This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Romania, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs).
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Romania.
Romania has two nuclear power units in operation at Cernavoda that supplied approximately 18% of Romania’s total electricity production in 2019 and is planning expansion of its nuclear power programme.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
The energy sector contributes to the development of Romania, influencing the economy, quality of life and the environment. In order to sustain consumer expectations for the long term, Romania’s energy sector seeks to become more robust from the economic point of view, more advanced from the technological point of view and overall less polluting.
Romania’s energy policy is harmonized with European policies and focuses on three pillars: ensuring energy security, competitiveness and sustainability. Achieving these goals requires the transformation of the energy system by developing the necessary infrastructure, which is the substance of a new national strategic project.
In the context of European energy and climate change policies, in place since 2007, Romanian energy policy must account for the energy and environmental objectives adopted by the European Council for 2030, as well as the initiatives launched by the European Commission to set up the Energy Union and promote the Clean Energy Package. Within this context, European energy and climate change policies will affect the development of a new Romanian energy strategy that will fit in the context of the agreed objectives at the European level:
A mandatory European Union level target of reducing domestic greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990;
A European Union wide target of 27% renewable energy consumption by 2030;
An indicative European Union target of improving energy efficiency by 32% by 2030;
The completion of an internal energy market by meeting the goal of a 15% interconnection target by 2030.
The draft strategy is still being developed, taking economic competitiveness into account, in addition to the accessibility to consumers and the participation of Romania to achieve European decarbonization targets, according to national specificities.
The draft strategy has five fundamental objectives:
Ensuring energy security;
Creating a competitive energy market, strongly integrated into regional markets and the European single market;
Promoting clean energy — bolstering clean, low carbon energy sources in line with European policy and the provisions of the Paris Agreement;
Modernizing the energy governance system;
Reducing energy poverty and protecting consumers.
Romania seeks to maintain a balanced energy mix that ensures energy security and balances energy independence provided by the efficient use of national resources and interconnectivity with neighbouring countries in the region as an alternative, including in critical situations. It is intended to keep diverse fuels — oil, natural gas and coal in addition to uranium — as a part of the energy mix over the upcoming decades, in parallel with the increasing contribution of renewable resources. In light of these considerations, the main directions of action of the energy policy are the following:
Continuing infrastructure development and natural gas supply;
Increasing the flexibility of the national energy system through digitization and smart networks and by developing the category of active consumers;
Developing high efficiency cogeneration, in parallel with the modernization of district heating systems;
Increasing the energy efficiency of homes to mitigate energy poverty;
Reducing the level of energy poverty and protecting consumers.
Source: Romanian Energy Strategy Project 2016–2030, with the perspective of 2050.
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
Table 1 contains information on available energy by source.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES (optional, n.a.)
|Total amount in specific units*||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.|
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.|
*Solid, liquid: million tonnes; gas: billion m3; uranium: metric tonnes; hydro, renewable: TW.
**All information about national resources in Romania is classified.
n.a.: Data not applicable.
1.1.3. Energy statistics
Table 2 contains energy statistics.
TABLE 2. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
|Compound annual growth rate (%)
2000 to year*
2000 to year*
|Final Energy consumption [EJ]
|- Natural Gas||0.57||0.58||0.46||0.38||0.42||-0.018|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
—: data not available.
Source(s): United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1 ;
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
The national power system represents all the power plants that are involved in the production, transport, distribution and operation of electricity. National power system operations depend on the situation of these installations and on issues related to energy resources, market elements and the requirements of regulations in the field. Currently, Romania has a balanced and diversified energy mix, owing to the existence and capitalization of its energy resources, which makes the national energy sector competitive at the regional level.
Coal is a basic component of the energy mix, being a pillar of national energy security.The power plants are the first energy units built into the system, yet much of these generating capabilities are over 30 years old. At present, programmes are under way to upgrade, modernize, and invest in environmental improvements for these energy units according to the European requirements. The biggest problems faced by coal units are mainly related to adaptation to environmental requirements and to the increasing price of CO2, which implicitly leads to an increase in the price of energy produced and a decrease in the competitiveness of these units in the energy market.
In extreme weather, both in summer and winter, coal fired power plants cover about one third of the electricity demand when other energy sources become unavailable. Natural gas has a share of about 30% of domestic primary energy consumption. Hydropower plants contribute between 15 and 20% of electricity production, depending on the availability of resources. The renewal of the hydrocarbon capacities is related to a significant upward trend in capabilities in the coal sector. The new technologies of these units, with quick start and combined cycle (steam/gas), give them an important role in balancing the national power system.
Nuclear power, a low carbon energy source currently accounting for a significant share of total national electricity production (about 18%), is a core component of Romania’s energy mix, supported by an internal infrastructure covering an open nuclear fuel cycle, which allows the country independence in the production of nuclear energy.
Romania has rich and varied renewable energy resources as well, including: biomass, hydropower, geothermal potential, wind, solar and photovoltaic energy. Development potential in the biomass sector is still high, especially through efficiency and the introduction of new technologies, such as biorefineries and biogas production capacities. Judicious management of forests is a basic condition for the use of wood for energy. Geothermal resources are only marginally exploited in Romania, but there is a potential for increasing the use of these resources in the coming decades.
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
The transmission and system operator, Transelectrica S.A., coordinates the power flows of the national power system by controlling dispatchable production units. The dispatchable units are those which, from the National Energy Dispatcher, can be switched on, switched off or adjusted in terms of power. Although dispatching involves additional costs for manufacturers, it makes it possible to balance the national power system in extreme situations. Of the total gross power available of nearly 20 000 MW, only 3000 MW are non-dispatchable.
In Romania, the distribution of electricity is a regulated activity being carried out by eight distribution operators to which the State has leased the power distribution service. In this sector, sustained investment is required to achieve a high level of performance, in line with consumer expectations as well as their degree of supportability. Electricity distribution operators attach great importance to investments in upgrading and developing maintenance networks and operations, which aim to improve the quality of consumer services and food security, among others.
1.2.3. Main indicators
The main electricity production indicators are shown in Table 3, and Table 4 contains energy related ratios.
TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
|Compound annual growth rate (%)
2000 to year*
Electricity production (TWh)
|- Natural Gas||G||-||-||-||-||-|
|- Bioenergy and Waste||G||-||-||-||-||-|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
—: data not available.
Source: United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Nuclear/total electricity (%)||10||8||19||18||18|
*Latest available data.
Source: RDS-1 and RDS-2
—: data not available.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Dates of reference in the Romanian nuclear energy field:
1968 — Launch of the national nuclear programme.
1970 — Inauguration of the Heavy Water Pilot and Nuclear Power Plants and Facilities Design Division.
1971 — Founding of the Institute for Nuclear Technologies as a technological support for the nuclear power programme in Romania.
1976 — Completion of the Romanian–Canadian feasibility study for the Canada deuterium–uranium (CANDU) system in Romania.
December 1978 — Contracts between ROMENERGO and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) for the takeover of the CANDU system licence and for design and procurement of the nuclear equipment for Unit 1 are concluded.
February1981 — Contracts between ROMENERGO and Ansaldo (Italy) and General Electric (United States of America) for the conventional part (balance of plant) of Unit 1 are concluded.
1982 — First containment concrete is poured (reactor building base slab).
December 1985 — Delivery on-site and installation of the calandria vessel for the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1.
1989 — Installation of the fuel channels at the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1.
December 1989 — Romanian revolution; the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 is 45% complete.
July 1990 — The first Pre-Operational Safety Review Team (Pre-OSART) mission of the IAEA to the Cernavoda NPP, which leads to the recommendation of creating a management team with international experience in nuclear power projects.
August 1991 — The management contract with AECL–Ansaldo Consortium is concluded.
May–June 1995 — The fuel loading of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1.
16 April 1996 — The first criticality of the Unit 1 reactor.
11 July 1996 — The first synchronization to the grid of Unit 1.
2 December 1996 — Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 is declared to be in commercial operation.
30 June 1997 — The transfer of Unit 1 management and operation responsibilities from AECL–Ansaldo Consortium to Romanian personnel.
2 July 1998 — The creation of the national company Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica S.A. (SNN) by dividing the RENEL energy conglomerate, with SNN on one side and the Autonomous Authority for Nuclear Activities on the other.
30 September 1999 — Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 ranks tenth in world capacity.
February 2003 — Canadian, French, Italian and US loan agreements are signed with Societe Generale, Credit Lyonnais and the Romanian Bank for Development for Unit 2 completion.
24 March 2003 — The contract for the completion and commissioning of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 enters into force.
30 March 2004 — European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) loan is approved by the European Commission, subject to the implementation of a well defined improvement package.
December 2005 — The completion of Unit 2’s main systems and transfer of procedures to the commissioning team, comprising a total of 154 systems.
6 May 2007 — The initiation of the chain reaction (criticality) at Unit 2, at 23:25 hours.
7 August 2007 — The first synchronization of Unit 2 with the national grid, at 25% of the reactor’s capacity of 700 MW(e), at 17:21 hours.
12 September 2007 — Unit 2 reaches full power for the first time during commissioning tests.
28 September 2007 — The management of Unit 2 is turned over to SNN.
5 October 2007 — The official inauguration of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2.
25 March 2009 — Incorporation and registration of EnergoNuclear project company, responsible for the construction of Units 3 and 4.
November 2010 — The European Commission grants a positive opinion on Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 in compliance with the provisions of Article 41 of the FORATOM Treaty, which certifies the application of technical and nuclear safety criteria.
25 September 2013 — The environmental agreement for continuation of the construction work and completion of Units 3 and 4 is obtained.
November 2013 — Listing of SNN shares on the Bucharest Stock Exchange.
August 2014 — The Government of Romania and the SNN general meeting of shareholders approve the strategy for the continuation of Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 and the launching of a new selection procedure for investors. An extensive negotiation process with the selected investor was carried out until 2019 aiming at concluding the investment documents; a revision of the strategy was approved in 2018 amending certain procedural aspects.
12 June 2020 — The general meeting of shareholders (GMS) approves the items introduced on the agenda of the Extraordinary General Meeting of Shareholders by the majority shareholder, the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment, regarding the abrogation of the strategy for the continuation of the project (2014 and 2018 revision), and the empowerment of the Board of Directors to cease the negotiations with CGN. The Board of Directors of SNN is also empowered to take the necessary actions for the assessment and crystallization of the strategic options regarding the construction of additional nuclear energy production capacity in Romania.
