This report provides information on the status and development of the nuclear power programmes in the Russian Federation, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programmes that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in the Russian Federation.
The Russian Federation has nuclear power reactors in operation and is planning expansion of existing programmes.
Nuclear power in the Russian Federation is a driver for the development of other industries. Currently, the country operates 36 nuclear power reactors and is steadily moving ahead with plans to expand the role of nuclear energy, including the development of new reactor technologies. It seeks to close the fuel cycle and fast reactors are considered a key component of this. The export of nuclear goods and services is one of the most important Russian policies and economic tasks. More than 20 Russian nuclear power reactors are confirmed or planned for export construction; today, foreign orders amounted to about US $133 billion.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
The energy policy of the Russian Federation is contained in an energy strategy document, which sets out policy for the period up to 2020. In 2000, the Russian Government approved the main provisions of the Russian energy strategy to 2020, with the new Russian energy strategy being confirmed by the Government in 2003. The energy strategy outlines several main priorities: an increase in energy efficiency, reduction of impacts on the environment, increased sustainable development, energy development and technological development, as well as improved effectiveness and competitiveness. In the Energy Strategy of Russia for the period up to 2020, it is also specified that the document should be amended where necessary at least once every 5 years. Inn 2009, the strategy was also extended to the time period of up to 2030 with new goals and priorities for the country development.
Under these circumstances, the structural policy for the energy sector over the next 10–15 years includes:
Enhancement of the efficiency of natural gas utilization and an increase in its share of domestic consumption, especially in ecologically strained regions;
In-depth processing and comprehensive utilization of hydrocarbon raw materials;
Enhancement of coal quality, as well as the stabilization of coal production volumes;
Intensification of local and renewable energy resource development (hydro and wind power, peat, etc.);
Prioritizing electricity generation development, based on competitive and ecologically clean power plants;
Safety and reliability enhancement of the first generation nuclear power plants (NPPs) and development of new, advanced NPPs.
The new technological energy policy is oriented towards:
Radical enhancement of both the cost effectiveness and energy efficiency of all stages of the extraction, conversion, distribution and utilization of energy resources;
Effective decentralization of the energy supply;
Ecological and accident safety, as well as the reliability of energy supply;
Development of qualitatively new technologies for the stable evolution of the power industry: ecologically clean coal fired power plants, safe nuclear power plants, efficient processes for the utilization of new sources of power, etc.
Regional energy policy takes into account the existing principal differences in energy supply conditions and in the structures of the fuel resources of various parts of the Russian Federation. Regional energy self-governance and self-sufficiency are envisaged as major challenges, i.e. the sustaining of the unified national energy sector through the development of federal energy systems, involving electricity, gas and oil supply networks (Energy Strategy of Russia — http://www.energystrategy.ru/projects/docs/ES-2030_%28Eng%29.pdf).
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
Energy reserves are shown in Table 1. Fossil fuels form the basis for the Russian energy sector.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Total amount in specific units*||157.01||10.8||33.1||1 000 000||0.335||0.003|
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||4 789||503.3||1 274.1||157.6||105.6||0.95|
*Solid, liquid: million tonnes; gas: billion m3; uranium: metric tonnnes; hydro, renewable: TW.
Calculation of EJ equivalent for renewables is expressed for a period of 10 years.
**Solids include both coal and lignite.
Sources: IAEA Energy and Economic Data Bank; Country Information.
1.1.3. Energy statistics
Table 2 provides an overview of historical energy data. The share of nuclear energy in total energy consumption is about 2%, while hydro energy remains the most prominent renewable energy resource in the Russian Federation. The share of hydro energy in energy consumption is also about 2%.
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|Compound annual growth rate (%) 2000 to 2018|
|Energy consumption [EJ]*|
|- Other renewables||—||—||—||—||—||—|
|Energy production [EJ]|
|- Other renewables|
|Net import (Import-Export) [EJ]|
*Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import-Export) of secondary energy.
**Solid fuels include coal, lignite.
—: data not available.
Sources: IAEA Energy and Economic Data Bank; Country Information.
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
The Russian electric power system consists of both interconnected (unified) and disconnected parts. More than 90% of the generation capacities run synchronously on a vast territory spanning almost 7000 kilometers from east to west. Off-grid electric systems supply customers in the far eastern and northern territories of the country. The transmission network covers ten time zones and helps to meet peak demand in winter. Nuclear sources are useful insofar as they can be used significantly longer than some fossil fuels. Currently, this source of energy is considered the most viable for electricity generation for the next 50 years (https://minenergo.gov.ru/en).
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
Transmission and distribution
There are seven separate regional power systems in the Russian electricity sector: Northwest, Centre, Middle Volga, North Caucasus, Urals, Siberia, and Far East. The Far East region is the only one not connected to an integrated power system. Unified Energy System of Russia (referred to as UES or UESR), which is 52% owned by the Russian Government (Gazprom now has a 10% stake), controls most of the transmission and distribution in the Russian Federation. UES owns 96% of the transmission and distribution system, the central dispatch unit, and the federal wholesale electricity market.
