POLAND

(Updated 2018)

PREAMBLE

This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Poland, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.

The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Poland.

No NPP is currently in operation, under construction, suspended or being decommissioned. Two nuclear power units at Zarnowiec, construction of which started in 1984, were cancelled in 1990 when only 40% of construction was complete. In 2009, Poland started a new nuclear power programme. In 2014 the Government adopted the Polish Nuclear Power Programme with the aim of having the first nuclear unit online by 2024. However, a number of factors have caused a setback and the goal is now the end of 2029. The programme envisages construction of two NPPs with a total capacity of ca. 6000 MW(e).

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION

1.1.1. Estimated available energy

TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES

Estimated available energy sources
Fossil Fuels Nuclear Renewables
Solid Liquid Gas Uranium Hydro Other
renewable
Total amount in specific units*  82.030  22  216  7272 n.a.  n.a. 
Total amount in exajoules (EJ)  1710.75 0.97   8.12 3.64  n.a.  n.a. 

* Solid, liquid: million tonnes; gas: billion m3; uranium: metric tonnes; hydro, renewable: TW.

n.a.: data not applicable.

Sources: Polish Geological Institute, Natural Resources Statistics for 2016 (Bilans zasobów zlóz kopalin w Polsce wg stanu na 31 XII 2016 r., Warsaw 2017); Red Book 2016 OECD–NEA; heat values based on IEA manual.

1.1.2. Energy statistics

TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS

Million Terajoule (TJ)
Average annual
growth rate (%)
Years 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2000 to 2016
Energy consumption**            
- Total 3.53 5.21 4.33 3.71 3.86 4.22 4.00 4.18 0.75
- Solids*** 2.90 4.02 3.30 2.36 2.29 2.29 2.02 2.05 –0.88
- Liquids 0.37 0.77 0.56 0.80 0.91 1.08 1.01 1.11 2.07
- Gases 0.22 0.37 0.38 0.42 0.51 0.54 0.58 0.61 2.36
- Nuclear
- Hydro 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00
- Other
renewables
0.03 0.03 0.07 0.16 0.19 0.30 0.38 0.33 4.63
Energy production      
- Total 4.00 5.10 4.34 3.29 3.26 2.79 2.82 2.78 –1.05
- Solids*** 3.76 4.85 4.14 2.96 2.86 2.31 2.24 2.18 –1.89
- Liquids 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 1.81
- Gases 0.18 0.19 0.10 0.14 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.43
- Nuclear
- Hydro 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00
- Other
renewables
0.03 0.03 0.06 0.15 0.18 0.28 0.35 0.33 5.05
Net import (Import– Export)    
- Total -0.46 0.11 0.03 0.37 0.67 1.32 1.17 7.46

** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import–Export) of secondary energy.

*** Solid fuels include coal, lignite.

Source: Eurostat online (Complete energy balances — annual data, nrg_110a) [retrieved 2018-05-10].

1.1.3. Energy policy

Adopted by the Government in November 2009, the main objective of the energy policy is to enhance the country’s energy security by observing the principle of sustainable development. The key directions of the Polish energy policy are:

  • To improve energy efficiency;

  • To enhance security of fuel and energy supplies;

  • To diversify the electricity generation structure by introducing nuclear power;

  • To develop the use of renewable energy sources, including biofuels;

  • To develop competitive fuel and energy markets;

  • To reduce the environmental impact of the power industry.

Polish energy policy is primarily driven by European Union directives and requirements. In particular, Poland is required to liberalize its electricity market in line with EU directives. The Polish electricity market gradually opened to competition in 1998 and was fully opened on 1 July 2007, in accordance with EU directives. At present, all customers are now eligible to choose their supplier. Poland also adopted all EU regulations regarding market liberalization and security of supply relatively quickly, compared with some other countries that started market transformation earlier.

Therefore, Poland focuses on maximizing the use of existing domestic energy resources. Also, as part of the EU’s “20-20-20” goals, the following targets were set for Poland for 2020:

  • Limit greenhouse gas emissions in the sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) to 14% above the 2005 level (binding target);

  • Reduce energy consumption by 20% of the projected 2020 levels (non-binding);

  • Increase the share of renewable energy to 15% of gross final energy consumption, including an increase of the renewables in transport to 10% (binding target).

Since October 2014, after the EU adopted new climate policy goals, Poland has sought to fulfil its obligation to reduce CO2 emissions in ETS sectors (which includes the power sector) by 43% in relation to 2005 levels. This will require a significant change in the Polish energy mix; nuclear power will play a vital role in the new mix.

1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM

1.2.1. Electricity policy and decision making process

The government aims to enhance the security of the electricity supply through the following measures:

  • Continuing to use coal as a domestic fuel for power generation to the extent possible in terms of new EU climate policy goals;

  • Building new generating capacity (including nuclear units and new highly efficient cogeneration plants);

  • Developing and modernizing the national transmission system;

  • Developing cross-border connections to an extent that does not jeopardize energy security and the safe operation of the power system;

  • Modernizing and extending the distribution grids.

The development of renewable energy sources and an increase in energy efficiency will also be beneficial for the security of the electricity supply.

Today, the Polish electricity sector is characterized by ageing infrastructure. More than 70% of its generating capacity is over 30 years old, emphasizing the requirement for substantial new investment in the short and medium term to satisfy electricity and heat demand. Electricity networks are witnessing similar investment challenges: nearly 80% of 400 kV lines and 99% of 220 kV lines are over 20 years old.

1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector

The Polish electric energy sector is divided into four subsectors — generation, distribution, transmission, and sales.

There are 17 large power plants (or groups of power plants) and 19 combined heat and power stations (CHPs). The total capacity installed in the electric energy generation sector is over 43 000 MW(e). Most power units date back to the 1970s and 1980s, and will have to be closed between 2020 and 2040.

There is only one national transmission system operator (PSE S.A., www.pse.pl), and the company is fully independent of other electricity activities.

Distribution system operators function as independent companies within four strong vertically structured groups (PGE, TAURON, ENEA, ENERGA) and one smaller DSO (RWE, now Innogy).

Electricity sales are carried out by approximately 100 companies. Since 2013, most of the electricity generated by Polish power stations has been traded on the Polish Power Exchange (https://tge.pl/en).

1.2.3. Main indicators

TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY

Average annual growth rate (%)
1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2000 to
2016
Capacity of electrical plants (GW(e))*              
- Thermal 11.38 20.66 25.99 28.37 29.78 29. 91 29.96 29.78 0.30
- Hydro** 0.74 1.30 1.89 2.18 2.32 2.34 2.37 2.39 0.58
- Nuclear              
- Wind       0.12  1.11 4.89 5.75 48.76
- Geothermal              
- Other renewable              
- Total 12.12 21.96  27.88 30.55 32.22 33.36 37.22 40.85 1.83
Electricity production (TWh)*            
- Thermal 62.64 118.59 120.13 128.10 139.45 138.25 137.40 136.95 0.42
- Hydro 1.89 3.28 3.28 4.07 3.74 3.46 2.41 3.06 –1.77
- Nuclear              
- Wind     0.14 1.66  10.73 12.28 55.98
- Geothermal              
- Other renewable       0.04  0.29  0.09  0.16 9.05 (for 2015) 
- Total1 64.53  121.87 123.41 132.21 143.62 143.46 150.70 152.00 0.88
Total electricity consumption (TWh) 59.02 109.44  124.71 124.58 131.19 144.45 150.37 164.63 1.11

1 Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.

* Net values.

** Excluding pumped storage.

—: no data available.

Sources: Eurostat online (Supply, transformation and consumption of electricity — annual data, nrg_105a, nrg_113a) [retrieved 2018-05-11]; www.pse.pl [retrieved 2018-05-11].

TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS

1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016
Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita) 108.09 145.80 111.10 97.24 102.21 109.28 103.41 n.a.
Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita) 1 807 3 063 3 276 3 257 3 438 4 092 4 283 4 388
Electricity production/Energy production (%) 5.8 8.6 11.96 15.89 17.49 20.21 20.96 n.a.
Nuclear/Total electricity (%) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ratio of external dependency (%)1 –13.03 2.11 3.31 9.4 17.69 31.3 29.2 30.3

1 Net import/Total energy consumption.

n.a.: data not available.

Sources: Polish Energy Market Agency report 2016; http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/en/web/products-datasets/-/T2020_RD320 [retrieved 2018-05-28]; https://www.iea.org/statistics/statisticssearch/report/?year=2015&country=POLAND&product=Indicators [retrieved 2018-05-28]; https://www.iea.org/... [retrieved 2018-05-28].

2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION

2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

2.1.1. Overview

The first plans to launch a nuclear power programme in Poland were made in 1956. Nuclear energy was perceived as a tool to reduce internal coal consumption (on which the entire Polish energy sector was based), as it would have made it possible to save precious natural resources or export the coal. Such a justification was found in the reports of scientific councils commissioned by the government.

A full nuclear fuel cycle was considered for Poland.

In the 1960s, plans to construct the first merchant ships with nuclear propulsion in the Gdansk Shipyard were made. For this purpose, designs of nuclear units with pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and SCHWR reactors were drafted. Due to the low price of oil on the global markets, these plans were stopped in the late 1960s.

Between 1945 and 1967 uranium was mined in several places in Poland, especially in the Sudety Mountains. The mining was carried out by a company called Zaklady R-1 (the ‘R-1 Facility’), where uranium ore with 0.2% uranium content was sold to the Soviet Union. Over 800 tonnes of raw material (calculated in respect to pure uranium) was obtained. In 1965, all the resources of uranium ore with 0.2% uranium content were mined out and at the same time the Soviet Union refused to buy the ore with lower uranium content. The management of Zaklady R-1 therefore decided to build a yellowcake production plant, which would deliver uranium concentrate for export purposes out of the ore with uranium content lower than 0.2%. The plant started production in 1967 and continued to operate until the end of 1972, when the Government Commissioner for Nuclear Energy decided to close down Zaklady R-1 due to uranium mining becoming unprofitable because of high mining costs, the low price of uranium ore on the global markets and the diminishing resources of uranium rich ore.

Until 1971, the Government had not made any binding decisions on the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs). In 1971, it decided to build the first nuclear plant and a year later it designated Zarnowiec near Gdynia (by the Baltic Sea) as its site.

TABLE 5. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN POLAND IN THE 1980s

Reactor
Type
Net capacity
Construction start
(first concrete)
Construction cancellation
Zarnowiec-1
WWER-440/213
427
3/1984
9/1990
Zarnowiec-2
WWER-440/213
427
3/1984
9/1990
Zarnowiec-3
WWER-440/213
427
Ground excavation works and reactor manufacturing were started
9/1990
Zarnowiec-4
WWER-440/213
427
Ground excavation works and reactor manufacturing were started
9/1990
Warta-1 (Klempicz)
WWER-1000/320
950
1988 (design works)
4/1989
Warta-2 (Klempicz)
WWER-1000/320
950
1988 (design works)
4/1989
Warta-3 (Klempicz)
WWER-1000/320
950
Not started
Warta-4 (Klempicz)
WWER-1000/320
950
Not started
Total net power (8 units)
5508 MW(e)

According to plans made in 1973, a total of 10 (7860MW(e)) or 12 (9860MW(e)) nuclear units across several locations were to have been commissioned by the end of 2000.

The construction of Zarnowiec NPP was delayed until 1982. It was to consist of four units with Soviet-designed WWER-440/213 reactors, which were to be upgraded in compliance with the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the requirements of the Polish nuclear regulator. Power units of Zarnowiec NPP were to be equipped with turbines of Polish production (manufactured on an ABB licence) in a single-unit system (one turbine per one reactor) with higher efficiency and power than typical Soviet turbines in a double-unit system (two turbines per one reactor). The gross electrical power was 465 MW(e) instead of 440 MW(e). Moreover, the whole turbine island was designed in Poland and it was to be supplied with equipment provided by Polish manufacturers with a localization rate of 70%. Units 3 and 4 were to be CHP units and supply heat for the needs of the central heating system of the Tri-city area (Gdansk–Sopot–Gdynia). The power plant was to be cooled by water from Zarnowieckie Lake (open cooling system). Economic considerations resulted in slow progress, but the quality was high due to the implementation of the first Polish quality assurance system.

The high quality of civil works was confirmed by the IAEA’s pre-OSART mission, carried out between 2 and 15 September 1989. Next, from 26 to 30 March 1990, a successive IAEA mission — the Site Safety Review Mission — confirmed the suitability of the Zarnowiec site selection. From 26 to 27 April 1990 and 29 April to 4 May 1990, the IAEA held a mission to evaluate the containment structure and confirmed the quality of its design and realization. However, on 4 September 1990, the Government decided to cancel construction and scrap the project. At that time, the completion rate of the NPP was 40%, though the infrastructure was at 90%. The equipment that had been ordered was subsequently sold or scrapped. It is estimated that the decision to cease the construction caused direct losses of at least USD 2 billion (in 2014 prices).

A second power plant was also planned. In 1987 the government assigned its location in Klempicz to the north of Poznan. The construction (designing, ground excavation and infrastructure construction) was started in 1988 and stopped in 1989. That power plant was to have a closed cooling system with cooling towers and it was to be based on four WWER–1000/320 units of Soviet design, similar to the Temelín NPP in the Czech Republic.

2.1.2. Current organizational chart(s)

FIG 1. Current organizational chart.

In the model of Polish nuclear power, the four following main subjects can be distinguished:

  1. The Nuclear Energy Department of the Ministry of Energy (NED ME), which supports the appropriate Minister for Energy in outlining and coordinating the strategy of nuclear power development implementation. Outlines of nuclear energy development will be prepared by NED. NED ME acts as the Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO).

  2. PGE EJ1 is a state controlled energy utility, an investor in and future operator of the first NPP. It is directly owned by the PGE Polska Grupa Energetyczna S.A., together with other power utilities, such as Tauron S.A., Enea S.A. and KGHM S.A. (a mining company), as minority owners.

  3. PAA (Panstwowa Agencja Atomistyki, National Atomic Energy Agency) is a national nuclear regulator.

  4. ZUOP (Zaklad Unieszkodliwiania Odpadów Promieniotwórczych, Radioactive Waste Management Plant) is a radioactive waste management state utility which will deal with the radioactive waste generated by NPPs. A substantial part of the costs of radioactive waste management, including spent fuel from NPPs, will be covered by the operator (investor) of the NPP.

2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW

2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants

TABLE 6. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Reactor Unit Type Net
Capacity
[MW(e)]
Status Operator Reactor
Supplier
Construction
Date
First
Criticality
Date
First Grid
Date
Commercial
Date
Shutdown
Date
UCF
for
2017
ZARNOWIEC-1 PWR 427 Cancelled Constr. EJZ SKODA 1984-03-01 1990-09-04
ZARNOWIEC-2 PWR 427 Cancelled Constr. EJZ SKODA 1984-03-01 1990-09-04
Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).
Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.

2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals

Not applicable.

2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER

The introduction of nuclear power is a primary aim of the Polish energy policy, as stipulated in the Polish Energy Policy until 2030 (EPP 2030). The first nuclear unit is planned to start operation by 2029 and a total of 6000 MW(e) is to be commissioned in the 2030s. The Government (Council of Ministers) adopted the Polish Nuclear Power Programme (PNPP) on 29 January 2014.