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
FIG. 1. The main players involved in the nuclear power programme.
The main institutional pillars (Fig. 1) of Romania’s nuclear field are the following:
The energy sector is under the supervision of the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment, which formulates policies and strategies. The Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment establishes the national strategy in the energy field and is the major shareholder in the nuclear energy production sector, nuclear research and engineering, nuclear fuel and heavy water production.
The Ministry of the Environment, Waters and Forests is the central authority for environmental protection and has specific responsibilities in this domain in the licensing and control of nuclear installations.
The National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the nuclear safety and security regulatory authority of Romania, responsible for the regulation, licensing and control of nuclear activities, ensuring the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the protection of the public and workers from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation.
The Nuclear and Radioactive Waste Agency (ANDR) is a specialized authority of the central public administration, acting as a legal entity coordinated by the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment. It is responsible for promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the related research and development programmes. ANDR is the national competent authority responsible for coordinating the pre-disposal management of spent fuel and radioactive waste from operations and decommissioning, being responsible for its safe disposal.
SNN is the owner and operator of the Cernavoda NPP. The company includes two subsidiaries (not legal persons), one for nuclear power production (Cernavoda NPP) and one for nuclear fuel production (Nuclear Fuel Plant — FCN Pitesti). SNN is a government owned company, coordinated by the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment. The company was listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange in 2013 and, in its current shareholding structure, the Romanian State (through the Ministry of Energy) owns 82.49% percent of the shares. The remaining percentage is owned by Fondul Proprietatea (7.05%) and other shareholders (10.46%). Its main activities include electrical power and heat production, NPP construction and commissioning and nuclear fuel fabrication.
The state owned nuclear energy company (RATEN) is the strategic legal entity in Romania coordinating research and development (R&D) activity in the nuclear energy field, and maintains and develops the scientific and technologic support for the national nuclear energy programme. RATEN is subordinated to the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment and manages two subsidiaries: the Institute for Nuclear Research (RATEN ICN) and the Centre of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects (RATEN CITON). The two organizations provide scientific, technical and engineering support (as technical support organizations) for the safe operation of the Cernavoda NPP new build and for the other installations and projects that are part of the national nuclear power programme.
The National Uranium Company (CNU), government owned and subordinated to the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment, is responsible for uranium mining and milling activities, including geological research and exploitation activities for uranium ores, ore processing and refining, and commercialization of dioxide of uranium (UO2) and octoxide of uranium (U3O8). Currently, CNU is undergoing reorganization. As per the strategy for the diversification of the raw material supply sources necessary for the production of nuclear fuel approved by SNN GMS on 25 April 2018, SNN is carrying out due diligence for the potential takeover of the Feldioara U3O8 processing line of CNU. As per Law No. 193/2018, the UO2 produced by CNU is sold at a regulated tariff and SNN procures it given the availability of the stock and the fulfilment of the quality criteria.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit||Type||Net capacity
|Operator||Status||Reactor supplier||Construction date||Grid
for year 2019
Cernavoda NPP Units 1 and 2, both in operation (Table 5), provide approximately 18% of the total energy generated in Romania. In 2019, the two units at the Cernavoda NPP produced a gross total of 11 280 166 MW?h. Unit 1 registered a capacity factor of 93.86% and Unit 2 of 89.18% (owing to a planned outage). Based on the service capacity factor of both units (91.6%), Romania has a high capacity factor of nuclear power plants worldwide, according to Nuclear Engineering International.
The Romanian energy strategy does not provide for the completion of Cernavoda NPP Unit 5 as it does for Units 3 and 4; instead, it requires the capitalization of the works and assets to be used in relation to the operation of the other units. The feasibility study for the change of scope of Unit 5 was completed in 2011.
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
Law No. 111 of 1996 on the safe deployment, regulation, licensing and control of nuclear activities, republished, with subsequent modifications and completions, provides the legislative framework governing the safety of nuclear installations. The licensing process for nuclear installations is based on the provisions of the law and of the nuclear safety regulations issued by CNCAN.
The operating licence for a nuclear installation is issued by the CNCAN for a specific period. In the past, the regulatory practice was to issue the licence for a nuclear power reactor with a specific term of ten years, with the possibility of the licence being renewed every ten years, taking account of the periodic safety review.
In January 2019, a new regulation on licensing of nuclear installations (NSN-22) came into force, which establishes that operating licences for nuclear installations are granted for the periods estimated by the applicant, taking into consideration the design basis, the ageing mechanisms, the operational experience available and the possibility for refurbishment. The licence can be revised and modified. The estimated period of operation can be revised and either extended or reduced based on the safety reviews (including the ten year periodic safety reviews) performed during the operational lifetime of the nuclear installation. The existing licences will be subject to renewal in accordance with NSN-22.
Long term operation is allowed for as long as it can be demonstrated that the safety analyses and design basis and licensing basis remain valid and that sufficient safety margins exist for the entire period for which the licence is requested and granted, provided that the licensee complies with the operating limits and conditions. In accordance with NSN-22, refurbishment and long term operation are considered part of the operational phase and are covered by specific limits and conditions in the operating licence.
Compliance with the regulatory requirements is verified on the occasion of initial licensing, for licence renewals, for each periodic safety review, as well as on a regular basis through normal regulatory oversight processes. The main document submitted to CNCAN by the licensee for justifying long term/extended operation is the updated final safety analysis report. This report contains the safety demonstration for the plant, taking into account the physical state of the installation, the impact of ageing, the safety upgrades performed and the current safety requirements and standards.
The current nuclear safety regulations and guides providing the basis for the licensing and regulatory oversight of the Cernavoda NPP include the following:
NSN-01 — Nuclear safety requirements on siting of NPPs (2010).
NSN-02 — Nuclear safety requirements on the design and construction of NPPs (2010).
NSN-05 — Nuclear safety requirements on the operational limits and conditions for nuclear installations (2015).
NSN-06 — Nuclear safety requirements for the protection of nuclear installations against external events of natural origin (2015).
NSN-07 (rev. 1) — Nuclear safety requirements on the response to transients, accident management and on-site emergency preparedness and response for NPPs (2020).
NSN-08 — Nuclear safety requirements on probabilistic safety assessments for NPPs (2006).
NSN-09 — Nuclear safety requirements on fire protection in NPPs (2006).
NSN-10 — Nuclear safety requirements on periodic safety reviews for NPPs (2006).
NSN-11 — Nuclear safety requirements on emergency core cooling systems for CANDU NPPs (2006).
NSN-12 — Nuclear safety requirements on containment systems for CANDU NPPs (2005).
NSN-13 — Nuclear safety requirements on shutdown systems for CANDU NPPs (2005).
NSN-14 (rev. 1) — Regulation on the licensing of operating personnel, management personnel and personnel in charge of specific training, applicable to nuclear power plants, research reactors and other nuclear installations (2014).
NSN-16 (rev. 1) — Nuclear safety requirements on surveillance, maintenance, testing and in-service inspections for nuclear installations (2020).
NSN-17 — Nuclear safety requirements on ageing management for nuclear installations (2016).
NSN-18 — Nuclear safety requirements on event reporting and analysis and on the use of operating experience feedback for nuclear installations (2017).
NSN-20 — Regulation on the nuclear safety policy and independent nuclear safety oversight for nuclear installations (2015).
NSN-21 (rev. 1) — Fundamental nuclear safety requirements for nuclear installations (2020).
NSN-22 — Regulation on the licensing of the nuclear installations (2019).
NSN-23 — Regulation on the training, qualification and authorization of nuclear installations personnel with nuclear safety related jobs (2017).
NSN 24 — Regulation on deterministic nuclear safety analysis for nuclear installations (2019).
NSN-25 — Requirements on decisional transparency in the licensing process for nuclear facilities (2019).
NSN 26 — Regulation on the interfaces between nuclear safety, radiological safety, physical protection, cybersecurity and nuclear safeguards (2019).
A set of 13 regulations on quality management systems for the nuclear sector (issued in 2003–2005 and updated in 2014).
NSC-01 — Regulation on the protection of nuclear installations against cyberthreats (2014).
GSN-01 — Guide on the industrial codes and standards for nuclear power plants (2015).
GSN-02 — Guide on the independent verification of nuclear safety analyses and evaluations (2015).
GSN-03 — Guide on fulfilling the overall nuclear safety objective set in the fundamental nuclear safety requirements for nuclear installations (2018).
GSN-04 — Guide on the format and content of the final safety analysis report for nuclear power plants (2015).
GSN-07 — Nuclear safety guide for the preparation of nuclear installations refurbishment (2018).
GSN-08 — Nuclear Safety Guide on restarting nuclear facilities after unplanned shutdowns (2019).
GSN 09 — Nuclear Safety Guide on the development and assessment of the nuclear safety culture (2019).
GSN 10 — Nuclear Safety Guide on Time-Limited Ageing Analyses (2020).
The complete set of regulations and guides applicable to nuclear installations is available on CNCAN’s web site (www.cncan.ro/despre-noi/legislatie/norme/).
184.108.40.206. Lifetime extension of Unit 1
Initiated in 2013, the refurbishment of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 represents the largest investment project developed exclusively by the National Company Nuclearelectrica (SNN), as Unit 1 was initially commissioned on 2 December 1996. The pressure tubes of the fuel channels of the CANDU 600 plants were designed for a lifetime of 210 000 hours of operation at rated power (effective full power hours — EFPH), which, at a capacity factor of 80%, means a 30 year economic operational lifetime. The main life limiting components and structures include fuel channels, feeders and nuclear reactor containment. Owing to design improvements implemented over time and judiciously performed operation and maintenance, Unit 1 has operated at a capacity factor of 90%. Therefore, Unit 1 will reach 210 000 hours of operation at rated power in late 2023, after approximately 26.6 years of operation since its commissioning, and about 3.4 years before reaching its design lifetime of 30 years.
In recent years, the nuclear industry has researched the behaviour of fuel channels over time and the ageing mechanisms that affect them, in order to extend their lifetime beyond the initially estimated design limits. The international experience for the extension of the fuel channel lifetime and the results of the previous inspections led to the preliminary assessment that Unit 1 could operate safely for approximately 245 000 hours (30 calendar years).
A longer operating period has positive effects on the preparation and development of refurbishment work by doing the following:
Extending the period for the company to accumulate the necessary funds for the project;
Better preparing the project and organizing the work to be developed during the refurbishment process.