Unified Energy System
UES is a unique system which supports economic benefits for both the Russian people and Russian industry. The technical basis of UES comprises:
700 electric power stations with a total installed capacity of 239.8 thousand MW, including 27.9 thousand MW at nuclear power stations, which produced 1073.6 billion kWh of power in 2017 (https://minenergo.gov.ru/node/532);
A total of 3.018 million km of electric power lines;
A supply regulation system that physically unites all power installations with a single 50 Hz current frequency.
The organizational basis of UES comprises:
RAO, which acts as a central locus that implements the functioning and development criteria established by the Government, based on effectiveness, and provides operational supply management aimed at increasing economic efficiency at UES;
74 power suppliers that supply electric and heat power to consumers throughout the Russian Federation;
34 large electric power stations that operate independently on the federal (national) wholesale electric power market;
Over 300 organizations providing technological backup and development for UES, and which ensure the viability of the industry as a whole.
Privatization and electricity market reform
The restructuring of the Russian Federation’s power generation sector was completed on 1 July 2008, when the state monopoly RAO UES was dissolved. The country’s transmission grid remained under state control, however. The reform has created a generating sector divided into multiple wholesale electricity companies, which participate in a new competitive wholesale market.
The main participants in the wholesale market are:
Thermal wholesale generation companies (6);
Atomic generation company;
Hydro generation company;
Other generation companies;
Federal grid company;
The Russian Federation exports significant quantities of electricity to countries of the former Soviet Union, as well as to China, Finland, Poland and Turkey. UES also has plans to export electricity to the Islamic Republic of Iran, and possibly to Afghanistan and Pakistan, from two hydroelectric stations it is currently building in Tajikistan. There are also currently two efforts under way to integrate the Russian and western European electricity grids. UES is participating in the Baltrel programme, designed to create an energy ring of power companies in the Baltic States. The Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity, of which 20 European countries are members, has also entered into discussions with Russian colleagues over the technological and operational aspects of interconnecting their systems.
1.2.3. Main indicators
Table 3 shows the historical electricity production data and installed capacities, and Table 4 shows the energy related ratios.
TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
|Compound annual growth rate (%) 2000–2018|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)*
|- Other renewables|
|Electricity production (TWh)*
|- Other renewables|
|Total electricity consumption (TWh)||1073.8||863.7||1021||1033.3||1076||1.16|
*Latest available data.
**Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
Sources: IAEA Energy and Economic Data Bank; the Russian Federation in figures (http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2017/rusfig/rus17.pdf), Summary Statistical Transactions.
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)*||260||190||230||224||253|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)*||7311||5915||7135||7051||7332|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)*||n.a.||7.75||8.61||7.01||6.8|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)*||10.91||15||16.6||17.6||19|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)**||n.a.||-48.1||-53||-63||–57.33|
*Latest available data.
**Net import / Total energy consumption.
n.a.: data not applicable.
Sources: IAEA Energy and Economic Database; Annual Report of the UES in 2017 (http://so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2018/ups_rep2017.pdf), Summary Statistical Transactions.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The Russian Federation is optimistic about its nuclear programme, despite a recent decline in demand for electricity, as electricity generation from nuclear power plants increased by 11% over the past six years. The installed capacity of nuclear power plants also increased by 9%. Currently, six new nuclear power reactors are under construction. The Russian Federation is taking part in the construction of new NPPs in China, India and the Islamic Republic of Iran. Agreements on the development of nuclear power production were signed with Belarus, Finland and Hungary.
Below is a chronological outline of the development of nuclear power in the Russian Federation.