2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy

The EPP 2030, adopted by the Council of Ministers on 10 November 2009, envisages nuclear power development in the medium term (i.e. into the 2020s).

The Ministry of Economy is currently working on an update — Polish Energy Policy until 2050 — which takes into account the new framework of EU climate policy and its deep CO2 emissions reductions goal. The draft document recognizes nuclear power as a main tool for implementation of EU climate policy. On 29 January 2014, the Council of Ministers adopted the Polish Nuclear Power Programme (PNPP). The programme initially stated that the construction of the first nuclear unit should start in 2019 and should be commissioned by the end of 2024, at the latest. It was planned that by 2035 two plants would have started operation, each with a total capacity of about 3,000 MW(e) (net) (i.e. 4–6 power generating units).

The PNPP is available here:

http://www.mg.gov.pl/...

After performing some technical and economic analyses, the investor (owner/operator) will make a decision about the possible use of the plant for heating purposes (CHP).

2.3.2. Project management

Refer to Section 2.1.2.

The Nuclear Energy Department of the Ministry of Energy plays the role of NEPIO.

The nuclear regulator is the president of the National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA), operating with the assistance of the agency, who is responsible for nuclear regulation in Poland.

The activities of the president of the NAEA, as a central body of government administration for nuclear safety and radiological protection, are regulated by the Act on Atomic Law of 29 November 2000 (Dz. U. [Journal of Laws] 2007. No. 42. Item 276 with subsequent amendments). In June 2011, the Parliament endorsed an amendment to the Atomic Law which came into effect on 1 July 2011. Its aim was to adjust the Atomic Law to the regulations of the nuclear regulator and to transpose the 2009/71 Euroatom Directive of 25 June 2009, determining a common nuclear safety framework for nuclear facilities, into Polish law. New implementation regulations to the Atomic Law have also been published. They contain the requirements on nuclear safety and radiological protection, in particular the criteria for site location; design; safety analyses and a safety report; and commissioning, operation and decommissioning of a nuclear power facility.

Since 1 January 2002, the president of the NAEA is subordinate to the Minister of the Environment.

The significant elements of the nuclear safety and radiological protection system implemented by the president of the NAEA are the following:

  • Regulating the activities for which nuclear materials and ionizing radiation sources are used, realized through granting permissions for such activities or their registration;

  • Regulating the methods employed in these activities and regulating occupational radiation doses;

  • Supervising training of nuclear regulatory inspectors and inspectors of radiological protection (experts in nuclear safety and radiological protection functioning in units operating on the basis of granted licences) and employees working with ionizing radiation. Maintaining control over radioactive material turnover;

  • Maintaining a record of radioactive sources and their users. Maintaining a central record of individual doses, and, in the case of activities employing nuclear materials, administrating a detailed register and accounts of them; endorsing plans of physical protection and control of applied technologies;

  • Monitoring radiation on the territory of Poland through coordination (together with standardization) of operation of local facilities measuring radiation doses, radionuclide content in chosen elements of natural environment and in drinking water, food products and fodder;

  • Maintaining services ready to recognize radiation conditions and to react in the case of radiation occurrences (in cooperation with other bodies and services operating within the National Emergency Response System);

  • Performing activities with the aim of fulfilling Poland’s duties resulting from treaties, conventions and international agreements on nuclear safety and radiological protection.

In reference to nuclear power facilities (including power plants), radioactive waste repositories as well as radioactive waste and spent fuel storage bunkers, the president of the NAEA grants permissions within nuclear safety and radiological protection for their:

  • Construction;

  • Commissioning;

  • Operation;

  • Decommissioning.

As of 2016, the number of employees in the NAEA was 120.

In addition to the nuclear regulator, there is an Office of Technical Inspection, which regulates conventional parts of NPPs such as turbines, generators, cranes, non-nuclear pipes and cables. However, it is only a support institution for the NAEA, as the NAEA is the only nuclear regulator.

Radioactive Waste Management Utility (ZUOP)

ZUOP operates national radioactive waste repositories and will also build a spent fuel repository in the future. Financial responsibility for waste handling will go to the nuclear power facility operator, who will be obliged to accumulate funds for this purpose and to finance activities in this field.

Owners/operators of nuclear power facilities

The owners/operators of nuclear power facilities will be responsible for a number of duties, in particular following:

  • Accumulating funds for preparation of storage and the storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel;

  • Accumulating funds for decommissioning of nuclear power facilities;

  • Decommissioning of facilities after their operation cycle has finished;

  • Fulfilling legal requirements of legal liability for nuclear damage;

  • Emergency planning.

After an NPP completes its lifetime, the operator will be obliged to decommission the facility according to NAEA requirements resulting from the accepted schedule of decommissioning.

Throughout the whole period of construction preparation, construction, operation and decommissioning of the plant, the investor/operator will be obliged to carry out informational and educational activities directed at the host and neighbouring communities of the nuclear facilities. In particular, the investor/operator is obliged to set up a centre (for each nuclear power facility) which would perform the role of information and education centre for nuclear power.

Other national institutions

According to IAEA recommendations, the responsibilities of the national administration in managing nuclear power development should be delegated to a specially appointed organizational unit NEPIO. Currently, this role is played by the Department of Nuclear Energy in the Ministry of Energy.

Duties within the field of nuclear power development will be carried out by the following institutions:

  • Ministry of Energy — NEPIO;

  • National Atomic Energy Agency — nuclear regulator;

  • Energy Regulatory Office (ERO);

  • Office of Technical Inspection (OTI) and other Polish inspection institutions;

  • Institutions concerned with environmental protection and industrial development;

  • Institutions responsible for safety, physical protection and emergency planning;

  • Local governor (‘Voivoda’) from the province where the investment will be located.

Additionally, the realization of the nuclear power programme will require the participation of many other ministries and offices (Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Ministry of National Education, Ministry of Entrepreneurship and Technology, Ministry of Investment and Economic Development, Ministry of the Interior and Administration, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Infrastructure, Ministry of Labour and Social Policy, Ministry of Regional Development and Internal Security Agency) .

The duties of the two most important institutions for the implementation of the programme (NAEA and ME) were described earlier in this section.

Other ministries and national administration offices are engaged directly or indirectly in the realization of the PNPP:

The President of the Energy Regulatory Office

As is the case for other electrical energy and heat producers, NPP operators will be required to obtain a licence for electrical energy production (and perhaps also heat) issued by the president of ERO.

The Office of Technical Inspections (OTI) and other inspection institutions in Poland

These will carry out all technical inspection activities not connected with nuclear safety and radiological protection (NSRP).

The Voivoda appropriate for the province where the investment is to be located

The Voivoda from the province where the investor (owner/operator) is interested in constructing a power plant will issue a decision on site indication and a decision about the location of the nuclear power facility.

2.3.3. Project funding

An estimated cost of main Government activities related to nuclear power programme implementation from 2014 to 2030 is projected to amount to about PLN 489.963 million (ca. EUR 117 million). A detailed list of expenses can be found in appendix 2 of the PNPP (pages 144–145):

[http://www.mg.gov.pl/...] (up to 2024)

The NPP itself may be financed using various sources. Currently, the government is preparing a new financing scheme not based on British type CfDs, as was preferred until 2015.

2.3.4. Electric grid development

FIG 2. Scheme of the extra high voltage National Transmission Network (NTN).

The National Transmission Network (NTN) is comprised of 220 kV and 400 kV lines. The 220 kV network is well developed and interconnected, whereas the 400 kV network is relatively well developed only in the south of the country. In eastern and northern Poland there are still ‘radial’ lines which are at particular risk of disturbances and lengthy blackouts.