By Decision No. 9 of 28 September 2017, the SNN shareholders approved the initiation of Phase 1 of the refurbishment strategy of Unit 1, which includes the extension of operating hours beyond 210 000 EFPH. Within this phase, studies regarding the extension of the operating hours beyond 210 000 EFPH will be conducted, as well as studies necessary to elaborate the feasibility study. The feasibility study will be submitted for approval to the SNN GMS in 2021.
The refurbishment project for Unit 1 will be structured in three phases:
Phase 1 — Project definition (pre-project organizational work, activities necessary to provide for the operation of Unit 1 beyond the 210 000 EFPH, preparation of the feasibility study).
Phase 2 — Project implementation (engineering work, procurement of equipment, ECP (engineering, procurement, construction) contract, obtaining necessary authorizations).
Phase 3 — Shutting down the reactor and effective development of the refurbishment project (actual refurbishment outage estimated at 24 months between December 2026 and December 2028).
220.127.116.11. Improvement actions implemented based on lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi accident
Following the Fukushima Daiichi accident in March 2011, Romania’s authorities and the nuclear industry performed assessments of nuclear safety and emergency preparedness arrangements and implemented improvements, in line with international efforts in this direction. A national action plan was developed for bringing together the actions identified from regulatory reviews, self-assessments, peer reviews and generic recommendations at the international level.
The actions taken by CNCAN and the Cernavoda NPP to take account of the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have been presented in detail in public reports:
National Report of Romania for the 2nd Extraordinary Meeting under the Convention on Nuclear Safety (May 2012) (www.cncan.ro/assets/Informatii-Publice/06-Rapoarte/RO-National-Report-for-2nd-Extraordinary-Meeting-under-CNS-May2012-doc.pdf);
Reports on the implementation of the European Union’s ‘stress tests’ by Romania: (www.ensreg.eu/EU-Stress-Tests/Country-Specific-Reports/EU-Member-States/Romania).
The latest status of the implementation of the national action plan post-Fukushima is presented in a report available on CNCAN’s web site (www.cncan.ro/assets/Informatii-Publice/06-Rapoarte/2020/Romanian-National-Action-Plan-post-Fukushima-rev.3-January2020.pdf).
CNCAN monitors the licensee’s progress in implementing the improvements and continues to perform safety reviews and inspections to ensure that all the opportunities for improvement are properly addressed, taking account of the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident.
The main improvements implemented as part of the post-Fukushima action plan at the Cernavoda NPP are the following:
Procurement and testing of mobile equipment (e.g. mobile diesel generators, mobile pumps, connections, etc.) and provision of a new emergency operating procedure for responding to station blackout events;
Installation of a dedicated emergency containment filtered venting system for each NPP unit;
Installation of passive autocatalytic recombiners for hydrogen management;
Additional instrumentation for severe accident management (e.g. hydrogen concentration monitoring in different areas of the reactor building);
Implementation of design modifications for water make-up to the calandria vessel and the calandria vault;
Provision of connection facilities required to add water using fire trucks and flexible conduits to supply the primary side of the raw service water/recirculating cooling water heat exchangers and steam generators under emergency conditions;
Validation of the station’s severe accident management guidelines through emergency exercises;
Training for severe accident scenarios, including as part of the emergency drills;
Installation of a seismically qualified line for water make-up to the spent fuel bay to ensure cooling under severe accident conditions, and provision for natural ventilation of vapours and steam evacuation;
New seismically qualified location for the on-site emergency control centre and fire fighters (this development is currently in progress).
2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
TABLE 6. STATUS OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit||Shutdown reason||Decommission strategy||Current decommissioning phase||Current fuel management phase||Decommissioning licensee||Licence termination year|
n.a.: Data not applicable.
Currently, there are no decommissioned nuclear units in Romania (Table 6).
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
Brief history and main decisions
The Government of Romania has adopted Decision No. 643 of 2007 approving the strategy for investor selection for the Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 project (Table 7).
On 29 March 2009, the project company was registered as EnergoNuclear S.A. with the National Trade Register Office and the management team was appointed. EnergoNuclear was a public–private capital company formed by the selected investors (ArcelorMittal Romania (6.2%); CEZ, Czech Republic (9.15%); GDF SUEZ, Belgium (9.15%); ENEL, Italy (9.15%); Iberdrola, Spain (6.2%); RWE Power, Germany (9.15%) and SNN (51%).
In 2011, the investors GDF SUEZ, CEZ, RWE and Iberdrola withdrew from the project, in addition to ENEL and ArcelorMittal. Since 2014, SNN has been the sole shareholder of the project company EnergoNuclear S.A.
On 22 August 2014, the SNN GMS approved the strategy for the continuation of the Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 project through the launch of a competitive selection procedure for a private investor with a view to setting up a joint venture. The selection procedure was launched on 27 August 2014, and the qualification phase was completed on 9 September 2014, when CGN was declared the qualified investor. After analysis of the documentation of intent, CGN was declared a selected investor on 17 October 2014 by the signing of a joint letter on the intention to complete the project.
On 10 April 2019, the SNN GMS approved the preliminary investors’ agreement on Units 3 and 4 at Cernavoda NPP concluded between China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN), CGN Central and Eastern Europe Investment (RO) CO.S.A. and Nuclearelectrica S.A. National Company.
As per the resolution of the SNN GMS of 12 June 2020, the items placed on the agenda by the majority shareholder, the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment, were approved as follows:
- The abrogation of the strategy for the continuation of Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 project through the organization of an investor selection procedure (2014) as well as the revised strategy for the continuation of Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 project through an investor selection procedure (2018).
- The empowerment of the SNN Board of Directors to initiate the procedures/undertakings/actions regarding the ceasing of the negotiations with CGN, as well as the ceasing of the legal effects (through party agreement, denunciation etc.) of the following documents: “The Memorandum of Understanding regarding the development, construction, operation and decommissioning of Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 (MoU), and respectively of the (ii) Investors Agreement in preliminary form.”
- The empowerment of the SNN Board of Directors to initiate the necessary undertakings for the analysis and crystallization of the strategic options regarding the construction of additional nuclear energy production capacity.
TABLE 7. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit/Project name||Owner||Type||Gross capacity in MW(e)||Expected construction start year||Expected commercial year|
|Cernavoda 3||IPP||CANDU 6||720||2024||2030|
|Cernavoda 4||IPP||CANDU 6||720||2024||2031|
Policies for front end and back end nuclear fuel cycle (mining, converting, enriching, fabricating, reprocessing and managing spent fuel and waste, etc.)
Romania developed an open nuclear fuel cycle which covers extraction of uranium ore, processing and refining of uranium ore into UO2, the manufacture of nuclear fuel, burning the nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors to produce electricity and storage and disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel, without ensuring spent fuel reprocessing.
In 2018, the Nuclearelectrica GMS approved the strategy for the diversification of supply sources and the gradual transition to the procurement of U3O8 which will be processed into UO2 by the Feldioara processing line belonging to the National Uranium Company. In August 2018, the GMS approved the initiation of a due diligence analysis in view of a possible takeover by SNN of the Feldioara processing line. On March 30, SNN GMS approved the initiation of the procedures to take over the Feldioara processing line as well as the transfer of the mining license for the Tulghes-Grinties perimeter.
Strategy for funding long term storage of spent fuel and final disposal, waste management and decommissioning
SNN makes the following contributions to the decommissioning and safe disposal of nuclear waste funds administered by ANDR:
Contribution for the decommissioning of the units in operation of EUR 0.6/MW?h of energy produced and delivered to the national power grid;
Contribution for the disposal of the radioactive nuclear waste and spent fuel of EUR 1.4/MW?h of energy produced and delivered to the national power grid.
2.3.2. Project management
The main organizations involved in the implementation of the Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 project are the following:
SNN — The operator of Cernavoda NPP Units 1 and 2 and the owner of Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4. The construction licence is issued by the regulatory body, CNCAN.
The Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment — Part of the negotiation process, responsible for decision making and approving the mandate of the State’s representative in the GMS of SNN.
As per the GMS resolution of 12 June 2020, SNN Board of Directors was empowered to initiate the necessary undertakings for the analysis and crystallization of the strategic options regarding the construction of additional nuclear energy production capacity. Any future endeavours related to the continuation of the nuclear programme in Romania will be subjected to the attention of SNN shareholders in compliance with the legal provisions which are mandatory for listed companies.
2.3.3. Project funding
The current economic and electricity market context does not adequately provide supportive conditions to develop the large electricity infrastructure projects necessary for the electricity sector. The implementation of contracts for difference (CfD) financing instruments, as used in the United Kingdom, has been initiated in Romania, as the Ministry of Energy commissioned a study about their impact and implementation for energy sources without greenhouse emissions in Romania.
According to “General Principles for the implementation of a CfD type support mechanism for producing low carbon emission energy”, a document issued by the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment (MEEBE) in public consultation in November 2019, the CfD which is going to be implemented in Romania will be dedicated to 4 technologies:
Technology for employing renewable sources;
Nuclear technology, for new units;
Technologies for energy storage;
CCS (carbon capture and storage)/CCU (carbon capture and utilization) technology for energy production capacities based on fossil fuels.
The support mechanism will allow the predictability of investment recoverability and will be based on current market conditions at the time of its approval; an approval from the European Commission for the support mechanism will be necessary.
2.3.4 Development of other nuclear projects
The Cernavoda Tritium Removal Facility (CTRF) Project using LPCE — CD (Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange — Cryogenic Distillation) technology is aimed at extracting the tritium from the heavy water in the moderator and thus ensuring a significant reduction of the radioactive emissions to the environment and of the internal dose to professionally exposed personnel. It represents an opportunity to contribute to global tritium supply for fusion, mainly with respect to ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) as well as to recover and use helium-3 resulting from tritium disintegration.
The production of Cobalt-60 at Cernavoda NPP. Cobalt-60 is a radioactive isotope used in medicine for cancer treatment, sterilization of the equipment as well as in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The production of Cobalt-60 at Cernavoda NPP represents a business opportunity, since there is an international market for the sale of this material. SNN is currently performing preliminary studies and pre-feasibility testing in cooperation with Nordion Inc. Canada.
The development of small modular reactors (SMRs). In 2019, Nuclearelectrica signed a memorandum of understanding with NuScale company with the purpose of information exchange and cooperation regarding the development of the innovative NuScale technology. SMRs could become a long term solution for Romania. The NuScale project is currently under licensing review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which is expected to be completed by the end of 2020.