|1937||Commencement of experimental studies on the structure of atomic nuclei. Production of ‘pulse’ amounts of neptunium and plutonium at the Leningrad Radium Institute.|
|1939||Start of research into the feasibility of achieving a nuclear chain reaction. Installation of the largest cyclotron in Europe in the Leningrad Physical and Technical Institute.|
|1940||Discovery of the phenomenon of spontaneous nuclear fission in uranium. Theoretical demonstration by Soviet scientists of the feasibility of energy release from a uranium nuclear fission chain reaction.|
|1942||Recommencement of atomic research that had been interrupted by the outbreak of the war.|
|1943||Creation of a special physics laboratory — the No. 2 Laboratory in Moscow (now the Russian Scientific Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’).|
|1945||Establishment of a governmental interdepartmental body — the First Chief Administration — to coordinate all work in the field of atomic science and technology.|
|1945/1946||Technological mastery and organization of the production of metallic uranium and high purity reactor graphite in order to start up the first experimental reactor.|
|1946||Achievement of a controlled uranium fission chain reaction at the No. 2 Laboratory.|
|1948||Startup of the first industrial nuclear reactor.|
|1953||Establishment of the USSR Ministry of Medium Machine Building as the authority dealing with nuclear science and technology.|
|1954||Startup of the world’s first nuclear power plant in Obninsk.|
|1957||Ratification of the Charter of the IAEA by the USSR.|
|1964||Commissioning of the first commercial water moderated, water cooled vessel type (WWER) reactor at Novovoronezh. Commissioning of the first commercial boiling water cooled graphite moderated reactor with nuclear superheating of steam at Beloyarsk.|
|1970||Establishment of the International Nuclear Information System with the active participation of the USSR.|
|1973||Commissioning of the first commercial water cooled graphite moderated channel type (RBMK) reactor at Leningrad.|
|1973||Commissioning of the world’s first prototype scale fast breeder reactor (BN-350) in Aktau for electricity generation and desalinated water production.|
|1976||Completion of the first nuclear central heating and power plant at Bilibino, in the far northeastern part of the Russian Federation.|
|1977||Startup of the RT-1 plant for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.|
|1980||Startup of a commercial power generating unit powered by a BN-600 fast reactor at Beloyarsk. Commissioning of the 1000 MW(e) water moderated, water cooled reactor (WWER-1000).|
|1984/1986||Commissioning of the Zaporozhie and Balakovo NPPs with WWER-1000 serial reactors with full compliance with the new safety regulation.|
|1986||Accident at Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP. Ministry for Atomic Energy is organized to be responsible for NPP operation.|
|1989||Reorganization of the Ministry of Medium Machine Building and Ministry for Atomic Energy as the USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy and Industry.|
|1992||Establishment of the Ministry for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom, also known as Ministry for Nuclear Power), which replaced the USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy and Industry.|
|1995||50th anniversary of the nuclear power industry in the Russian Federation. Beginning of commercial conversion of highly enriched uranium into low enriched uranium (the VOU-NOU project) at the Ural Electrochemical Combine (Novouralsk, Sverdlovsk Region). The FEI RF SSC, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, puts into service the first phase of the Laser and Nuclear Centre for direct conversion of nuclei fission energy into laser radiation. The first phase of diamond production is put into service at the VNIIEF RF NC as part of the conversion programme.|
|1996||Approval of programmes for support of the industry’s major schools of thought. Sea trials of the PETR VELIKY nuclear powered cruiser are completed. Completion of the removal of the Soviet nuclear weapons to be disassembled from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) to the Russian Federation.|
|1998||Decision making on production of the first batch of pilot uranium–plutonium fuel assemblies. Fabrication of a pilot batch of ADE-2, -4, -5 reactor conversion fuel rods. Approval of the programme to develop nuclear power engineering in the Russian Federation from 1998 to 2005 and to 2010. Activities to elaborate a draft Strategy for Nuclear Power Development (a 50 year forecast) are started.|
|1998||Process to fabricate weapons grade plutonium based mixed oxide fuel is devised and brought into commercial practice at the Research Institute of Nuclear Reactors State Research Center of the Russian Federation. A pilot batch of that fuel for BOR-60 and BN-600 reactors is fabricated.|
|1998||Establishment of the Information and Analytical Center of Minatom to ensure information and analytical support of the Ministry administration and of the Industry Emergency Commission, both under normal operation and in case of emergency at the industry enterprises.|
|1999||Commissioning of the Kursk NPP 2 power unit, upon completion of overhaul, with monitoring of all fuel channels and with their partial substitution according to the results. That work is carried out in the industry for the first time.|
|1999||Start of implementation of wide-scale measures to accelerate use of nuclear powered submarines removed from military service and to accelerate ecological recovery of sites of dangerous installations belonging to the Ministry of Defence, handed over to Minatom in compliance with the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation.|
|2001||Putting into operation of the first unit of the Volgodonsk (Rostov) NPP.|
|2002||25th anniversary of the putting into operation of PT-1 plant at Mayak Production Association.|
|2004||Nuclear Power of Russia — 50 Years of History. On 27 June 1954, in the city of Obninsk, a nuclear power plant with a capacity of 5000 kW was put into operation and connected to the grid for the first time in the world’s history.|
|2005||60 Years of Nuclear Power in Russia. Nuclear Power of Russia dates from 20 August 1945, when the First General Directorate was established.|
|2007||Russian President Vladimir Putin ratifies the new law on Rosatom state corporation.|
|2009||On 30 October, the ‘cold and hot’ pre-commissioning testing of reactor adjustment work is successfully completed at the second unit of the Rostov NPP.|
|10 October 2010||Rostov NPP: Rosatom signs a permit for putting power unit No. 2 into operation.|
|27 February 2012||Baltic NPP: Construction of the nuclear island foundation starts.|
|25 December 2013||Beloyarsk-4 starts first criticality programme at BN-800.|
|12 February 2014||WANO conducts pre-startup peer review of Beloyarsk-4.|
|22 October 2015||Rostov NPP: preparation for installation of the reactor vessel at power unit No. 4.|
|18 September 2015||Rostov NPP: power unit No. 3 accepted into commercial operation.|
|26 January 2016||Novovoronezh NPP: Power unit No. 3 will become the testing ground for elaboration of decommissioning technology.|
|26 September 2016||The Rostov NPP: The pre-commissioning of the nuclear reactor fuel loading machine starts at the power block No. 4 under construction.|
|26 April 2017||Rosenergoatom: The specialists of the floating nuclear power unit Akademik Lomonosov prepare for flushing of reactor unit systems.|
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
The State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom maintains competencies to oversee and work at all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle and production chain from, uranium mining to decommissioning of nuclear facilities or management of spent nuclear fuel. Rosatom as a whole brings together about 400 enterprises and organizations, including the world’s only nuclear icebreaker fleet. It is the largest electricity generating company in the country, accounting for about 18.7% of the country’s total generation of electricity, where the Russian Federation is also the third in the world for total nuclear power generation.
