The sites meeting regulatory requirements of PNRA were selected and have the capacity to accommodate additional nuclear units. Additional sites are being investigated to extend the nuclear power programme.
2.3.6. Public awareness
Public awareness is enhanced through seminars, workshops and electronic/print media.
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
PAEC, CNNC and PNRA are involved in various phases of the construction of nuclear power plants in Pakistan.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
PAEC, PNRA, NTDC, NEPRA and CCPA are involved in the operation of nuclear power plants in Pakistan.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
PAEC and PNRA will be involved in decommissioning nuclear power plants in Pakistan.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
PAEC initiated nuclear fuel cycle activities in the early 1960s. A uranium ore processing plant, using indigenous ore, is in operation. Essential laboratory facilities have also been established to support exploration and ore process development work. Fuel for KANUPP is fabricated by PAEC.
Appropriate waste management systems have been designed for the KANUPP and CHASNUPP sites to remove radioactive waste from the plants. The radioactive waste management systems collect, store, allow sufficient radioactive decay and process the waste through filtration, ion exchange, evaporation, solidification, vitrification and drumming.
In addition, a project was started to develop a spent fuel dry storage facility to extend the life of KANUPP. This facility will also provide interim spent fuel storage of future nuclear power plants at this site.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
PAEC has the following research institutes/centres:
Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) engages in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, materials, safety, radioisotope applications and radiation protection;
Instrumentation, Control and Computers Complex (ICCC) oversees instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants, simulators, plant computer systems, etc.;
Engineering Design Organization (EDO) provides design and engineering services to operational, under construction and future nuclear power plants.
Research reactor facilities
Pakistan has two research reactors:
PARR-1, swimming pool type, 10 MW;
PARR-2, tank in pool type, 30 kW.
2.8.2. International cooperation and initiatives
Pakistan is a member of the IAEA, World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) and CANDU Owners Group (COG) and receives assistance from their programmes for enhancement of the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
The Directorate of Human Resource Development (DHRD) has the responsibility to plan, develop and implement human resource strategies to induct, retain and develop a knowledge workforce to implement the PAEC programme.
PAEC invests in human resource capacity building initiatives through its Human Resource Development Institutes (HRDIs) to fulfil the workforce requirements of the expanding nuclear power programme of the country. The HRDIs of PAEC have been making a significant contribution to the development of human resources in the field of science and technology in the country, in particular, in applications of nuclear science and technology. PAEC hires talent from a pool of nationally approved and chartered universities, including technical and vocational training institutes. The following HRDIs train and prepare the recruited young scientists, engineers and technicians in various disciplines every year using focused training programmes tailored to organizational needs.
2.9.1. Humans Resource Development Institutes
22.214.171.124. Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences (PIEAS)
PIEAS is one of the highest ranking engineering universities in Pakistan. It provides the core of human resource needs in fields that are essential for the technological development of Pakistan and PAEC, offering programmes in already established and newly emerging technological fields. PIEAS offers undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in various science and technology fields, as well as PhD programmes in various science and engineering disciplines. PIEAS also manages leadership development and management training programmes and organizes training courses in various specialized areas, such as nuclear security and physical protection systems. With the assistance of PNRA and the IAEA, PIEAS has established nuclear security education laboratories that are being used for national and international training courses.
PIEAS was designated an IAEA Collaborating Centre in December 2019, supporting Member States in research, development and capacity building in the application of advanced and innovative nuclear technologies.
126.96.36.199. Karachi Institute of Power Engineering (KINPOE)
KINPOE offers a postgraduate degree programme in nuclear power engineering and a one-year training course in nuclear power plant technology to engineering and science graduates. It also provides post-diploma training in nuclear technology to technicians, and retraining of plant operation personnel to meet licensing requirements.
188.8.131.52. CHASNUPP Centre of Nuclear Training (CHASCENT)
CHASCENT offers one-year training in nuclear power plant technology to engineering and science graduates. It also provides post-diploma training in nuclear technology to technicians and retraining of plant operation personnel to meet licensing requirements.
184.108.40.206. National Centre for Non-Destructive Testing (NCNDT)
NCNDT provides training in non-destructive testing techniques to engineers and technicians of PAEC and industry.
220.127.116.11. Pakistan Welding Institute (PWI)
PWI provides training in industrial welding techniques to professionals of PAEC and industry.
18.104.22.168. School of Mineral Technology (SMT)
SMT provides trainings in mining and mineral technologies to professionals of PAEC.
22.214.171.124. Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH)
PINSTECH is the premier R&D set-up within PAEC and offers on the job development of scientists and researchers. It has some of the most advanced operational research facilities and carries out multidisciplinary research. The scientists and engineers at PINSTECH also participate actively in joint research with various international scientific organizations, including the IAEA.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
PAEC has well established communication with national and international stakeholders (i.e. PNRA, NEPRA, IAEA, WANO, etc.).
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Submitting an emergency preparedness plan to PNRA is a mandatory prerequisite for the licensee. The requirements include classification of a nuclear emergency, urgent protective actions, information and instructions to the general public, medical response management, protective measures for the general public/workers/agriculture, conducting recovery operations, etc.