2.3.5. Electric grid development
2.3.7. Public awareness
SNN organizes national opinion polls once every two years in order to measure public awareness and trust in relation to the use of nuclear power in Romania. The most recent opinion poll was conducted in 2018. The public in Romania generally has a favourable opinion of nuclear power projects (67% support the construction of Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 and 60% agree to the life extension of Unit 1). The level of information of the population about nuclear power has also risen and the concerns about safety issues have decreased (risk of accident 13%, risk or radiation contamination 18%). The most important arguments perceived by the population in support of nuclear power are the lower cost of nuclear power (41%) and energy independence (33%). Forty-two per cent of the population (increasing from 34%) consider that Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 should be developed as soon as possible and in cooperation with foreign investors. For the first time in the history of opinion polls carried out by SNN, a plurality (43%) consider that the benefits of nuclear power outweigh the risks (37%), and 56% of the population understand the fact that the production of nuclear power is safe in Romania. These positive results are due to the communication and public information efforts of SNN, as the main promoter of nuclear power. The opposition to nuclear projects in Romania is not significant, though some opposition has been posed by organizations such as Greenpeace and Terra Mileniul 3. SNN promotes a collaborative approach to non-governmental organizations, making information available and being open to discussion.
2.3.8. Ensuring physical protection of Cernavoda NPP
Nuclearelectrica has concluded an agreement with Romanian National Constabulary for security and protection services at Cernavoda NPP, without charge, in compliance with the international best practices in the nuclear field. This agreement is of significant importance for the security of the site and ensuring a quick response against any threat.
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
The most recent survey of the capabilities of Romania’s nuclear industry was conducted in 2018, when around 42 companies were surveyed and catalogued as potential suppliers of services, equipment and work to the nuclear field:
21 companies specialized in manufacturing equipment and components;
10 companies specialized in construction and fitting work;
11 companies specialized in engineering, design, research and consultancy services.
It is estimated that the goods and services that can be provided by Romania’s nuclear industry have a value of EUR 1.0–1.6 billion. The number of staff involved in the nuclear field in 2018 was 11 000, which could increase to 19 000 if the Units 3 and 4 project continues. Romania’s nuclear industry is represented by the Romanian Atomic Forum (ROMATOM), which is affiliated with the European Atomic Forum (FORATOM).
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
Cernavoda NPP Units 1 and 2 are operated by SNN. The operation of the Cernavoda NPP is regulated by CNCAN and other authorities, through operating licences and permits which are renewed on a regular basis. A series of works and services are externalized, being supplied by contractors selected with the application of the public procurement legislation and in compliance with the nuclear safety standards.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
Mining and milling
The National Uranium Company (CNU) is responsible for uranium mining and milling activities.
Uranium mining activities started in Romania in 1952. CNU is the State’s representative in this activity and has three uranium mining branches, in Bihor, Banat and Suceava. These mines were commissioned in 1983 and 1985 but are now almost depleted. CNU is planning to develop additional uranium deposits.
Uranium ores are processed by the Feldioara plant, which is operated by CNU. This plant was commissioned in 1978. The Feldioara processing plant has the following two modules:
‘R’ type module for uranium milling and concentration (nominal capacity 300 t U(U3O8)/y);
‘E’ type module for uranium refining and conversion to nuclear grade UO2 (nominal capacity 300 t U(UO2)/y).
Both modules are in operation, but the production capacity is reduced to about 100 t U(U3O8)/y for the R plant, and on request (by the Pitesti fuel fabrication plant (FCN Pitesti)) for the E plant. The Feldioara processing plant has been qualified by AECL as a CANDU UO2 fuel supplier.
In 2018, Nuclearelectrica GMS approved the strategy for the diversification of supply sources and the gradual transition to the procurement of uranium octoxide which will be processed into uranium dioxide by Feldioara processing line belonging to the National Uranium Company. In August 2018, the GMS approved the initiation of a due diligence analysis in view of a possible takeover by SNN of Feldioara processing line.
Each reactor at the Cernavoda NPP has been using 105 tonnes of natural uranium oxide fuel per year, which is fabricated by FCN Pitesti, a subsidiary of SNN.
Storage of spent fuel (e.g. wet, dry)
Spent fuel generated by operation of the Cernavoda NPP is stored on-site in the wet storage facility for a minimum of six years before being transferred to the interim dry storage facility (DICA). The dry storage technology is based on the MACSTOR system. It consists of storage modules located outdoors at the storage site and equipment operated at the spent fuel storage bay for preparing the spent fuel for dry storage. DICA is located on the NPP site, close to the containment building of Unit 5. It has a design lifetime of 50 years and is of a modular type construction, allowing for staged construction as the spent fuel is transferred from the wet storage facility. DICA is designed to store the spent fuel from CNE Cernavoda Units 1 and 2 using 27 modules of type MACSTOR 200. As of 2020, ten modules are in operation; modules 11 and 12 are under construction.
Spent fuel from the Cernavoda NPP to DICA is transferred using a trailer that takes the transfer container containing a storage basket with 60 fuel bundles and transports it to DICA on a specific route that is not connected to the public road.
Currently, a new strategy for the future development of DICA has been approved. Two major changes are the future use of double capacity MACSTOR 400 modules instead of MACSTOR 200 as well as the increase of the storage area. Based on this revised strategy, better use of the existing storage area and adequate storage capacity for the planned long term operation of Units 1 and 2 should be achieved.
Disposal of spent fuel
According to the provisions of the National Strategy on Medium and Long Term Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste, currently under review by ANDR in cooperation with a number of other organizations, a deep geological repository is expected to be Commissioned around 2055 in order to accommodate spent fuel generated by the Cernavoda NPP.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
Regia Autonoma pentru Tehnologii Nucleare (Technologies for Nuclear Energy State owned Company) - RATEN
Established on 1 October 2013 owing to the reorganization of the Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities and separating the R&D and technological engineering activities, RATEN provides technical support for the nuclear power activities in Romania. The company is organized and acts as a strategic Romanian legal entity, coordinating R&D in the nuclear power field, maintaining and developing the technical competencies throughout the entire lifetime of the nuclear installations, and being involved in the energy strategy development and achievement of the scientific and technical objectives of the national nuclear power programme.
RATEN’s main activities include the following:
Research, design and technological engineering activities;
Technology development as national scientific and technical support concerning the safe operation of nuclear installations;
Technology development for the new type of Generation IV reactors;
Technology development for spent fuel and radioactive waste management;
Radioisotope production for medicine and industry;
Competence maintenance in the nuclear field, education and training of new specialists;
Development of competencies and capabilities in the nuclear field to provide technical support to public institutions.
The RATEN strategy is sustained by an annual R&D programme, which is supported by 18 programmes (www.raten.ro).
RATEN’s main research priorities are the following:
To maintain and develop scientific and technical support for the safe operation of CANDU Units of the Cernavoda NPP (including their lifetime extension) and refurbishment of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1;
To develop studies and research in the materials and nuclear fuels field, reactor physics, nuclear safety, equipment and instrumentation and control for nuclear power applications;
To sustain the research activities for Generation IV reactors;
To implement lead cooled fast reactor technology;
To manage the characterization and treatment of radioactive waste, environmental and radiation protection, scientific research capacity and technology transfer, and develop and implement nuclear technologies or infrastructure for applications in industry, medicine and physical protection.
The annual R&D programme is funded by the Government of Romania, through the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment.
RATEN manages two subsidiaries:
The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, RATEN ICN (www.nuclear.ro);
The Centre of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects Bucuresti Magurele, RATEN CITON (www.citon.ro).
RATEN ICN Pitesti provides scientific and technical support for the safe and economic operation of NPPs, in accordance with national and international agreements. The institute operates its own nuclear research infrastructure licensed and acknowledged by CNCAN:
TRIGA research reactor (a pool type, dual-core reactor: SSR — 14 MW and ACPR — peak power 20 000 MW, converted from high enriched uranium to low enriched uranium).
Post-irradiation examination laboratory (equipped with facilities and equipment that allow testing, handling and examination of nuclear fuel and structural materials from nuclear power plants, manufacturing sealed sources for industrial radiography).
Radioactive waste treatment plant.
Out of pile testing department.
Nuclear materials and corrosion department.
Testing labs for characterization of nuclear spent fuel and radioactive waste, radiological characterization of materials resulting from nuclear practices.
Radiation protection, environment protection and civil protection laboratory;
Surface analysis laboratory.
RATEN ICN competencies:
Nuclear safety assessments;
Reactor physics and thermal hydraulics;
Post-irradiation examination of materials and nuclear fuel, nuclear materials and corrosion tests;
Manufacturing technologies for TRIGA and advanced nuclear fuels;
Out of pile testing;
Characterization, treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste;
Safe disposal of radioactive waste;
Electronics, instrumentation and control;
Tests and qualifications for nuclear equipment and instrumentation;
Radiation protection, environmental protection and emergency preparedness;
Radioisotope production for medicine and industry;
Education and training in the nuclear field.
RATEN CITON, structured as a design and engineering institute for nuclear projects and to carry out R&D associated with the implementation of the national nuclear programme, performs design and engineering work and provides technical assistance and engineering support for the construction, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. As a full service engineering institute, RATEN CITON can assist customers with all phases of project implementation, including support development.