The State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom consists of divisions formed according to the basic segments of the nuclear fuel cycle:
In addition, ROSATOM offering products and services in the following areas:
Figure 1 shows the structure of the nuclear industry in the Russian Federation.
FIG. 1. Structure of the nuclear industry in the Russian Federation.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
Figure 2 shows a map of Russian nuclear power plants. Table 5 shows the current status of the Russian Federation’s nuclear power plants.
With 36 operating reactors, the Russian Federation’s nuclear plants comprise:
Three first generation pressurized water reactors similar to the WWER-440.
Two second generation WWER-440 pressurized water reactors.
Thirteen third generation WWER-1000 pressurized water reactors, mostly V-320 types.
Three WWER-1200 reactors.
Ten RBMK light water graphite reactors now unique to the Russian Federation. The four oldest of these were commissioned in the 1970s at Kursk and Leningrad.
Three small graphite moderated boiling water reactors in eastern Siberia constructed in the 1970s for cogeneration (EGP-6 models in Fig. 2).
BN-600 and BN-800 fast reactors.
FIG. 2. Map of Russian nuclear power plants.
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|AKADEMIK LOMONOSOV-1||PWR||32||Under Construction||REA||AEM||2007-04-15||2019-12-31|
|AKADEMIK LOMONOSOV-2||PWR||32||Under Construction||REA||AEM||2007-04-15||2019-12-31|
|KURSK 2-1||PWR||1115||Under Construction||REA||AEM||2018-04-29||2022-06-21||2023-09-21|
|KURSK 2-2||PWR||1115||Under Construction||REA||AEM||2019-04-15||2023-12-31||2024-08-21|
|LENINGRAD 2-2||PWR||1085||Under Construction||REA||AEM||2010-04-15||2011-11-30||2021-12-31||2022-01-25|
|APS-1 OBNINSK||LWGR||5||Permanent Shutdown||MSM||MSM||1951-01-01||1954-05-06||1954-06-27||1954-12-01||2002-04-29|
|SOUTH URALSK-1||FBR||750||Suspended Constr.||REA||AEM||1986-01-01|
|SOUTH URALSK-2||FBR||750||Suspended Constr.||REA||AEM||1986-01-01|
|VORONEZH (HEAT ONLY)-1||BWR||0||Suspended Constr.||REA||1983-09-01|
|VORONEZH (HEAT ONLY)-2||BWR||0||Suspended Constr.||REA||1985-05-01|
|GORKIY (HEAT ONLY)||BWR||0||Cancelled Constr.||REA||1982-01-01||1993-12-01|
|TATAR-1 (KAMA)||PWR||950||Cancelled Constr.||REA||1987-04-01||1993-12-01|
|TATAR-2 (KAMA)||PWR||950||Cancelled Constr.||REA||1988-05-01||1993-12-01|
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
Nuclear power generation made up about 18% of the country’s total electricity generation in 2018. Nuclear power plants are operated by Concern Rosenergoatom.
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
The lifetime extension activities for units of NPPs were initiated pursuant to the programme of development of the nuclear power industry in the Russian Federation in 1998–2005 and the period up to 2010, approved by Russian Federation Government Decree No. 815 of 21 July 1998. The long term programme of activities of the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation for the period 2009–2015, approved by Russian Federation Government Decree No. 705 of 20 September 2008, calls for lifetime extension of operational nuclear power units.
Most reactors are being licensed for lifetime extension. Half of the Russian Federation’s nuclear generation in 2015 came from units which had been upgraded for long term operation and were operating beyond their initial design lifetimes (of around 30 years), mostly with 15 year extensions initially. Twenty-four of 34 reactors operating in 2015 had been upgraded with lifetime extensions, adding 3 GW(e) of generating capacity. Of the other ten, five were being upgraded and five were relatively new.
Generally, Russian reactors were originally licensed for 30 years from first power. Late in 2000, plans were announced for lifetime extensions of 12 first generation reactors (Leningrad 1 and 2, Kursk 1 and 2, Kola 1 and 2, Bilibino 1–4 and Novovoronezh 3 and 4), totaling 5.7 GW(e), necessitating major investment in refurbishing them. However, the cost of this is generally only one fifth that of building replacement capacity. In 2014, a new state programme on licence extension was approved, bringing standards into line with international ones.