One of the most important barriers for introducing new units of over 1000 MW(e), regardless of type, to the Polish Power System (PPS) is the lack of an adequately developed 400 kV transmission network. Moreover, a proper level of active power (second and minute redundancy) regulation services should be provided. Together with the development of nuclear power, decisive steps must be taken to accelerate the activities connected with the development of the network regarding both the stations and the network.

The only transmission system operator (TSO) in Poland is Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne S.A. (PSE).

In 2013, PSE and PGE commissioned a feasibility study of NPP connection to the grid. The results indicate that there are no major technical obstacles, though some reinforcement of the transmission system in northern Poland will be needed. The cost of reinforcement will be included in the NPP project and the increase in NPP investment costs will be moderate.

2.3.5. Site selection

In 2009, the Ministry of Economy updated the list of NPP sites considered up to 1990 in cooperation with local authorities. New proposals from local authorities were also collected. On this basis, a new list of 28 potential locations of NPPs was prepared.

In 2010, the Ministry of Economy commissioned A Study of Criteria of Nuclear Power Plant Locations and Their Initial Evaluation. This study ranked locations based on the considerations of expert opinions, using 17 evaluation criteria.

The results were published on the Ministry of Economy web site and passed on to the potential owner/operator of the first Polish NPP for further research and analysis.

PGE SA started further analyses of the first four sites on the list (Zarnowiec, Warta–Klempicz, Kopan, Nowe Miasto). Choczewo and Lubiatowo–Kopalino joined the other sites due to their coastal location, which is characterized by more favourable cooling conditions than those of locations inland, and potentially better economic conditions for electrical energy production. In November 2011, PGE selected three sites for detailed studies: Choczewo, Gaski and Zarnowiec. The last one was a site of NPP construction during the 1980s, with available infrastructure and with detailed environmental, seismological, hydrogeological, meteorological and other relevant documentation based on previous studies. The Gaski site is no longer being considered due to a lack of local public acceptance.

The most important factors taken into account in the process of site selection are: the area available for the construction of the power plant and its facilities, access to sufficient amounts of cooling water and raw water (for technological and social needs), the possibility of power take-off from the plant, the geological structure and seismic stability of the area, hydrogeological characteristics, population density and distribution in the vicinity of the plant, restrictions on the construction and operation of the power plant due to the conditions of the surrounding area, including environmental protection area development, accessibility to communication routes, lack of threats from nature or human activities and suitable meteorological conditions.

In January 2013, PGE concluded a tender for performing detailed site studies for three potential sites indicated by the owner/operator. The winning bid was made by Worley Parsons. However, in December 2014 the utility cancelled the contract with Worley Parsons due to significant delays caused by the contractor. PGE declared the studies will be carried on by the utility itself with the help of subcontractors.

2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs

Chapter XV of the Polish nuclear energy policy (PNEP) is focused on localization issues relating to Polish industry. One of the intentions of the Government is to increase the involvement of Polish industry in the future nuclear market as much as reasonably possible. The localization ratio included in the policy accounts for: 10% in the first year of construction, 30% at the end of first unit construction, and 60% in total. In the first phase of the PNPP (2014–16), the following activities were foreseen: comprehensive inventory of industry and informative activities for Polish industry. In the second stage, the Ministry of Economy was appointed to draft the policy to support Polish industry in the process of introducing nuclear power.

Since 2014, the Ministry of Economy (currently the Ministry of Energy) is leading broad and direct dialogue with Polish industry with the aim of assessing national competencies, qualifications and experience in nuclear power. By direct questioning and through some of the chambers of industry, the Ministry created a comprehensive image of the current situation in Polish industry from a nuclear point of view. Below are some of the most important conclusions:

  1. Despite the fact that Poland is not yet a nuclear country, Polish industry does have some nuclear competencies and experience gained abroad (mainly in the EU) and domestically for the R&D sector (i.e. for the MARIA research reactor facility).

  2. Up to May 2018, the Ministry of Energy (created in October 2015 on the basis of energy departments from the Ministry of Economy) had identified:

    • more than 60 Polish companies with recent nuclear experience (at least one nuclear project in the past 10 years). Most of those projects were delivered for NPPs in the EU, and some outside the EU (including Canada, India, Japan, Mexico, Russian Federation, Ukraine);

    • an additional 25 Polish companies with nuclear certification/accreditation but no experience in specific projects);

    • another 21 Polish subsidiaries of foreign/multinational companies with Polish experts who have carried out a nuclear project in the past 10 years.

In addition, another 220 Polish companies/Polish subsidiaries have sufficient capabilities and competencies to be used for nuclear purposes. For example, these identified companies have a sufficient and mature quality management system (confirmed by ISO9001, 14001 and 18001 certificates) and experience from non-nuclear sectors (coal, gas, renewable and other industry projects) so that implementation of a nuclear project will require only a minor (or major but acceptable) adjustment process.

  1. In terms of specialization, Polish companies currently have sufficient competencies to carry out most balance of plant (BOP) activities (excavation, civil works, manufacturing and assembly of steel structures and heat exchangers and most of the other components), some of the turbine island and some of the nuclear island’s activities. The aim of the Ministry of Energy is to increase the group of above mentioned specializations in order to carry out more activities in the turbine and nuclear island.

  2. The Ministry of Energy also identified organizations that have expressed an intention to carry out common work to prepare the national industry for cooperation with the nuclear power sector. Some of the chambers of industry, technology parks, associations of engineers and scientific laboratories are already undertaking a first initiative for Polish industry (training seminars and conferences, publication of related articles in specialized newspapers). The role of the Ministry of Economy is now to coordinate these different initiatives and to initiate the next ones. Since 2015, the Ministry has organized various technical seminars (on nuclear codes, norms and standards in civil works, electric, welding area of nuclear project) for local industry. The Ministry is actively promoting national industry on international markets in order to facilitate access for nuclear projects.

2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs

At present, there are no NPP operators in Poland. A company owned by the PGE S.A. will be the first operator in Poland.

The National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ) in Otwock operates the MARIA research reactor.

2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs

In Poland, there are no companies with experience in decommissioning NPPs. However, the RWMP has experience in research reactor decommissioning.

2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT

At the moment, there are only two plants in the Polish nuclear fuel cycle: an interim storage pool for spent fuel at the site of the nuclear research centre in Otwock (RWMP is its operator) and a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Rózan (NRWR, operated by the RWMP).

Between 1945 and 1972, there were several uranium mines in operation, together with uranium mills and a small scale concentrate production facility. The Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology carried out research in the field of spent fuel reprocessing.

The uranium ore resources studied so far contain between 250 to 1100 ppm of uranium, and those mined in the 1950s typically contained approximately 2000 ppm.

TABLE. 7. RESOURCES OF URANIUM ORE IN POLAND (THE FORECASTED RESOURCES ARE AT A DEPTH OF MORE THAN 1000 M)


Region of Poland

Identified resources of pure uranium [tonne]
Uranium
content in the ore [ppm]
Forecasted resources
[tonnes of pure uranium]
Rajsk (Podlasie)
5320
250
88 850
Peribaltic syneclise


20 000
Okrzeszyn (Walbrzych Basin, the Sudety Mountains)
940
500–1100

Grzmiaca in Gluszyca Dolna (the Sudety Mountains)
792
500

Wambierzyce (the Sudety Mountains)
220
236
2000

Source: OECD NEA Red Book, 2008.