RATEN CITON engages in the following activities:
Detailed design for process and support systems associated with a CANDU-600 NPP;
Detailed design for adjacent installations and support systems for nuclear research reactors and labs;
Nuclear safety analyses;
Methodologies for computation and computer assisted design;
Technical and economic studies for siting as well as cost estimates for new designs and for operational design modifications for NPP systems and components;
Thermohydraulic calculations and stress analyses for various operating conditions, using specialized computer programs;
Technical assistance for equipment fabrication, installation, testing and commissioning;
Prognoses regarding the national power system development, especially nuclear power trends.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies
Romania joined the EURATOM R&D initiative devoted to the development of the Generation IV Lead Fast Reactor (LFR) technology and, through RATEN ICN, is involved in R&D and in the construction of the LFR European demonstrator (ALFRED). Following RATEN ICN’s participation in the EU Framework Programme LEADER (https://cordis.europa.eu/result/rcn/147643_en.html), the Government of Romania issued Memorandum No. 20/2925 of February 2011, in which it determined that the country would host the ALFRED demonstrator reactor at the Mioveni nuclear platform. The demonstrator reactor is being developed primarily by the FALCON consortium (Ansaldo Nucleare and ENEA, Italy; RATEN ICN, Romania) and with R&D cooperation with several European organizations. The ALFRED project is included in Romania’s relevant strategies (national research, development and innovation strategy, national research infrastructure roadmap, RATEN strategy). The implementation plan of the ALFRED project is developed by FALCON members, with the support of the national governments of Romania and Italy. It provides the necessary activities for research, design, siting and licensing during four phases (viability, preparation, construction and operation) with a target date for commissioning of 2028. Feasibility studies for the first research, testing and qualification experimental support facilities (addressing thermal hydraulic processes and lead chemistry) and funding applications for construction are evaluated by the project financing authority (Ministry of Education and Research). Since September 2019, the Activities for the Preparation of the ALFRED Research Infrastructure in Romania (PRO ALFRED) project has been funded, in the framework of the National Plan for Research, Development and Innovation 2015–2020 (PNCDI III). The PRO ALFRED project aims to carry out preparatory actions to perform research of national and European interest related to the ALFRED demonstrator in Romania (feasibility studies for additional research supporting infrastructures, licensing process preparation, research agenda and experimental programmes, building competencies to implement and operate the infrastructure, technical and economic evaluations).
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
In September 2007, Romania became an active member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) by signing its Declaration of Principles. The outstanding importance of this partnership resides in the strengthening of nuclear safety and nuclear risk mitigation through balanced promotion of R&D and partnership in international policy. Romania is represented on the steering committee and in working groups.
Since 2010, Romania has been a member of the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC), which took over some of the political and economic tasks of the former GNEP. Romania welcomed the IFNEC Steering Group meeting and associated working group meetings in 2014 and the IFNEC Executive Committee meeting in 2015.
Romania also joined the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) in 2007. Signing the related Statement of Principles, Romania implemented all the legal instruments necessary for prevention/mitigation of acts of nuclear terrorism: prevention, early detection, combating and investigation. Romania participates in the meetings organized by the specific working groups and in the plenary meetings.
Romanian scientists are actively involved in international research projects such as: International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), Generation IV International Forum (GIF), European Union research framework programme Horizon 2020 EURATOM (2014–2020), and the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC). Many are also associated with basic nuclear research projects developed within international research networks or in cooperation with international research institutes (e.g. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna; European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva; Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), Darmstadt).
After its involvement in the IAEA INPRO collaborative projects (Synergistic Nuclear Energy Regional Group Interactions Evaluated for Sustainability (SYNERGIES), Proliferation Resistance and Safeguardability Assessment Tools (PROSA) and Roadmaps for a Transition to Globally Sustainable Nuclear Energy Systems (ROADMAPS)) Romania became the 38th active Member State in INPRO in August 2012. Romania is committed to performing a Nuclear Energy System Assessment (NESA) using INPRO methodology, in the framework of IAEA resources, together with the IAEA’s technical cooperation mechanism. SNN is an active member of international specialized organizations and entities, such as World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) — Atlanta Centre and CANDU Owners Group (COG), benefiting from a continuous exchange of experience in the field. It is also a member of the World Nuclear Association (WNA) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).
RATEN is an active participant in regional, European and international technical cooperation programmes in the following areas: nuclear safety and security, waste management, emergency preparedness and response, specific regulatory issues, research reactors, isotopic technologies, radiation protection and nuclear techniques used in industry, medicine and education.
The following recent collaboration and cooperation are highlighted:
Participation in EURATOM Framework Programmes for Research and Training (FP7 and H2020): between 2014 and 2019, 13 projects were completed by RATEN ICN as partner, one as associate member and one as coordinator (ARCADIA). In 2019 five H2020 projects were in progress (GEMMA, MEACTOS, CHANCE, TRANSAT and FISRAD) and two grant agreements were signed (PIACE and EURAD).
RATEN ICN, with the Ministry of Research and Innovation of Romania and European Commission, co-organized the FISA 2019 and EURADWASTE 2019 conferences on the Safety of Reactor Systems and Radioactive Waste Management under the auspices of the Romanian Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2019.
Participation in the EURATOM call 2019 with six projects (BONSAI, ECC-SMART, ORIENT-NM PASCAL, PATRICIA, PREDIS).
Participation in the EURATOM–United States International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project LFR in Regional Energy Markets: Safety, Sustainability, and Economic Assessment.
RATEN and its subsidiaries are members of European technological platforms (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP), Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP)), nuclear associations, alliances and cooperative groups (Nuclear Generation II and III Association (NUGENIA), European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), European Cooperative Group on Corrosion Monitoring of Nuclear Materials (ECG-COMON)), the European Technical Safety Organization Network (ETSON).
Contracts and research agreements under IAEA coordinated research projects:
Benchmarking activities on fuel burnup and material activation with computational tools and data available at TRIGA Romania (Contract RO 18729), completed in 2019;
Neutronics Simulations of the CEFR Start-up Tests using Monte Carlo computer codes (SERPENT 2, MCNPX) — Research Agreement 22755/RO;
Management of Waste Containing Long-lived Alpha Emitters: Characterization, Processing and Storage.
Regional project Enhancing Capacity Building Activities in the European Nuclear and Radiation Safety Organizations for Safe Operation of Facilities (RER 0043), coordinated by RATEN.
Romanian representatives in INPRO and its collaborative projects (Comparative Evaluation of Nuclear Energy System Options (CENESO) ROADMAPS, KIND NESA Economics Support Tool (NEST), Regional Training on Nuclear Energy Systems Modelling and Sustainability Assessment, Update of e-learning and distance learning tools to support INPRO training).
Practical Arrangements between IAEA and RATEN ICN on Cooperation in the Area of Scientific and Technical Support to Member States in Nuclear Safety and Security, renewed in 2019.
Romanian representative in the IAEA networks (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA), Response and Assistance Network (RANET), Underground Research Facilities Network for Geological Disposal (URF Network).
RATEN representative in PWR-HPWR Technical Working Group and observer in Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), expert missions, consultative meetings, conferences and courses, fellowship training, IAEA courses and workshop organization.
Technical assistance to nuclear specialists from developing countries that operate CANDU NPPs, development of the nuclear technologies applied in radioactive waste management, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, or starting or enlarging of nuclear programmes.
Cooperation as partners in memorandums of understanding and cooperation agreements with: AECL and COG (Canada), Romania being a CANDU type reactor owner.
Cooperation as partners in the agreement signed between the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and RATEN in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses.
Cooperation with the Department of Energy and General Atomic (United States of America), Ansaldo and ENEA (Italy), CEA and Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (France).
Romania is represented in the technical committees, working and expert groups of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD) by RATEN specialists.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
RATEN maintains a qualified staff, consisting of (as of December 2019): 61 PhD holders; 21 PhD candidates; 169 Master’s degree holders; 23 Master’s candidates; and 276 researchers, nuclear scientists and engineers with experience in training for the safe and efficient operation of research reactors, nuclear materials testing, radioactive waste treatment, planning activities and emergency preparedness, development of scenarios for exercises, technical support for local and national emergency planning, radiological assistance with the transport of nuclear and radioactive materials, characterization of nuclear materials to support the combat of illicit trafficking and training personnel in emergency response responsibilities.
RATEN ICN has signed partnership agreements with the University of Pitesti and Politehnica University of Bucharest for educational activities for students in the laboratories and for guiding graduating, Master’s and PhD theses. In 2019, 50 students completed their Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees.
Master’s and PhD candidates from Imperial College London and Cambridge University in the United Kingdom have attended lectures and participated in experimental activities in the Reactor Physics and Fuel Performance Department on the TRIGA research reactor PIEL since 2014. In 2019, 13 Master’s and 10 PhD candidates participated in theoretical and experimental activities.
RATEN provided training courses under IAEA technical cooperation projects for fellows coming from Iran (one PhD candidate) and Moldova (two representatives of the Group Fellowship for Operator on Development of Safety Case).
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
SNN positions itself as a complex entity, with multiple roles in relation to each stakeholder group: a contributor to the national energy grid, an economic pillar for the local and national budget, an investment partner for its shareholders, a protector for its employees, a promotor of nuclear new build, research and education and the like.
SNN has a clear and consistent strategy for addressing all the stakeholder groups identified as relevant to its activity and developing the necessary tools and channels appropriate for each category so that information can flow bidirectionally. SNN’s main communication tools used in relation to the stakeholders are part of its relations management strategy; they include: media relations, institutional relations, stakeholder engagement and investor relations. The main goal is the dissemination of information through press releases, press conferences, websites and information materials tailored to the interests of the specific stakeholder with the purpose of creating a basis of trust and support for nuclear power and the activities of the company and to comply with the applicable legal framework. Relations management is based on credibility, truth, transparency, relevance and feedback. Stakeholders’ feedback is monitored on a regular basis through monthly media analysis and image indicator mapping as well as through biannual national opinion polls. SNN applies the provisions of the Espoo and Aarhus conventions regarding public participation and seeks to have a proactive approach towards all stakeholders, mapping their needs, interests and concerns and addressing them through its communication products. Based on indicators such as nuclear safety awareness, investment project awareness, competency awareness and local community involvement awareness, which are monitored on a monthly basis, SNN adjusts its public discourse in order to cover all areas of interest.
Interaction and communication with stakeholders, including participation in the decision making process, are connected with the environmental issues stipulated by the Aarhus Convention, Espoo Convention and the transposition of these into national laws (Law No. 86 of 2000, Law No. 22 of 2001). The environmental impact assessment framework is stipulated in Decision No. 918 of 2002, including the list of private and public projects requesting environmental impact assessments.
Also, Decision No. 1115 of 2002 (which provides for free access to environmental information) stipulates the obligations of owners and operators to provide relevant information. Two other documents are applied for nuclear materials: Decision No. 162 of 2002 regarding obligations on waste handling, conditioning and depositing, and Decision No. 95 of 2003 on the control of activities with potential for danger and major accidents and handling of dangerous substances.
All these laws as well as the norms released by national authorities are harmonized with EU frameworks and include recommendations of the IAEA.
The information on existing and planned nuclear facilities is available to the general public mainly on web sites. The responsibility for issuing information is on the owner of a nuclear installation.