Through the end of 2011, 15 year extensions had been achieved for 17 units totaling 9.8 GW(e). Through mid-2016, operational licence extensions had been implemented for 24 units, totaling 16 242 MW(e): Beloyarsk 3, Novovoronezh 3–5, Kola 1–4, Kalinin 1, Balakovo 1, Kursk 1–4, Leningrad 1–4, Smolensk 1 and 2 and Bilibino 1–4. Projects for Balakovo 2–4, Kalinin 2 and Smolensk 3 will be carried out by 2023.
WWER-440 units have generally received 15 year life extensions (Kola 1 and 2 WWER-440 units are V-230 models, which the European Union has paid to shut down early in countries outside the Russian Federation; Novovoronezh 4, a V-179, is a predecessor to these). Kola 2 is undergoing safety analysis, with a goal to extend its licence to 60 years, and Kola 1 is also expected to be licensed beyond 45 years after annealing the reactor pressure vessel. The Kola 3 licence extension to 2026 (45 years) was confirmed in February 2016 after upgrading work. Novovoronezh 4 is expected to be licensed to 60 years using cannibalized parts from Unit 3, shut down at the end of 2016.
Most WWER-1000 units are expected to have 30 year licence extensions. In 2015, Balakovo 1 was licensed to 60 years, and intentions for Units 2–4 are similar. Kalinin 2 and Smolensk 3 are expected to have a 30 year licence extension by 2025.
In 2006, Rosatom said it was considering 15 year lifetime extensions and uprating of all 11 of its operating RBMK reactors; 10 had licence extensions by mid-2016. Following significant design modifications made after the Chernobyl accident, as well as extensive refurbishment, including replacement of fuel channels, a 45 year lifetime is seen as realistic for most of the 1000 MW(e) units. In 2011, these units provided 47.5% of the Russian Federation’s nuclear generated electricity.
For older RBMK units, service lifetime performance recovery operations involve correcting deformation of the graphite stack. After dismantling the pressure tubes, longitudinal cutting of a limited number of graphite columns returns the graphite stack geometry to a condition that meets the initial design requirements. The procedure will give each of these older reactors at least three years of extra operation, and then the procedure may then be repeated. Leningrad 1 was the first reactor to undergo this over 2012–2013, followed by the Kursk and Smolensk units. In 2017, work is due to start on restoring lifetime performance of the graphite stacks. All three Smolensk units are set for a 45-year operating lifetime.
Most reactors are being uprated. The July 2012 Energy Ministry draft plan envisaged increasing the power of WWER-440 units to 107%, that of RBMKs to 105% and that of WWER-1000 units to 104–110% (revised to 107–110% in 2013).
In May 2015, Rosenergoatom said it had completed uprating all WWER-1000 reactors to 104% of rated power, and was starting to raise levels to 107% using the advanced TVS-2M fuel design, starting with Balakovo 4. Earlier, uprating of 5% for WWER-440 reactors (but 7% for Kola 4) had been achieved, and in 2015, Kola 3 went to 107%. The overall cost was less than RUR 3 billion (US $60.5 million), according to Rosenergoatom. The cost of this was earlier put at US $200/kw, compared with $2400/kW for construction of Rostov 2. Kalinin Units 1–3 are quoted at 1075 MW(e) gross after uprate, and Unit 4 started pilot commercial operation at 104% of rated power in February 2015, with a 40 MW(e) increase.
Rosenergoatom has been investigating further uprates of WWER-1000 units to 107–110% of original capacity, using Balakovo 4 as a pilot plant through 2014. The cost of further uprates beyond 104% is expected to be up to US $570/kW, depending on what needs to be replaced — the turbine generators being the main items. For the V-320 units, pilot commercial operation at 104% power is carried out over three fuel campaigns, with the reactor and other system parameters being monitored and relevant data collected. After this period, a cumulative 104% power operation report is produced for each plant. Rostechnadzor will then assess safety and possibly license commercial operation at the higher power level.
Rosenergoatom is considering the introduction of a 24 month fuel cycle at new nuclear power units. Previously, WWER-1000 reactors operated for 12 months without refuelling, and from 2008 the reactors were all converted to an 18 month fuel cycle. WWER-440s still use a 12 month cycle. To achieve 24 months in new units, the design of WWERs will need to be changed and fuel enrichment would need to be increased from 4–4.5% U-235 to 6–7% in the WWER-TOI design.
The research and development (R&D) Institute of Power Engineering was preparing plans for a 5% uprating of the later Leningrad, Kursk and Smolensk RBMK units. For Leningrad 2–4, fuel enriched to an average of 3% instead of 2.4% would allow a 5% increase in power, and Rostechnadzor authorized trials of the new fuel in Unit 2. Following this, it was to consider authorizing a 5% uprate for long term operation. However, Rosenergoatom in May 2012 flagged problems with ageing of the graphite moderator (most acute at Leningrad 1), questioned proceeding with uprates of older units, and said it would consider derating individual units where problems such as pressure tube distortion were apparent due to graphite swelling. Leningrad 1 would be derated to 80% to prolong its operating life; work to restore its graphite stack and extend its service life was completed late in 2013. Similar work would then be done on all first generation RBMKs, since these are so important economically to Rosenergoatom. However, future RBMK operation might possibly be at reduced capacity of 80% across all units. The successful repair of Leningrad 1 removed the pressure for accelerated replacement of old RBMK units.