Polish resources are rather poor. Some of them (Wambierzyce, Grzmiaca, Okrzeszyn), however, have a special advantage, including bedded deposits with uniform character, which have enabled regular exploitation through the years. It is also possible to recover uranium from copper deposits in the region of Lubin–Sieroszowice. The uranium content in this ore is of about 60 ppm, at 2% of copper content. The total resources of this ore are approximately 2400 million tonnes, including 48 million tonnes of copper and 144 thousand tonnes of uranium. At present, annual production in the Lubin–Sieroszowice area is about 569 thousand tonnes of copper, and the amount of dumped uranium comes to about 1.7 tonnes/year. There are also other unconventional uranium resources; for example, in ash from coal fired power plants.

There are significant other unconventional uranium resources in Poland. They occur, among others:

  • In waste from the phosphate fertilizers industry;

  • In ash generated from the combustion of hard and brown coal;

  • In sediments from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

Due to the lack of thorough overviews regarding uranium resources in Poland, one of the aims of the activities described in the Programme of Activities for the Years 2009–2013, Appendix 3 to the Energy Policy of Poland until 2030 is Studies of Uranium Resources in the Territory of Poland.

In 2014, Poland completed a geological and technological analysis and modelling for the process of uranium extraction from low grade Ordovician Dictyonema shale (black shale type). Analysis demonstrates that the costs of obtaining raw material for production of 1kg of uranium would be several times higher than the current market price of that metal. In addition, reserves of uranium in waste heaps from prospecting and extractive operations in the Sudety Mountains in the years 1948–1967 are estimated at 10 to 30 tU.

In 2017, on an order from the Ministry of Energy, an analysis of the unconventional uranium was prepared. It is the basis for further actions which will focus on the feasibility of obtaining uranium as waste from:

  • Phosphate fertilizers industry;

  • Cuprum mining;

  • Combustion of hard coal (coal ash).

The issue of radioactive waste management arose in Poland in 1958, when the first nuclear research reactor, EWA, started operation in the Institute of Nuclear Research in Swierk. A significant development of radioactive isotope applications in different sectors of the national economy, which took place at the beginning of the sixties, caused an immediate need to deal with the problem of waste management. The solution to the problem was to locate a repository in Rózan and commission the site in 1961.

In Poland, the manager of the facility where radioactive waste is produced is responsible for its interim storage, administration and treatment. However, the only Polish company authorized to treat and store radioactive waste so far is the state company of public utility RWMP, which is responsible for proper handling of radioactive waste from the moment the waste is transferred over from the producer.

RWMP collects liquid and solid low and intermediate level radioactive waste, used closed radioactive sources and smoke detectors. The main source of low level liquid radioactive waste is the MARIA reactor, which produces about 90% of all the liquid waste. Intermediate level liquid waste can result as a production of radioactive sources and in some cases by decontamination of contaminated surfaces.

A significant amount of solid radioactive waste (40%) originates in the centre in Swierk, its source being the research reactor MARIA and the plant producing radioactive isotopes (the Institute of Atomic Energy POLATOM, Radioisotope Centre). Radioactive reactor based waste comes from (among other sources): filters (from cooler purification and ventilation systems), post-decontamination waste and out of service parts of reactors. The remaining 60% comes from hospitals all over the country and from other companies which use isotope techniques.

RWMP is both the operator and user of the NRWR. The NRWR is situated in Rózan by the Narew River, about 90 km from Warsaw. It is located on the site of a former fort with an area of 3.045 ha. NRWR has been operating since 1961 and according to MAEA classification it is a surface type repository.

This repository is designed to store short lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste and to provide interim storage of long lived waste. The waste is stored in the fort’s concrete facilities, partly covered with earth (facilities 1, 2, 3 and 3a). Parts of the western moat are also used (facility 8).

The amount of radioactive waste for interim or final storage reaches 45 m3 a year. This is the solid or solidified waste of 70 tonnes mass, which takes up 80 m3 (35 m3 of this are binding materials, mainly concrete). The solidified waste is transported to NRWR.

According to estimations made by RWMP, the NRWR will be full around 2025, so the process of locating a new site for low level and intermediate level waste disposal is ongoing. The new repository is expected to be in operation before NRWR in Rózan is closed.

2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

2.8.1. R&D organizations

In Poland, there are several research institutes related to nuclear energy. Four of them are supervised by the Minister of Energy:

The National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Otwock-Swierk, was created in 2011 through the merging of the POLATOM Institute for Atomic Energy (IEA) and the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ) (which originate in the Institute of Nuclear Research, founded in 1955), with the aim to optimize the management of resources located in the Swierk Research Centre. The institute is equipped with the 30 MW(th) MARIA research reactor and deals with reactor physics and nuclear engineering, nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, application of nuclear techniques in industry, science, environmental protection, solid state physics, and computing techniques. It also carries radioisotope production and irradiation services as a part of the global radioisotope supply chain.

The Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (ICHTJ), Warsaw, specializes in radiation chemistry and technology, application of nuclear methods in material and process engineering, design and production of instruments based on nuclear techniques, radiation analytical techniques and environmental research. Basic research is focused on radiochemistry, chemistry of isotopes, physical chemistry of separation processes, cellular radiobiology and radiation chemistry.

The Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR), Warsaw, carries out work in the fields of monitoring environmental radioactivity; personal dosimetry; controlling the use of radioactive sources; research on mechanisms of influence of radiation upon biological organisms; behaviour of radionuclides in the environment; development of dosimetry methods; calibration, control and standardization of dosimetry equipment; and training for radiological protection officers.

The Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion Institute (IFPiLM), Warsaw, carries out studies in basic plasma physics and its implementation in the area of magnetic confinement fusion, inertial confinement fusion and pulsed high power technology. Most research and technology related projects are carried out with international cooperation in the framework of the fusion programme of the Euratom community, High Power Energy Research (HiPER) project and other European projects.

There are also many institutes and other scientific and research centres dealing with nuclear energy (including power), physics, chemistry and nuclear medicine:

The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), Kraków, specializes in theoretical and experimental research in the following fields: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of the structure of the nucleus and of nuclear reaction mechanisms, studies of the structure, interactions and properties of condensed matter, and applications of nuclear methods in geophysics, radiochemistry, medicine, biology, environmental physics and materials engineering.

The Institute of Heat Engineering of the Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering of the Warsaw University of Technology (ITC), Warsaw, pursues its research activities in the following main areas: clean coal technologies; fluidized boilers; methods for modelling boilers and turbines under off-design conditions; research methods in transitional states; power system structures; communal and industrial power economy; fuel cells in power technology; flow and heat meters (for certification purposes); retrofits of small and medium size steam turbines; retrofits of steam boilers, especially the fluidized ones; power unit simulators; advanced control devices; reliability problems in power engineering systems and energy supply; centrifugal pumps; power plants; power management (environmental protection, central heating); characteristics of large pumps — in situ measurements; experimental studies of combustion phenomena such as ignition, flame propagation, detonation of gaseous and heterogeneous mixtures, flammability and explosive limits, suppression of combustion and explosions; computer simulations of combustion and detonation processes; measurement and recording of extremely high speed processes; measurement of thermal properties; heat storage; computer methods in heat transfer; thermoelectric energy conversion, current generation; photothermal solar energy conversion; sources and energy conversion.

The Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science of the University of Science and Technology (AGH), Krakow, is involved in theoretical and experimental aspects of elementary particle physics, solid state physics, theoretical and computing physics, nuclear electronics, radiation detectors, X ray fluorescence and micro dosimetry, hydrology and gas chromatography, nuclear geophysics, effective energy conversion, medical physics and industrial radiometry. The research programmes are carried out in close collaboration with many international laboratories and centres (e.g. DESY, CERN).

Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Lódz University of Technology (MITR), Lódz, specializes in physical chemistry, with an emphasis on radiation chemistry and radiochemistry, as well as many topics in chemical physics, photochemistry and spectroscopy, polymeric physicochemistry, biophysics and biochemistry.

The above listed research institutes together with other institutes and universities will comprise TSOs (technical support organizations) for nuclear regulators and/or operators of a nuclear facility. In 2011, the NAEA signed respective agreements on cooperation with IEA POLATOM (now NCBJ) and the PAN Institute of Geophysics.

2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies

Poland does not have its own nuclear industry yet, and is collaborating with other countries on the development of new technologies in the meantime. Polish institutes (mainly NCBJ and IChTJ) are involved in the EURATOM framework. NCBJ is involved mainly in Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) activities, among them the Allegro gas cooled reactor project and the European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII), also a coordinator of the NC2I project focusing on the nuclear cogeneration concept. IFPiLM and NCBJ are involved in the ITER project on the scientific and technical level.

2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives

Aside from the projects mentioned in Section 2.8.2, Poland is a member of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) and of the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) (formerly the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)). The institutes take part in numerous activities carried out by different organizations and platforms such as: EURATOM Supply Agency, OECD–NEA, IGD-TP, COST, IRPA, MELODI. The IChTJ is a Collaborating Centre for Radiation Processing and Industrial Dosimetry of the IAEA.

2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

On 14 October 2016, the Government drafted a report on the implementation of the Polish Nuclear Power Programme (PNPP) and imposed an obligation on the Minister of Energy to prepare and submit an updated PNPP implementation schedule, including the assumptions concerning the optimal model of investment financing.

In the PNPP (stage 5, Action for Human Resources Education and Training for Institutions and Enterprises Related to Nuclear Power) there is a task to develop a Human Resources Development Plan for Nuclear Power and prepare the authorities to issue appropriate decisions and opinions.

The development of a Human Resources Development Plan for Nuclear Power that meets the conditions of adequate detail requires precise knowledge of the:

  • Size of the nuclear project in Poland (number and size of the reactors which influence directly the number and type of staff required to build and operate a nuclear power plant/plants);

  • Dynamics of the nuclear project realization (when the qualified and trained personnel will be required);

  • Knowledge of the technology that will be selected by the owner/operator for deployment in Poland (each potential technology requires a different number of power plant employees, types of training, types of jobs, etc.);

  • Knowledge of the model of the owner/operator’s cooperation with the technology provider on how to distribute know-how about human resources development.

Taking the above into account, the Framework Plan of the Human Resources Development for the Needs of Nuclear Power was prepared and adopted by the Ministry of Energy on 28 June 2016 with the recommendation “to prepare information on organizational systems solutions, especially human resources development, in exemplary nuclear power plants in the world.” The relevant information was prepared and presented to the Ministry of Energy.

The plan defines the objectives and tasks to be implemented in the period preceding the preparation of the National Human Resources Development Plan for the Needs of Polish Nuclear Power. The plan shows aggregate data and contains action plans at the strategic and national level. This document does not replace Human Resources Development (HRD) plans that need to be prepared by all PNPP stakeholders, in particular the PAA (regulator) and the owner/operator. These plans should include a recruitment system, career paths and skills development, job motivation and retention of competent staff.

The plan contains 22 tasks to be realized between the 3rd quarter of 2016 and the 4th quarter of 2017. Seven of the tasks planned for realization in 2016 were completed, leaving 15 tasks remaining for implementation in 2017. However, the lack of a decision on the size of the nuclear project to be implemented in Poland in addition to ongoing work on updating the PNPP has led to the postponement of implementation for some of the above. Information on the state of implementation for the 15 tasks to be realized in 2017 is provided below:

  • Five tasks will be realized after the adoption of the new PNPP by the Council of Ministers;

  • Four tasks will be realized periodically (HRD by main stakeholders, higher education sector situation, next phase of the strategic project, teacher trainings);

  • Three tasks will be completed after the technology is chosen;

  • One task will be realized by the reactor MARIA operator (information on the possibilities of using MARIA for education and training);

  • One task was completed (stakeholders’ HRD plans);

  • One task is continuously being realized (publishing of teaching aids).

In 2016, the NED ME conducted a survey of the higher education sector in Poland in order to gather information on the nuclear activities of the sector. A total of 62 universities and other advanced schools were contacted and 33 declared some nuclear activities.

The received information was subjected to qualitative analysis and resulted in four subsequent studies in the form of reviews:

  1. Nuclear power and nuclear medicine in academic education. Part I. Review of public educational offerings, academic year 2015/2016.

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear medicine in academic education. Part II. Review of public educational offerings, academic years 2016/2017 and 2017/2018.

  3. Nuclear power and nuclear medicine in academic education. Part III. Overview of current and planned support forms, academic years 2015/2016, 2016/2017 and 2017/2018.

  4. Nuclear medicine in academic education.

The results of the survey are described briefly, as follows:

  • Generally, Polish universities (mainly technical, general, medical and defence) are able to educate engineers (BSc, MSc) for Polish NPPs.

  • Four universities (AGH, Lublin University of Technology, Lódz University of Technology and Gdansk University of Technology) offer doctoral studies (PhD).

  • Some universities are able to offer postgraduate studies, but because of a lack of student interest, the recruitment process was stopped. These universities include AGH, Gdansk University of Technology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin and Wroclaw University of Technology.

  • The education plans for the academic years 2016/17 and 2017/18 show that the universities planning to offer nuclear education are mainly technological universities, universities, medical universities and defence universities.

  • Many universities (in the report 8 were mentioned) provide education in English.

  • The information obtained from the universities indicates the initial phase of the application of distance learning.

  • The universities are also active in the scientific and research area — national as well as international.

Conclusions of the studies conducted:

  • Nuclear power is still a niche subject in academic education. Candidates and students have serious doubts about taking up education in the field of nuclear power and the opportunity to get a job in the industry, as a consequence of the uncertainty regarding implementation of the PNPP. The government’s declaration concerning the PNPP’s implementation may have a key impact on students’ increased interest in nuclear science as well as the activation and use of universities resources — programme and human resources based.

  • Universities point to the lack of nuclear power in regional strategies, as it is not part of the funding of many programmes. They underline serious equipment shortages, lack of training programming (e.g. simulators), and lack of government funding programmes, among others. Building a student laboratory, difficulties with access to data (improved lately with Poland’s Data Bank NEA/OECD membership), and problems in providing students with internships and practices in the field of nuclear power.

  • Universities appreciate the IAEA’s support in the use of materials. At the same time, they point to the general nature of these materials and the lack of specialized materials concerning processes in irradiated nuclear fuel in quantitative terms, nuclear reactor steering methods, nuclear fuel processing processes, etc.

However, despite all this, universities are ready to train engineers for NPPs in Poland. Universities are pursuing and planning various activities related to nuclear energy and provide education at different levels, faculties and specializations. Some of them also have offerings in English. Numerous universities carry out research projects in cooperation with foreign partners by organizing conferences, seminars, training, courses and summer school programmes in addition to trips to nuclear facilities. Universities are also trying to implement e-learning and often use IAEA resources. In general, universities are open to domestic and foreign cooperation with other universities, research institutes and industry.

The next phase of the higher education sector survey will be conducted in 2018 (the survey is conducted every two years).

2.10. STAKEHOLDER COMMUNICATION

Public communication in the area of nuclear power is enriched by dialogue with citizens as well as interested social organizations and institutions. Such communication should take feedback from the stakeholders into account.

As provided by the Polish Atomic Law, the Minister of Energy is obliged to promote public information, education and popularization, as well as scientific, technological and legal information regarding nuclear power. The law also requires the President of the NAEA to provide information on NSRP.