An important example of participation in Romania consists of the involvement of the communities from Cernavoda (NPP location) and Saligny (future site for low and intermediate level waste repository). After some years of exchanging information and practice within GMF (group of European municipalities with nuclear facilities) and in the framework of the FP6-COWAM2 and FP7-CIP projects, a local committee was established in the town of Cernavoda in 2012. This committee is recognized as a partner for the discussions between the NPP and local community. The full name is Committee for Information and Consultation of Citizens from Cernavoda. It is a single stand alone initiative that has regular monthly meetings. The minutes of the local committee may be consulted on the web site of the Cernavoda NPP (www.cne.ro).
The Cernavoda local committee has influenced neighbouring communities to build an association of municipalities around the NPP and include in the current agenda the issues of siting the low and intermediate level waste disposal facility in Saligny. In 2012, this association was extended at the national level as the Association of Romanian Municipalities Hosting Nuclear Utilities (ALUN). The objective of the association is to collaborate in order to initiate some legislative proposals aimed at helping the municipalities in the management of emergency situations.
The stakeholders, including the local community, were involved from the beginning in the development of the infrastructure for Generation IV, including the ALFRED demonstrator. A local dialogue group between implementer, RATEN, and the local communities (Mioveni city), with some active communication activities, has been created.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
The general framework for emergency preparedness and response was proposed by the national strategy for prevention of emergency situations, and was approved by Decision No. 762 of 2008. This strategy includes nuclear accident and radiological emergencies among other types of emergency and establishes responsibilities of state authorities and enterprises concerning the design and implementation of appropriate contingency plans according to the type, magnitude and expected consequences of a disaster.
The National System for the Management of Emergencies in Romania aims at prevention and management of emergency situations and the planning and coordination of human, material and financial resources. It is composed of the following three types of structure:
- The decisional structure — the committees for emergencies;
- The executive structure — the inspectorates for emergencies;
- The operational structure — the operative centres for emergencies.
All the decisional, executive and operational structures are established on three levels: national, county and local. Written agreements and protocols are in place between the responsible organizations, at the local and national level, for common activities and exchange of information in emergency situations.
As a decision structure, at the national level, the National Committee for Special Emergency Situations (CNSSU) was set up under the coordination of the Prime Minister and is managed by the Minister of Internal Affairs. All the ministerial, county and local committees are subordinated to CNSSU. The county/local emergency committees are directed by the county prefect or local mayor.
As an executive structure, at the national level, is the General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU), a specialized body of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. IGSU has the responsibility of permanent coordination for all the organizations involved in the prevention and management of emergency situations.
In case of an accident, the response starts at the lowest level and rises to the national level, if needed. Under the IGSU are the county inspectorates (42) for emergencies, acting as public professional emergency services. Inside each inspectorate for emergency situations is an operative centre for emergencies, ready to activate the emergency organization in case of an event. These operative centres for emergencies receive notification of all types of emergency, including radiation events.
In accordance with the legal provisions in their field of activity, the responsible organizations at the national level are operational and can host operative centres for emergencies. At the national level, the National Operative Centre of IGSU functions as an operational structure.
In order to fulfil the legal responsibilities in case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, CNCAN has established its own Emergency Response Centre, as part of the National System for the Management of Emergencies. This centre also acts as a support centre performing technical analysis and prognosis of emergency situations with a focus on nuclear safety, radiation protection and radiological consequences in nuclear and radiological emergency situations.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs is also the national contact point in relation to the European Union — the European Community Urgent Radiological Information Exchange (ECURIE) system and CNCAN are the contact points in relation to the IAEA — for early notification and assistance in the event of a nuclear accident.
Arrangements are in place in all nuclear risk areas (Cernavoda NPP; Bechet area — near the Kozlodui NPP; TRIGA reactor in Pitesti — Mioveni) for prompt warning and instruction to the population in the emergency planning zone, in case of an accidental event. In the first phase of a severe accident, the operator of the nuclear facility is responsible for giving first instructions to the population in the affected area.
The protective actions for the population to be recommended by the operator are established based on the projected doses and the off-site ambient dose rates. In normal conditions, the public in the vicinity of the Cernavoda NPP and Kozlodui NPP periodically receive printed information about the threat and how to behave in the case of an emergency. At the local/county level, a public information group is established in case of emergency to provide information to the mass media and the population.
The on-site radiation emergency plan of the operator and the off-site radiation emergency plans of the public authorities establish the responsibilities, resources and interfaces required to inform the public in case of a nuclear emergency. Joint information centres, staffed by representatives of the nuclear facility and of the public authorities, are established at the local and national levels.
At the local level, information includes instructions and warnings for the population in the potentially affected area. CNSSU at the national level and the county committees for emergencies at the local level are responsible for giving instructions and information to the public. The local and national TV and mass media are used to keep the public informed about an accidental radiological event. At the national level, the information includes the status of the nuclear/radiological facility and the status of planning/implementing protective actions for the population.
Under the coordination of the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, a National Plan for Response in Case of Nuclear or Radiological Emergency has been developed and enforced. This plan makes provisions for the following stakeholders:
Government: Nuclear Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Agriculture, National Environmental Protection Agency, National Agency for Meteorology, National Veterinary and Food Safety Authority.
Technical support organization (RATEN ICN).
The above mentioned national plan includes the following stages:
Management of the nuclear or radiological response operations;
Notification and identification of an emergency and activation of the nuclear or radiological response;
Implementation of the mitigating actions;
Implementation of the preventive actions;
Implementation of the urgent protective actions;
Implementation of the early protective actions;
Provision of warning messages and instructions for the population;
Protection of the emergency workers;
Medical response management;
Radioactive waste management during a nuclear or radiological emergency;
Non-radiological consequence mitigation;
End of the nuclear or radiological emergency.
In 2017, a national platform for reducing the risks following a disaster was implemented in Romania. The platform is multiorganizational and interdisciplinary and has a consultative role for establishing strategies and programmes for reducing risks from disasters. It addresses the risks associated with nuclear and radiological emergencies with the aim of increasing the response capacity of the National Management System for Emergency Situations.
The Cernavoda NPP On-site Radiation Emergency Plan
The Cernavoda NPP On-site Radiation Emergency Plan, along with its supporting documents, ensures effective emergency preparedness and response to emergency situations at the nuclear installations.
The emergency preparedness and response process of the Cernavoda NPP is verified and improved through a systematic programme, including quarterly, annual or general drills and exercises (once every three to four years), and simulates various conditions of a nuclear emergency subject to the initiation of the Cernavoda NPP On-site Radiation Emergency Plan.
The measures taken by the Cernavoda NPP after the Fukushima Daiichi accident have included upgrading many components of the emergency preparedness and response process. Among them there are the following: revision of the On-site Radiation Emergency Plan, set-up of the Work Control Area in case of severe accident (2 km from the plant), set-up of the Off-site Emergency Control Centre in Constanta (50 km from the plant) and installation of satellite phones in the primary and secondary control rooms of Units 1 and 2.
The Cernavoda NPP on-site emergency organization ensures a complete on-site response to an emergency situation and covers the off-site emergency responsibilities of the Cernavoda NPP.
The responsibility for off-site emergency planning lies with the public authorities. The NPP shares some of the on-site emergency responsibilities with public authority, especially in the initial stages of an emergency with on-site implications.
In order to preserve the valuable, positive experience and to maintain the current emergency response arrangements with the public authorities properly qualified to address emergency response activities, SNN is promoting cooperation with the national authorities in charge, while the Cernavoda NPP engages with local authorities (Cernavoda town and Constanta county). The Cernavoda NPP has prepared and arranged two important facilities for the town of Cernavoda: the Local Emergency Centre of the Cernavoda Town Hall at the Cernavoda NPP’s Public Information Centre and the Personnel Decontamination Area within the Cernavoda town hospital.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
CNCAN represents the national competent authority in exercising regulation, licensing and control of the nuclear field in Romania, for all the activities and installations under the scope of Law No. 111 of 1996 on the safe deployment, regulation, licensing and control of nuclear activities, republished, with subsequent modifications and completions.
CNCAN has all necessary legal powers to issue mandatory regulations and licences for nuclear facilities and activities and to perform evaluations, inspections and enforcement.
CNCAN is an independent governmental body. It is a public institution of national interest, with legal personality, having its headquarters in Bucharest, chaired by a president with the rank of State Secretary, coordinated by the Prime Minister through the General Secretariat of the Government.
CNCAN has over 50 years of experience and it has an important role in ensuring strict observance of the requirements for nuclear safety and radiation protection in Romania.
CNCAN has the following main responsibilities (Art. 35 of Law No. 111 of 1996):
Initiates projects for normative acts in its area of competence and issues regulations in the nuclear field, consulting the other authorities with attributions in this domain, as necessary, according to the law;
Reviews and consents to all the normative acts with implications for the nuclear field, prior to their entering into force;
Approves, in accordance with the law, the intervention plans for nuclear and radiological accident situations and participates in the intervention;
Collaborates with the central authority for environmental protection and controls the implementation of the activities of the environmental radioactivity monitoring network;
Requests the competent authorities in the field of national security to perform the necessary checks for the persons with responsibilities in the field of nuclear activities, in compliance with the specific regulations;
Initiates, with the consent of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, activities for cooperation with the IAEA and with other international organizations specialized in the nuclear field;
Cooperates with similar institutions/authorities from other countries;
Controls the implementation of the provisions of international treaties and agreements in force with regard to safeguards, physical protection, illicit trafficking, transport of nuclear and radioactive materials, radiation protection, quality assurance in the nuclear field, nuclear safety, safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, and intervention in case of a nuclear accident;
Establishes and coordinates the national system for evidence and control of nuclear materials, the national system for evidence and control of radiation sources and of nuclear and radiological installations, and the national registry of radiation doses received by occupationally exposed personnel;
Cooperates with other authorities that have, according to the law, attributions with regard to the safe operation of nuclear and radiological installations, correlated with the requirements for the protection of the environment and the population;
Ensures public information on matters that are under the competency of CNCAN;
Organizes public debates on matters that are under the competency of CNCAN;
Represents the national point of contact for nuclear safeguards, for the physical protection of nuclear and radiological materials and installations, for the prevention and combat of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials, and for radiological emergencies;
Orders the recovery of orphan sources and coordinates the recovery activities;
Licenses the execution of nuclear construction and exercises control over the quality of construction for nuclear installations;
Carries out any other duties stipulated by the law, with regard to the regulation and control of nuclear activities.