On 23 December 2018, at 05:16, the power unit No. 1 of the Kola NPP was connected to the grid after the completion of a large-scale renovation with modernization that lasted 250 days. For the first time in the Russian nuclear power industry, the WWER-440 power unit was commissioned after the renewal of the service life. Power unit No. 1 was commissioned at Kola NPP after modernization and repair. An operation to extend the service life of a WWER-1000 reactor installation was conducted at Balakovo NPP and the first block of the Balakovo NPP carried out a reduction annealing of the metal of the WWER-1000 reactor vessel. The BN-600 reactor resumed operation at Beloyarsk NPP. A unique repair of the turbogenerator No. 1 of the first power unit was carried out at Smolensk NPP.
On 19 June 2018, an acceptance test (complex testing) was successfully completed at power unit No. 4 of the Rostov NPP before commercial operation. The power unit WWER-1000/320 has a capacity of 1000 MW.
On 29 October 2018, the operating organization of the Russian NPPs, Rosenergoatom Concern JSC, entered the power unit No. 1 of the Leningrad NPP-2 into commercial operation. The reactor unit, with a WWER-1200 developed by OKB GIDROPRESS JSC, is operating with a capacity of 1.2 GW.
2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
Rosenergoatom received a Rostekhnadzor licence to provide work in a mode suitable for decommissioning of power unit No. 1 of the Bilibino NPP. Unit No. 1 of the Bilibino NPP has been placed into permanent shutdown, where spent nuclear fuel has been removed to the storage pool. Power units No. 2, No. 3, and No. 4 are in operation and provide a reliable supply of electricity to the consumers of the Chaun-Bilibinsky power center, and Bilibino consumers — also with heat and hot water.
TABLE 6. STATUS OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Current decommissioning phase||Current fuel management phase||
|Licence termination year|
|APS-1||Lifetime expiration||Long term shutdown||Permanent shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|BELOYARSKY-1||Lifetime expiration||Long term shutdown||Permanent shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|BELOYARSKY-2||Lifetime expiration||Long term shutdown||Permanent shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|NOVOVORON-1||Lifetime expiration||Long term shutdown||Permanent shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|NOVOVORON-2||Lifetime expiration||Long term shutdown||Permanent shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|NOVOVORON-3||Lifetime expiration||Long term shutdown||Permanent shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|KURSK 2-1||Lifetime expiration||Long term shutdown||Permanent shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
|LENINGRAD-1||Lifetime expiration||Long term shutdown||Permanent shutdown||Storage||ROSATOM||N/A|
Sources: PRIS database, Rosenergoatom (http://www.rosenergoatom.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosenergoatom_copy/site_en/).
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The latest Federal Target Programme envisages a 25–30% nuclear share in electricity supply by 2030, 45–50% by 2050 and 70–80% by the end of the century. The 10 units now under construction, to be completed by 2030, are listed in Table 7.
TABLE 7. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
Reactor unit/Project name
|Construction start year||Expected commercial year|
|AKADEMIK LOMONOSOV-1||ROSATOM||KLT-40S||40 × 2||2009||2019|
|LENINGRAD II -2||ROSATOM||WWER-1200||1200||Planned 2009||2022|
|LENINGRAD II -3||ROSATOM||WWER-1200||1200||Planned 2011||2023|
|LENINGRAD II -4||ROSATOM||WWER-1200||1200||Planned 2014||2024|
|Kursk II-1||ROSATOM||WWER-TOI||1250||Planned 2018||2022|
|Kursk II-2||ROSATOM||WWER-TOI||1250||Planned 2019||2023|
|Smolensk II-1||ROSATOM||WWER-TOI||1250||Planned 2022||2027|
|Smolensk II-1||ROSATOM||WWER-TOI||1250||Planned 2024||2029|
|Beloyarsk 5||ROSATOM||BN-1200||1250||Planned 2025||2031|
Note: WWER-1200 is the reactor portion of the AES-2006 nuclear power plant.
Starting in 2020–2025, it is envisaged that fast neutron power reactors will play an increasing role in the Russian Federation, with much of the fuel being recycled. Fast reactors are projected to provide some 34 GW(e) of capacity by 2050. The principal scheme for innovation in nuclear power for the Russian Federation is based on a new technology platform that envisages full recycling of fuel, from balancing thermal and fast reactors, so that 100 GW(e) of total capacity requires only about 100 t/y from enrichment of tails and natural uranium, with minor actinides being burned. About 100 t/y of fission product wastes will go to a geological repository.
2.3.2. Project management
The Federal Target Programme is based on WWER technology, at least until roughly 2030. It highlights the goal of moving to fast neutron reactors and a closed fuel cycle, for which Rosatom proposed two options. The first is to select a fast neutron reactor with lead coolant as the basic technology, and to mobilize all available resources for this exclusively. This is expected to cost RUR 110 billion, mostly drawing from the federal budget. The second option also provides for development of fast neutron reactors, cooled by sodium and lead–bismuth, with the related engineering designs of such reactors and closed fuel cycle technologies to be in place no later than 2014. A detailed design should be developed for the construction of a multipurpose fast neutron research reactor by then also. This second option is designed to attract more funds aside from the federal budget allocation, and is the option favoured by Rosatom.