According to the public opinion poll conducted for the Ministry of Energy in November 2017, support for nuclear energy in Poland reached a level of 59%. Roughly 65% of the Polish population considers nuclear power an important tool to fight climate change. For 67% of Poles, construction of NPPs will enhance the country’s energy security. Simultaneously, 90% of the population expect an information campaign on nuclear power to be undertaken.

Both the Ministry of Energy and the owner/operator are engaged in an array of informative activities regarding nuclear power, including the information campaign ‘Get to know atom. Let’s talk about Poland with energy’, a Ministry of Energy project, and PGE’s information campaign ‘Knowing the atom’.

The consultation and debate process for a nuclear power programme has involved a number of various stakeholder groups, including local governments, business self-governments, economists, energy experts, sociologists, activists of organizations and institutions opposing nuclear power, as well as representatives from public trust professions.

As far as dissemination of knowledge on nuclear power is concerned, the National Centre for Nuclear Research as well as the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology conduct intense activities in support of this objective.

Informative actions and some educative activities on the local as well as national level should be carried out and financed by the owner/operator, owing to their importance for efficient conduct of the project and, thereafter, functioning of the NPP.

The Local Information Centre (LIC) is an important element of public communication. Every owner/operator is obliged to form such an LIC within the community that is the prospective location of a nuclear power facility, by the date the permit for construction of the nuclear facility is requested, at the latest. The owner/operator is thereafter bound to run the centre’s operations until decommissiong. The LIC is the information desk from which the investor and, subsequently, the operator conducts the informational, educational and promotional actions on nuclear power. The investor/operator (PGE EJ1) has already launched Local Information Centres in the Choczewo, Gniewino and Krokowa communities.

The area in which a prospective NPP may be located may be required to set up a Communal Information Point (CIP) where information, education and promotional activities on nuclear power can be conducted. Ongoing public support for nuclear power is one of the major conditions for implementation of a successful PNPP. It is based on public access to reliable and updated knowledge and information on nuclear power and the progress of the PNPP. Moreover, it calls for a broad consensus and political consistency during preparation and implementation of the PNPP, as well as appropriate regulations in this respect. It is also necessary to observe and account for the opinions of stakeholders and local communities in prospective locations for NPPs.

The process of public information dissemination and education must be a continuous action delivered at the preparatory and implementation stages of the PNPP. Knowledge of nuclear energy and nuclear power engineering is complex; moreover, these issues are burdened with numerous myths and negative associations.

Public Education

As shown by public opinion research, knowledge about the power industry, nuclear power, ionizing radiation and nuclear physics could be improved in Poland. Hence, continual educative activities still require a stronger substantive foundation.

In line with the Polish Atomic Law, informative activities in the area of nuclear power will be conducted by ME, PGE, RWDE, and the NAEA. Such activities will be carried out on both the national and local level — in the considered and assigned locations for nuclear facilities. The investor ought to be responsible for such actions.

An important element of educational action will be the educational activities offered for primary and upper secondary students and teachers. Educational actions will encompass: training the teachers and enriching their skills and tools (preparing scripts for classes, organizing demonstration lessons at schools, preparing interactive presentations and educational materials) and organizing conferences, seminars, lectures, exhibitions, competitions, excursions and related activities.

Public education will be carried out using all the available forms of communication (Internet, television, radio, daily press, periodicals, trade press), including ‘Scholaris’ — the specialist knowledge portal for teachers.

In order to increase reliable public knowledge on nuclear energy (and, as part of that knowledge, knowledge of nuclear power), educational and informational actions should be conducted on a regular basis.

3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS

3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)

The NAEA is an institution of nuclear regulation. The agency was founded in the early 1980s and managed the licensing process of the Zarnowiec NPP and other nuclear facilities in Poland.

The activities of the president of the NAEA are described in Section 2.3.2.

The Atomic Law and other acts for implementing the law define regulations on the requirements for:

  1. Radiological protection (of employees, population and patients).

  2. Nuclear and radiation safety, including:

    • Safety of nuclear facilities;

    • Handling of nuclear materials and sources of ionizing radiation;

    • Radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel;

    • Transport of radioactive materials and sources as well as spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste;

    • Evaluation of radiation conditions and emergency procedures.

  3. Physical protection (of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials).

  4. Non-proliferation of nuclear materials and technologies (protection).

  5. Legal liability for nuclear damage.

3.1.2. Licensing process

The licensing process is regulated by the Amendment to the Atomic Law accepted by the Parliament and signed by the President in June 2011.

3.2. MAIN NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS ON NUCLEAR POWER

The Polish legislative system builds heavily upon the legal output of the international community. Poland has ratified and implemented all the international agreements indispensable for ensuring the legal framework for use of nuclear energy; as a member of EURATOM, Poland has also incorporated the European acquis in this respect. Alongside treaties and conventions, community directives and regulations applicable within the Polish law are also certain non-binding provisions of numerous instruments — the so-called soft law — of which IAEA’s Safety Standards recommendations are the major ones.

The civil use of nuclear energy is regulated by the Act on Atomic Law of 29 November 2000, with more detailed regulations being laid down in the secondary legislation. The act was substantially amended in 2011 and 2014 following the decision of the Polish Government to introduce nuclear power:

  • An Amendment to the Atomic Law Act (in force as from 1 July 2011) has altered and significantly extended the provisions regulating the matters relevant to nuclear facilities. It determines the basic requirements of nuclear safety and radiological protection on the siting, design, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, with the more detailed regulations set in the secondary legislation. The amended Atomic Law Act also determines the issues of civil responsibility for nuclear damage, the procedure of preparation and updating the state’s strategy in the field of nuclear power, as well as the obligations of nuclear facility operators to raise public awareness on the operation of such facilities. The amendment was to implement the directives of the Council Directive 2009/71 Euratom of 25 June 2009 in the Polish regulations, establishing a community framework for the safety of nuclear installations.

  • An amendment to the Atomic Law Act from 2014 was prepared in order to implement the Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom in the Polish national legislation.

    The directive imposes upon the Member States the obligation to introduce national legal, regulatory, and organizational frameworks ensuring a high level of safety of management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The basic instrument ensuring the delivery of the obligations from this directive is the national plan for management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, as compiled and implemented, on an obligatory basis, in each Member State.

The Atomic Law Act enables the implementation and delivery of the Polish Nuclear Power Programme, whereas the subsequent amendments to this act will ensue from the need to implement the new legal acts of the European Union and the new needs identified in the course of application of the act in question and stemming from the changing realities, including those related to the development of nuclear power.

The second law applying to nuclear facilities is the Act on the Preparation and Implementation of Investments in Nuclear Power Facilities and Accompanying Facilities, adopted by the Parliament in 2011. Its main objective is the implementation of regulations enabling an efficient process of preparation and execution of the construction of nuclear power facilities. The act determines general principles and conditions for development and construction of a nuclear power plant and associated facilities. It includes the conditions for issuing a location permit as well as the conditions an investor must meet to obtain the title to the site where the plant is to be located. The aforementioned regulations are vitally important for national energy safety due to high investment and financial risks.

The issues of environmental protection are regulated by the Act on Nature Conservation of 16 April 2004, together with implementing acts (Dz.U. [Journal of Laws] No. 62, Item 627 with subsequent amendments) and also the Act of 18 July 2001, Water Act (Dz.U. [Journal of Laws] No. 115, Item 1229).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Polish Nuclear Power Programme (in Polish), http://www.mg.gov.pl/...

Energy Policy of Poland until 2030,

National Atomic Energy Agency,

www.paa.gov.pl

PGE Polska Grupa Energetyczna S.A.,

www.pgesa.pl

National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ),

www.ncbj.gov.pl

Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology,

www.ichtj.waw.pl

APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

International treaties, conventions, and agreements signed/ratified by the country and cooperation agreements with the IAEA in the area of nuclear power.