CNCAN is completely separate and independent from the organizations involved in the promotion and/or production of nuclear energy, in accordance with the provisions of article 8 in the Convention on Nuclear Safety. CNCAN has all the necessary legal powers to issue mandatory regulations, to issue licences for nuclear facilities and activities and to perform evaluations, inspections and enforcement. The regulations are updated whenever needed to adhere to recent national developments and requirements for nuclear safety and radiation protection in the European Union and the IAEA.
3.1.2. Licensing process
Law No. 111/1996 1996 empowers CNCAN to issue regulations in the following areas:
Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons;
Physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials;
Transport of radioactive and nuclear materials;
Management of radioactive waste and spent fuel;
Emergency preparedness and intervention in case of nuclear accident;
Manufacture of products and supply of services for nuclear installations;
Any other regulations necessary for the licensing and control of nuclear facilities and activities.
CNCAN is responsible for ensuring, through the regulations issued and the dispositions arising from the licensing and control (evaluation, inspection and enforcement) procedures that an adequate framework is in place for the deployment of activities under the scope of the law.
The current licensing practice is based on the provisions of Law No. 111 of 1996 and of the regulations issued by CNCAN.
The detailed regulatory requirements, as well as the assessment and inspection criteria used by CNCAN in the licensing process, are derived from a number of sources, such as:
Limits and conditions specified in the different licences;
IAEA Safety Standards and guides;
Other international standards, guides and recommendations, including regulatory documents developed in other jurisdictions;
Applicable standards and codes;
Licensing basis documentation produced by the licensee and approved or accepted by CNCAN (e.g. safety analysis reports, design manuals, reference documents, station instructions, operating manuals, technical basis documents, etc.).
The licences for nuclear installations are granted to legal persons, at their request, if they prove compliance with the provisions of the law and specific regulations issued by CNCAN. The licences are applied for and issued, respectively, either simultaneously or successively, separately for each kind of activity or for each nuclear or radiological installation operating independently, in the property of the applicant.
As stated in the law, the licences shall be issued for the following phases: design, siting, construction, commissioning, trial operation, operation, repair and/or maintenance (such as major refurbishment), modification (such as major upgrades), preservation and decommissioning.
In accordance with the provisions of the law, CNCAN is empowered to request from the licensees, or from the applicants for a licence, all the documentation needed for the regulatory decision making process on safety related matters. The documentation that needs to be submitted to CNCAN for review and approval is usually specified in the regulations, licence conditions, regulatory letters and inspection reports.
Additional support documentation is requested on a case by case basis and specified in regulatory letters, minutes of meetings between CNCAN staff and licensee’s representatives, and the like. In addition to the review of the documentation, CNCAN verifies the claims made by the applicant through audits, inspections, licensing meetings and a system of witness points and hold points.
According to the law, the licensees and applicants have the obligation of facilitating CNCAN inspections and providing access to documentation and any other information requested by CNCAN. The general roles, authority and responsibilities of CNCAN inspectors are set out in the law. The key objective of the CNCAN inspection programme is to monitor compliance with the legal, regulatory and licensing requirements, and to take enforcement action in the event of non-compliance.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
Laws and governmental decisions
Currently, the main national laws and governmental decisions governing the activities in the field of peaceful use of atomic energy in Romania include the following:
Law No. 111 of 10 October 1996 on the safe deployment, regulation, authorization and control of nuclear activities, republished, with subsequent modifications and completions.
Law No. 703 of 3 December 2001 on civil liability for nuclear damage, with subsequent modifications.
Governmental Decision No. 894 of 2003 for approval of the norms for application of the provisions of Law No. 703 of 2001 on civil liability for nuclear damages.
Government Decision No. 437 of 30 April 2002 on the establishment of the Interdepartmental Commission for the resumption of the works and completion of the Cernavoda nuclear power plant Unit 3, as amended by Government Decision No. 957 of 22 August 2007 (including Unit 4).
Government Ordinance No. 7 of 30 January 2003 on the promotion, development and monitoring of nuclear activities, as amended by Law No. 57 of 17 March 2006.
Government Ordinance No. 11 of 30 January 2003 on the safe management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, as amended by Government Ordinance No. 31 of 2006. Republished in accordance with Law No. 26 of 2007. Amended by Law No. 378 of 19 December 2013.
Government Decision No. 890 of 29 July 2003 approving the Road Map for Energy in Romania.
Government Decision No. 1568 of 18 December 2003 regarding the amount of direct annual contribution of nuclear permit holders and the deadline for their payments.
Government Decision No. 729 of 20 September 2018 on organization and functioning of the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control.
Government Urgency Ordinance No. 195 of 22 December 2005 on environmental protection, approved by Law No. 265 of 29 June 2006, with subsequent modifications and completions.
Government Decision No. 643 of 20 June 2007 regarding the approval of the strategy for selecting the investors for the completion of Cernavoda nuclear power plant Units 3 and 4, as amended by Government Decision No. 691 of 24 June 2008.
Government Decision No. 1069 of 5 September 2007 on approval of the Romanian Energy Strategy for 2007–2020.
Government Decision No. 1080 of 5 September 2007 on the setting up and management of financial resources required for the safe management of radioactive waste and decommissioning of nuclear and radiological facilities.
Government Decision No. 1437 of 18 November 2009 regarding the approval of the organization and functioning regulation and of the structure of the Nuclear and Radioactive Waste Agency, as amended by Government Decision No. 579 of 30 July 2013.
Law No. 101 of 15 June 2011 for the prevention and punishment of acts involving damage to the environment.
Government Decision No. 526 of 25 July 2018 for approval of the National Radon Action Plan.
Government Decision No. 600 of 23 July 2014 for approval of the National Nuclear Safety and Security Strategy.
Nuclear regulations (standards, rules, safety guides)
CNCAN is empowered by Law No. 111 of 1996 to develop mandatory and enforceable regulations in order to detail the general legal requirements, as well as any other regulations necessary to support the licensing and control of nuclear activities. CNCAN has issued regulations in the following areas:
Radiological Safety Regulations (NSR);
Nuclear Safety Regulations and Regulatory Guides (NSN, GSN);
Joint Nuclear Interdepartmental Norms (NIN);
Nuclear safeguards regulations (NGN);
Physical protection regulations in the nuclear field (NPF);
Radioactive mining (NMR) regulations;
Radioactive material transport regulations (NTR);
Radioactive waste management regulations (NDR);
Quality Management Regulations in the Nuclear Field (NMC);
Rules and regulations on Radiological Emergency Management (NUR);
Regulations on natural radiation sources (NRNs);
Regulations on the preparation and certification of nuclear personnel (NPP);
Nuclear Construction Regulations (NCN);
Cyber Security Regulations for Nuclear (NSC);
All the regulations and regulatory guides are published in the Official Journal of Romania and are made available on the CNCAN web site (www.cncan.ro).
Appendix 1: International, Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements
International treaties, conventions, and agreements signed/ratified by the country and Cooperation agreements with the IAEA in the area of nuclear power
|Title||In Force||National adoption/ratification/acceptance|
|Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), adopted at New York on 12 June 1968, signed in Moscow, London and Washington on 1 July 1968||3 May 1970||Ratified by Decree No. 21 of 1970, published in the Official Bulletin No. 3/31.01.1970|
|Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water, done in Moscow on 5 August 1963, signed at Moscow, London and Washington on 8 August 1963|
31 October 1963
|Ratified by Decree No. 686 of 1963, published in the Official Bulletin No. 20/31.10.1963|
|Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (Seabed Treaty), adopted and opened for signature at Moscow, London and Washington at 11 February 1971||18 May 1972||Ratified by Decree No. 141 of 1972, published in the Official Bulletin No. 48/08.05.1972|
|Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty — CTBT, Vienna, adopted by UNGA 10 September 1996, opened for signature on 24 September 1996 ||Not in force||Ratified by Law No. 152 of 1999, published in the Official Bulletin No. 478/04.10.1999|
|Treaty between the Kingdom of Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Estonia, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, the Republic of Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Poland, the Portuguese Republic, the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovak Republic, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Member States of the European Union) and the Republic of Bulgaria and Romania, concerning the accession of the Republic of Bulgaria and Romania to the European Union, signed in Luxembourg on 25 April 2005||1 January 2007||Ratified by Law No. 157 of 2005, published in the Official Bulletin No. 465/01.06.2005|
|Agreement between Belgium, Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the European Community of Atomic Energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (78/164/EURATOM) adopted in Brussels on 5 April 1973, with subsequent amendments||11 July 2007||Ratified by Law No. 185 of 2007 published in the Official Bulletin No. 467/11.07.2007|
|Protocol additional to the Agreement between Belgium, Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the European Community of Atomic Energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998 ||11 July 2007||Ratified by Law No. 185 of 2007 published in the Official Bulletin No. 467/11.07.2007|
|Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959||7 October 1970||Published in the Official Buletin No. 92/28.07.1970|
Acceptance: 7 October 1970
|Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, adopted in Vienna on 26 October 1979||8 February 1987||Ratified by Law No. 78 of 1993, published in the Official Bulletin No. 265/15.11.1993|
|Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, adopted in Vienna on 8 July 2005||8 May |
|Ratified by Law No. 419 of 2006, published in the Official Bulletin No. 1008/19.12.2006 |
|Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, adopted in Vienna on 21 May 1963||12 November 1977||Accessed by Law No. 106 of 1992, published in the Official Bulletin No. 258/15.10.1992|
|Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, adopted in Vienna on 21 September 1988||27 April|
|Accessed by Law No. 106 of 1992, published in the Official Bulletin No. 258/15.10.1992|
|Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, adopted in Vienna on 12 September 1997||4 October 2003 ||Ratified by Law No. 203 of 1998, published in the Official Bulletin No. 438/18.11.1998|
|Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, adopted in Vienna on 12 September 1997 ||15 April |
|Ratified by Law No. 5 of 1999, published in the Official Bulletin No. 9/18.01.1999|
|Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, adopted in Vienna on 26 September 1986||27 October 1986||Accessed by Decree No. 223 of 1990, published in the Official Bulletin No. 67/14.05.1990.|
|Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, adopted in Vienna on 26 September 1986 ||26 February 1987||Accessed by Decree No. 223 of 1990, published in the Official Bulletin No. 67/14.05.1990.|
|Convention on Nuclear Safety, adopted in Vienna on 17 June 1994 |
24 October 1996
|Ratified by Law No. 43 of 1995, published in the Official Bulletin No. 104/29.05.1995|
|Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, adopted in Vienna on 5 September 1997 ||18 June |
|Ratified by Law No. 105 of 1999, published in the Official Bulletin No. 283/21.06.1999|
|Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention) ||10 September 1997||Ratified by Law No. 22 of 2001, published in the Official Bulletin No.105/01.03.2001|
|Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention)||30 October 2001||Ratified by Law No. 86 of 2000, published in the Official Bulletin No. 224/22.05.2000|
Bilateral agreements with other countries or organizations signed/ratified by the country in the field of nuclear power.