The emergency response plan requires attention to detail not only for the plant personnel but also for people, the environment and property that lie in the declared emergency zone according to the potential accident classification. The plan is unique for every nuclear power installation and involves coordination amongst many city administration offices that are trained for potential scenarios. Scheduled emergency scenarios that simulate different levels of disaster situation are periodically exercised to strengthen the coordination of the parties involved in the plan.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
With the promulgation of the PNRA Ordinance in January 2001, the PNRA was established as an independent nuclear regulatory body for regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection in Pakistan. The PNRA Ordinance empowers it to devise, adopt, make and enforce regulations for the protection of workers, the public and the environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiations.
3.1.2. Licensing process
PNRA has an elaborate licensing process that includes the following steps as per its Regulations for Licensing of Nuclear Installations in Pakistan-PAK/909 (Rev. 1):
Permission for commissioning;
Permission to introduce nuclear material into the installation;
Revalidation of operating license;
Licensing beyond design life;
License for decommissioning of a nuclear installation or closure of a waste repository;
Removal from regulatory control.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
Main laws in nuclear power:
Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Ordinance 2001.
Main regulations in nuclear power:
Pakistan Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Regulation 1990;
Regulations on Licensing Fee by Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PAK/900);
Regulations on Transaction of Business of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PAK/901);
Regulations on Radiation Protection (PAK/904);
Regulations for Licensing of Nuclear Safety Class Equipment and Components Manufacturers (PAK/907);
Regulations for Licensing of Nuclear Installation(s) in Pakistan (PAK/909);
Regulations on the Safety of Nuclear Installations — Site Evaluation (PAK/910);
Regulations on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants — Design (PAK/911);
Regulations on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants — Quality Assurance (PAK/912);
Regulations on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants — Operation (PAK/913);
Regulations on Management of a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (PAK/914);
Regulations on Radioactive Waste Management (PAK/915);
Regulations for the Safe Transportation of Radioactive Material (PAK/916);
Regulations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Installations (PAK/925)
Regulations on Security of Radioactive Sources (PAK/926)
Regulation on Decommissioning of Facilities using Radioactive Material (PAK/930);
Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Enforcement Regulation (PAK/950);
Trade Policy: 2012–15, Ministry of Commerce, Import Policy Order 2013, Export Policy Order 2013 and Import and Export Control Act 1950.
National Policy on Safe Management of Radioactive Waste, Decommissioning and Spent Fuel in Islamic Republic of Pakistan (RWP-01/2018).
National Safety Policy (NP-02/2020).
Regulations on Dispute Resolution (PAK/949).
Regulations for The Safe Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel (PAK/918).
Pakistan Energy Yearbook 2019 and earlier issues, Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
Hydro Potential in Pakistan, Water and Power Development Authority, Oct. 2013.
State of Industry Report 2019 and earlier issues, National Electric Power Regulatory Authority.
Alternative Energy Development Board website, http://www.aedb.org, accessed on 3 May 2021.
Power System Statistics 2019–20, 45th Edition, National Transmission and Despatch Company.
Medium Term Development Framework 2005–2010, Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan, May 2005.
APPENDIX I: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
Pakistan became a Member State of the IAEA on 2 May 1957 and has actively participated in the Agency’s activities. Pakistan has benefited from the IAEA’s Technical Cooperation and Assistance Programme (TCAP), and has also provided training to many scientists and engineers from other developing countries through TCAP.
Pakistan is party to various international, bilateral and multilateral agreements in the area of nuclear power and safeguards, concluded with IAEA. International agreements to which Pakistan is party are listed in the following tables.
Agreements with the IAEA
Project/Supply Related Safeguards Agreements
|34||Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1)||5 Mar 1962|
|116||Project agreements/Booster Rods for KANUPP||17 Jun 1968|
|135||Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP)||17 Oct 1969|
|418||Supply of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-1 (CHASNUPP-1)||24 Feb 1993|
|705||Supply of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-2 (CHASNUPP-2)||22 Feb 2007|
|816||Supply of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-3 (CHASNUPP-3)||17 May 2011|
|920||Supply of Karachi Nuclear Power Plants-2 & -3 (KANUPP-2/KANUPP-3)||18 May 2017|
Unilateral Safeguards Submissions
|393||Supply of miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR)/PARR-2||10 Sep 1991|
|Voluntary Reporting to IAEA on Exports of any Np and Am to CSA States||18 Jan & 4 Oct 2000|
|Improved procedure for designation of safeguard inspector||20 Dec 1988|
|Agreement on privilege and immunities with IAEA||16 Apr 1963|
Technical Cooperation Agreements
|Revised Supplementary agreements concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the IAERA (RSA)||22 Sep 1994|
|Regional Cooperative agreement for research, development and training related to Science and Technology (RCA)||6 Sep 1974|
International Conventions/Arrangements, etc.
|Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident||Took effect||12 Oct 1989|
|Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency ||Took effect||12 Oct 1989|
|Convention on nuclear safety||Took effect||29 Dec 1997|
|Convention on the physical protection of nuclear material||Took effect||12 Oct 2000|
|Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||Took effect||8 May 2016|
|Acceptance of NUSS codes||Decision on adoption of IAEA NUSS||May 1981|
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|NATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITY|
|Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1114,|
|Tel.: +92 51 9209032-7|
Fax: +92 51 9204908
|NATIONAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY AUTHORITY|
|Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA), P.O. Box 1912,|
|Tel.: +92 51 9263019|
Fax: +92 51 9263009
Dr. Ghiyas Ud Din,
Director (International Affairs),
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 1114, Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel.: +92 51 9246034, Fax: +92 51 9204908