Title
Date of entry into force
Date of signature
Date of Poland’s ratification
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, made in Moscow and London on 1 July 1968
5 March 1970
1 July 1968
3 May 1969
Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials together with Appendixes I and II, opened for signature in Vienna and New York on 3 March 1980
8 February 1987
3 March 1980
8 September 1983
Convention of Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, made in Vienna on 26 September 1986
24 April 1988
26 September 1986
24 April 1988
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, made in Vienna on 26 September 1986
24 April 1988
26 September 1986
24 April 1988
Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, made in Vienna on 21 May 1963
23 April 1990

8 December 1989
Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (on liability for nuclear damage), made in Vienna on 21 September 1988
27 April 1992
21 September 1988
27 April 1992
Convention on Nuclear Safety, made in Vienna on 20 September 1994
24 October 1996
20 September 1994
14 June 1995
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10 September 1996
Treaty did not come into effect
24 September 1996
25 May 1999
Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, made in Vienna on 5 September 1997
18 June 2001
3 October 1997
9 March 2000
Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, signed in Brussels on 17 April 1957
1 May 2004
16 April 2003
23 July 2003
An agreement between the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, signed in Brussels on 5 April 1973
1 March 2007

2 August 2006
Additional Protocol to the
Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998
1 March 2007

2 August 2006
An Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials, adopted in Vienna on 8 July 2005
Amendment did not come into effect
8 July 2005
20 April 2007

Bilateral agreements with other countries or organizations signed/ratified by the country in the field of nuclear power.

Country — signatory to the agreement
Name
Date
Austria
Agreement between the Government of the Polish People’s Republic and the Government of the Republic of Austria on Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection,
made in Vienna on 15 December 1989
1989-12-15
Belarus
Agreement between the Government of the Polish Republic and the Government of the Belarus Republic on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Cooperation in the Field of Radiological Safety,
made in Minsk on 26 October 1994
1994-10-26
Czech Republic
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Poland and the Government of the Czech Republic on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and on Exchange of Information on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection,
made in Vienna on 27 September 2005
2005-09-27
Denmark
Agreement between the Government of the Polish People’s Republic and the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark on Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection,
made in Warsaw on 22 December 1987
1987-12-22
Germany
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Poland and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Exchange of Information and Experience and on Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, made in Warsaw on 30 July 2009
2009-07-30
Lithuania
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Poland and the Government of the Republic of Lithuania on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and on Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection,
made in Warsaw on 2 June 1995
1995-06-02
Norway
Agreement between the Government of the Polish People’s Republic and the Government of the Kingdom of Norway on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and on Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection,
made in Oslo on 15 November 1989
1989-11-15
Russian Federation
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Poland and the Government of the Russian Federation on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities and on Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection,
made in Warsaw on 18 February 1995
1995-02-18
Slovakia
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Poland and the Government of the Slovak Republic on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Exchange of Information and on Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection,
made in Bratislava on 17 September 1996
1996-09-17
Ukraine
Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Poland and the Government of Ukraine on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Exchange of Information and on Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection,
made in Kiev on 24 May 1993
1993-05-24

APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES

Name
Activity
Contact data
Ministry of Economy, Department of Nuclear Energy
Acting as NEPIO (Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization)
Pl. Trzech Krzyzy 3/5
00-507 Warsaw
tel.: (+48 22) 693 49 79
fax: (+48 22) 693 40 51
www.mg.gov.pl
National Atomic Energy Agency — NAEA
Nuclear regulator
Panstwowa Agencja Atomistyki
ul. Bonifraterska 17,
00-203 Warszawa
tel.: (+48 22) 628 27 22
fax: (+48 22) 695 98 00, 629 01 64
www.paa.gov.pl
PGE Polska Grupa Energetyczna S.A.
Main national nuclear utility
ul. Mysia 2
00-496 Warsaw
tel.: (+48 22) 340 1053
fax: (+48 22) 340 1041
www.pgesa.pl
Radioactive Waste Management Plant
Radioactive waste management
ul. Andrzeja Soltana 7
05-400 Otwock-Swierk
tel.: (+48 22) 718 00 92
fax: (+48 22) 718 02 57
zuop@zuop.pl
www.zuop.pl
Office of Technical Inspection
Regulator of pressure vessels, cranes, and conventional parts of nuclear facilities
ul. Szczesliwicka 34
02-353 Warsaw
tel.: (+48 22) 57 22 100
fax: (+48 22) 822 72 09
udt@udt.gov.pl
www.udt.gov.pl
Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection
TSO to NAEA in the area of radiological protection
ul. Konwaliowa 7
03-194 Warsaw
tel.: (+48 22) 811 00 11
fax: (+48 22) 811 16 16
dyrektor@clor.waw.pl
www.clor.waw.pl/
Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
Radiation chemistry and technology, application of nuclear methods in material and process engineering, design and production of instruments based on nuclear techniques, radiation analytical techniques and environmental research
ul. Dorodna 16  
03-195 Warsaw
tel.: (+48 22) 504 12 20, 504 10 00
fax: (+48 22) 811 19 17, 811 15 32
ELEKTROBUDOWA Katowice S.A.
(Nuclear) electrical equipment manufacturing, installation and commissioning
ul. Porcelanowa 12
40-246 Katowice 
tel.: (+48 32) 259 01 00
fax: (+48 32) 205 27 60
elbudowa@elbudowa.com.pl
www.elektrobudowa.pl/pl/
ZT-B POLBAU Sp. z o.o.
(Nuclear) civil works
45-054 Opole
ul. Grunwaldzka 25
tel.: (+48 77) 454 32 88
fax: (+48 77) 453 00 19
marketing@polbau.pl
www.polbau.pl
ENERGOMONTAZ-Pólnoc (Polimex-Mostostal S.A.)
(Nuclear) shop manufacture and prefabrication of piping and steel components
al. Jana Pawla II 12
00-124 Warszawa
tel.: (+48 22) 583 60 00
fax: (+48 22) 583 60 06 info@energomontaz.com.pl
www.energomontaz.com.pl
Erbud International Sp. z o.o.
(Nuclear) civil works, reinforced steel construction
ul. Wapienna 10
87-100 Torun
tel.: (+48 56) 658 00 10
fax: (+48 56) 658 00 20
torun@erbud.pl
www.erbud.de/pl/
KMW Engineering Sp. z o.o.
Ventilation and AC systems
ul. Powstanców 8a
86-050 Solec Kujawski
tel.: (+48 52) 569 80 00
fax: (+48 52) 569 80 01
kmw@kmw.pl
http://kmw.pl/
Machine Tool Factory
RAFAMET S.A.
Production of high quality machine tools for manufacturing reactor pressure vessels
ul. Staszica 1
47-420 Kuznia Raciborska
tel.: (+48 32) 721 33 00
fax: (+48 32) 419 12 51
fax: (+48 32) 419 13 66
rafamet@rafamet.com.pl
www.rafamet.com/pl/

Name of report coordinator

Lukasz Sawicki
Department of Nuclear Energy
Ministry of Energy
Zbigniew Kubacki
Department of Nuclear Energy
Ministry of Energy
Contact:
Pl. Trzech Krzyzy 3/5
00-507 Warsaw
Poland

lukasz.sawicki@me.gov.pl
tel.: (+48 22) 693 47 10
fax: (+48 22) 693 40 51
Contact:
Pl. Trzech Krzyzy 3/5
00-507 Warsaw
Poland

zbigniew.kubacki@me.gov.pl
tel.: (+48 22) 693 48 45
fax: (+48 22) 693 40 51