|Nr. crt.||Title||Date of entry into force at national level||National adoption/ratification|
|Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Romania and the Government of Canada for Cooperation in the Development and Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, done in Ottawa on 24 October 1977|
Exchange of Notes between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Romania constituting an Agreement Amending their Agreement for Cooperation in the Development and Application of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes done at Ottawa on 24 October 1977
|Approved by Decree No. 64 of 1978, not published in the Official Bulletin|
Upon accession, only some provisions remained in force (those which are not overlapping with the Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, done at Brussels on 6 October 1959 and its subsequent amendments
|Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of Greece on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Installations, signed in Athens on 10 March 1995||Entered into force on 25 May 1998||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 332 of 1995, published in the Official Bulletin No. 99/23.05.1995|
|Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of Republic of Hungary on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, signed in Bucharest on 26 May 1997||Entered into force on 3 October 1997||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 541 of 1997, published in the Official Bulletin No. 265/03.10.1997|
|Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of Republic of Bulgaria on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Installations, signed in Kozlodui on 28 May 1997||Entered into force on 25 November 1997||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 734 of 1997, published in the Official Bulletin No. 326/25.11.1997|
|Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Romania Concerning Cooperation in the Area of Counterproliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, and the Promotion of Defence and Military Relations, signed at Washington 30 March 1998||Entered into force on 3 June 1999||Ratified by Law No. 100 of 1999 for approving the Ordinance No. 3 of 1999, published in the Official Bulletin No. 255/03.06.1999 |
|Protocol for amending and completing the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Romania Concerning Cooperation in the Area of Counterproliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, and the Promotion of Defence and Military Relations, signed at Washington 30 March 1998, signed at Bucharest on 5 July 2012||Entered into force on 5 July 2012||Ratified by Urgency Ordinance No. 42 of 2012, published in the Official Bulletin No. 452/05.07.2012, approved by Law No. 201 of 2012|
|Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the Slovak Republic on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Installations, signed in Bucharest on 19 February 2002||Entered into force on 14 May 2002||Approved Governmental Decision No. 422 of 2002, published in the Official Bulletin No. 319/14.05.2002|
|Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the Russian Federation on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Installations, signed in Moscow on 21 February 2002||Entered into force on 15 May 2002||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 423 of 2002, published in the Official Bulletin No. 322/15.05.2002|
|Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization on the Conduct of Activities, including Post-certification Activities, Relating to International Monitoring Facilities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, signed in Vienna on 13 June 2003 ||Entered into force on 1 October 2003||Ratified by the Law No. 372 of 20.09.2004, published in the Official Bulletin No. 884/28.09.2004|
|Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents and Exchange of Information in the Field of Nuclear and Radiation Safety, signed in Vienna on 22 September 2004||Entered into force on 29 December 2004||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 2188 of 2004, published in the Official Bulletin No. 1267/29.12.2004|
|Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of Turkey on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, signed in Bucharest on 3 March 2008||Entered into force on 12 September 2008||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 1038 of 2008, published in the Official Bulletin No. 650/12.09.2008|
|Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the Russian Federation Concerning Cooperation for the Transfer of Research Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Fuel to the Russian Federation, signed in Bucharest on 19 February 2009||Entered into force on 15 June 2009||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 664 of 2009, published in the Official Bulletin No. 405/15.06.2009|
|Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of Argentina for the Cooperation in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, signed in Buenos Aires on 27 November 1990||Entered into force on 16 August 1993||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 354 of 1993, published in the Official Bulletin No. 196/16.08.1993|
|Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Safety between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania and the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority, signed in Bucharest on 12 June 1997||Entered into force on 25 May 1998||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 273 of 19.05.1998, published in the Official Bulletin No. 192/25.05.1998|
|Agreement between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania and the Greek Atomic Energy Commission of the Republic of Greece for Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Installations, signed in Bucharest on 22 December 1997||Entered into force on 25 May 1998||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 271 of 19.05.1998, published in the Official Bulletin No. 192/25.05.1998|
|Agreement on Cooperation and Information Exchange in the Field of Nuclear Safety between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania and the Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (Grs) Mbh, signed in Berlin on 10 November 1998||Entered into force on 23 February 1999||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 94 of 18.02.1999, published in the Official Bulletin No. 75/23.02.1999|
|Arrangement between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the National Commission for Atomic Energy of the Republic of Argentina, signed in Bucharest on 15 July 1999||Entered into force on 3 February 2000||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 61/27.01.2000, published in the Official Bulletin No. 53/03.02.2000|
|Administrative Understanding between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada, signed in Bucharest on 29 May 2000 and in Ottawa on 23 May 2000||Entered into force on 6 November 2000||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 1011/2000, published in the Official Bulletin No. 547/06.11.2000|
|Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, signed in Vienna on 22 September 2010||Entered into force on 8 December 2010||Approved by CNCAN President Order No. 327 of 2010, published in the Official Bulletin No. 819/08.12.2010|
|Agreement between the Nuclear Agency of Romania and the National Commission for Nuclear Activities of Romania and the Department of Energy of the United States of America Concerning Cooperation in the Area of Countering the Proliferation of Nuclear Materials and Technologies, signed in New York on 19 July 2004||Entered into force on 1 March 2005||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 97 of 2005, published in the Official Bulletin No. 178/01.03.2005|
|Amendment to the Agreement between the Nuclear Agency of Romania and the National Commission for Nuclear Activities of Romania and the Department of Energy of the United States of America Concerning Cooperation in the Area of Countering the Proliferation of Nuclear Materials and Technologies, signed in Washington on 3 December 2008||Entered into force on 22 May 2009||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 555/2009, published in the Official Bulletin No. 344/22.05.2009|
|Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation in Nuclear Safety between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, signed in Bucharest on 21 September 1996||Entered into force on 11 November 1996||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 1032 of 1996, published in the Official Bulletin No. 282/11.11.1996 |
|Additional Arrangement to the Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation in Nuclear Safety between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, signed in Daejeon on 1 December 2006||Entered into force on 9 March 2007||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 215 of 2007, published in the Official Bulletin No. 167/ 09.03.2007|
|Arrangement between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) of the Republic of Italy for Cooperation in Nuclear and Radiation Safety Matters, signed in Vienna on 14 September 2009||Entered into force on 6 April 2011||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 311 of 2011, published in the Official Bulletin No. 241/06.04.2011|
|Agreement between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania Concerning Cooperation to Enhance the Security of Romania’s Radioactive Sources and Special Nuclear Material, signed in Bucharest on 10 December 2009||Entered into force on 24 February 2010||Approved by CNCAN Presidential Order No. 363 of 2009, published in the Official Bulletin No. 127/24.02.2010|
|Memorandum of Understanding for the Development of Modes of Cooperation of the Authorities Relating to the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material for Civil Purposes, signed in Bucharest on 16 July 2010 and in London on 21 July 2010||Entered into force on 10 December 2010||Approved by CNCAN President Order No. 326 of 2010, published in the Official Bulletin No. 827/10.12.2010|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania and the Radiation Safety Directorate of the Republic of Macedonia for Cooperation on Radiation Protection Regulation Matters, signed in Bucharest on 26 October 2010||Entered into force on 8 December 2010||Approved by CNCAN President Order No. 328 of 2010, published in the Official Bulletin No. 819/08.12.2010|
|Arrangement between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania (CNCAN) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the United States of America (NRC) for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Nuclear Safety Matters, signed in Bucharest on 2 March 2017 and in Rockville, Maryland, on 16 March 2017||Entered into force on 27 July 2017||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 504 of 20.07.2017, published in the Official Bulletin No. 608/27.07.2017|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania and the National Agency for Regulating Nuclear and Radiological Activities of Republic of Moldova in the Area of Radiological Safety and Practices with Ionizing Radiation Sources, signed in Bucharest on 12 December 2011||Entered into force on 22 August 2012||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 836 of 2012, published in the Official Bulletin No. 601/22.08.2012|
|Memorandum of Understanding between the President of the National Atomic Energy Agency of the Republic of Poland and the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania for Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters, signed in Vienna on 25 September 2014||Entered into force on 28 October 2014||Approved by CNCAN Presidential Order No. 176 of 2014, published in the Official Bulletin No. 783/28.10.2014|
|Arrangement between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) from Romania and the Nuclear Regulatory Agency from the Republic of Bulgaria (BNRA) for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in the Regulation and Control of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, signed in Sofia on 20 January 2016||Entered into force on 18 May 2016||Approved by Governmental Decision No. 343 of 2016, published in the Official Bulletin No. 379/18.05.2016|
|Law no 236/2016 on ratifying the Protocol between the Government of Romania and the Government of Canada, signed in Bucharest at 31 July 2015 additional to the Agreement between the Government of Socialist Republic of Romania and the Government of Canada for the cooperation in development and peaceful use of atomic energy, signed in Ottawa on 24 September 1977||Entered into force on 7 December 2016||Approved by Law 236/2016, published in the Official Bulletin no 982/7.12.2016|
APPENDIX 2. MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
Ministry of Economy, Energy and Business Environment (MEEMA)
Ministry of Environment, Waters and Forest (MMAP)
National Institute of Statistics (INSS)
Romanian Energy Regulatory Authority (ANRE)
Technologies for Nuclear Energy State Owned Company RATEN
Nuclear and Radioactive Waste Agency (ANDR)
National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN)
Societatea Nationala ‘Nuclearelectrica’ (SNN SA)
Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, subsidiary of Societatea Nationala ‘Nuclearelectrica’ SA
Romanian Gas and Electricity Market
SC Electrica SA
Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (ICN Pitesti)
Centre of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects (CITON)
National R&D Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Rm Valcea
National Uranium Company (CNU)
Suceava Branch, Crucea Botusana Mines
National Uranium Company (CNU)
Nuclear Fuel Plant (FCN Pitesti)
General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU)
National Institute for Public Health (INSPB)
Name of report coordinator: Ramona Georgiana Popescu, Director General ANDR and NLO
Institution: Nuclear and Radioactive Waste Agency (ANDR)
Contact details: 21–25 Mendeleev Str., District 1, 010362 Bucharest, Romania