2.3.3. Project funding
In February 2010, the Government announced that Rosenergoatom’s investment programme for 2010 amounted to RUR 163.3 billion, of which RUR 53 billion would come from the federal budget. Of the total cost, RUR 101.7 billion is for nuclear plant construction, almost half of which is to come from Rosenergoatom’s funds. It includes the reactors listed in Table 8 as under construction, as well as Leningrad II-2 and the Baltic plant. In March 2010, Rosatom said that it intended to commission three new reactors per year from 2016.
However, early in 2017 the chief executive officer of Rosatom said that the Government would end state support for the construction of new nuclear units in 2020, and so Rosatom had to learn to earn money on its own, primarily via commercial nuclear energy projects in the international market. He said that Rosatom had come from being a consortium of unprofitable, separately run businesses a decade ago to a vertically integrated state corporation with improved strategies and financial performance, thanks in part to a ‘large scale’ programme of state funding. “In this situation … we must learn how to earn money independently,” especially in the world market, he said.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
The highly automated Russian power grid is the world’s largest complex for generating, transmitting and distributing electric power, and for controlling these processes on a day to day basis. The power industry in the Russian Federation developed stepwise, by incorporating regional power systems, working in parallel, and forming interregional electric power pools, which merged to form a single power grid. The nation’s power grid started to evolve as soon as the GOELRO plan for national economic development was launched. Russia’s power grid, the main component of the national power industry, is a complex network of power plants and mains, which have the same operating mode and centralized dispatching control. The transition to this form of organization of the power industry made it possible to make the most of power resources and to improve the economics and reliability of the energy supply, for the benefit of both the economy and population.
The control of this immense, synchronously operating system, which spans 7 000 km west to east and over 3 000 km north to south, is a complex engineering task, with no analogues anywhere in the world. Also, in its more than 40 years in operation, the Russian power grid has accumulated a wealth of experience in the reliable and efficient supply of quality energy to users. Of the total of 74 power networks, the Russian power grid comprises 69 power networks. Of the seven integrated power systems (IPSs), six work in parallel as part of the power grid: the Centre, Middle Volga, Urals, Northwest, North Caucasus and Siberia IPSs. The East IPS operates separately from the Siberia IPS. Working in parallel with the Russian power grid are the power systems of Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia and Ukraine, and, through the insertion of direct current, the power system of Finland.
Placement of nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation is performed in accordance with Resolution No. 823 of the Government of the Russian Federation of 17 October 2009, on schemes for the long term development of electric power.
Basic principles of the schemes and programmes for long term electric power development are:
Application of new technological solutions;
Coordination of schemes and programmes of long term development of electric power related technologies;
Publicity and openness of public investment strategies and solutions.
Territory near active volcanoes and territory at risk of exposure to tsunamis and catastrophic floods must be deemed unfavourable for the placement of NPPs.
2.3.6. Public awareness
Rosatom’s comprehensive offerings include public relations solutions that make it possible to obtain public acceptance of nuclear power, which is viewed as a cornerstone of stability in the nuclear industry around the globe. Rosatom adheres to principles of transparency, raising public awareness of Russian nuclear operations. This approach enables it to secure public consensus (according to a survey conducted in 2013 by the Levada Analytical Centre, 71.5% of Russians support the continued development of nuclear power).
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
All-Russia Scientific Research and Design Institute of Power Technology, St. Petersburg;
Institute ‘Atomenergoproekt’ and its branches in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod;
State Institute of Construction and Design, Moscow.
Other main suppliers:
‘Atommash’, an open end joint stock company — NSS WWER-1000, BN and AST, Volgodonsk;
‘Izhorskie zavody’, an open end joint stock company — NSS WWER-1000 and WWER-440, St. Petersburg.
Main component suppliers:
‘Leningradskiy metallicheskiy zavod’, an open end joint stock company — turbines for NPPs, St. Petersburg;
‘Podolskiy mashinostroitelniy zavod’, an open end joint stock company — steam generators, separators, piping, etc., Podolsk.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
The state enterprise Russian State Concern for Generation of Electric and Thermal Power at Nuclear Power Plants (Rosenergoatom) was founded in 1992. Until 2002, Rosenergoatom carried out centralized state management for eight of the nine Russian NPPs. From 1 April 2002, Rosenergoatom was transformed into a generating company with a common rate. Ten NPPs were joined to it as junior branches, including Leningrad NPP and Volgodonsk NPP, both of which were commissioned in December 2001.
All NPPs combined have 35 energy units with a total rated power of 27.9 GW(e). According to Russian federal laws in the area of atomic energy, Rosenergoatom performs the functions of the NPP operating utility and bears complete responsibility for maintaining nuclear and radiological safety at all stages of NPP operation, including measures on the elimination of the consequences of nuclear accidents. The ultimate goal of Rosenergoatom activities is to ensure the safe operation of Russian nuclear power plants.
Rosenergoatom is entrusted to perform the following main functions.
Ensuring the safe operation of online NPPs, namely:
Development and implementation of NPP safety culture;
Performance of continuous surveillance over NPP safety;
Collection and analysis of the information on NPP accidents, equipment failures and human error for the development of corrective measures;
Management of physical protection and fire prevention at nuclear power plants;
Development and management of emergency preparedness plans.
Support of NPP operations, including:
Providing nuclear power plants with necessary material and technical resources;
Development and performance control for the measures aimed at enhancement of NPP reliability, quality and safe operation;
Development of normative documentation and scientific support of NPP operation and of operation licensing;
Operational personnel recruiting, initial and continuous training;
Nuclear power development, such as:
Developing and implementing NPP construction and commissioning programmes;
Modernizing and upgrading operating NPPs;
Issuing resolutions regarding lifetime extension of operating NPPs;
Designing and developing activities and NPP construction licensing;
Participating in resolution of social issues concerning nuclear industry employees;
Providing the general public with information on the issues of NPP ecological safety.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
The main organization involved in the process of decommissioning NPPs is Rosenergoatom.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
The Russian Federation has capabilities in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle; the excess capacities are offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis. Parts of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities are state owned (Rosatom), while others are managed by joint stock companies (TVEL, Rosenergoatom, Atomstroi, etc.), in which controlling interests are retained by the State.
Uranium mining and milling
The Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union has an annual capacity of 3500 tU using open pit, underground and in situ leach mining extraction methods. This facility is operated by JSC TVEL (www.tvel.ru/wps/wcm/connect/tvel/tvelsite.eng/).
Rosatom operates Angarsk and Tomsk conversion plants (conversion to UF6), which have a total annual capacity of 30 000 tU. The excess capacity is offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis.
The first civil uranium enrichment plant in the Russian Federation started operation in 1964, at Ekaterinburg. Three more plants came into operation later at Tomsk, Angarsk and Krasnoyarsk. At present, Rosatom operates all four plants, which have a total annual capacity of 15 000 t SWU (separative work units). The excess capacity is offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis.
Nuclear fuel fabrication is carried out by JSL TVEL at two plants, Electrostal and Novosibirsk. Electrostal produces fuel elements, assemblies, powder and pellets for WWER-440, WWER-100, BN-600, RBMK and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The Novosibirsk plant manufactures fuel elements and assemblies for WWER-1000 reactors. In the production of fuel assemblies for RBMK and WWER-1000 reactors, a quantity of fuel pellets is supplied from the Ust Kamenogorsk plant (Kazakhstan). However, new lines for powder and pellet production at the Novosibirsk plant started operation in 2000–2002. Zirconium production of JSC TVEL for nuclear fuel fabrication capacity (fuel assemblies for different reactor types) is about 2600 tonnes of heavy metal per year (t HM/a). The excess capacity is offered to foreign utilities on a commercial basis (www.tvel.ru).
The reprocessing option is the chosen method for dealing with spent reactor fuel with the exception of spent fuel originating from RBMKs, which should be disposed of. Rosatom operates the RT-1 plant in Chelyabinsk for reprocessing fuel from WWER plants. Its capacity for WWER-440 fuel is 400 t HM/a. The construction of a second reprocessing plant (RT-2) at Krasnoyarsk which has a first line design capacity of 800 t HM/a has been postponed indefinitely. Reprocessed uranium is used for RBMK fuel production. Plutonium obtained at RT-1 is temporarily stored on-site in dioxide form. Rosatom operates several wet away from reactor fuel storage facilities at RT-1 and RT-2 and at several NPPs, with a total capacity of about 16 000 t HM/a (www.sibghk.ru).
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow;
Institute of High Energy Physics, Protvino;
Institute of Innovation and Thermonuclear Research, Troitsk.
These major nuclear industry research centres carry out extensive fundamental theoretical and experimental investigations into the properties of the atomic nucleus and elementary particles, plasma and laser physics, thermonuclear fusion, development of new types of accelerator and reactor technology, and developing equipment and facilities for physical research.
Applied research and development
The Russian Scientific Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Moscow;
The State Scientific Centre ‘Institute of Physics and Power Engineering’, Obninsk;
The State Scientific Centre ‘All-Russian Inorganic Materials Research Institute’, Moscow;
The State Scientific Centre Nuclear Reactor Research Institute, Dimitrovgrad;
Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Moscow.
Above are the major scientific centres in the field of nuclear science and technology. Theoretical and experimental research performed at these institutes on nuclear and particle physics, neutron physics, thermophysics, hydraulics, material science and nuclear safety have received strong recognition.
The All-Russian Research Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation of Moscow is the scientific centre for Russian nuclear operating organizations. Its principal work is assuring safe operation of first and second generation nuclear power plants.
Major reactor and NSSS design and research
Experimental Design Bureau ‘Gidropress’, Podolsk;
Experimental Design Bureau of Machine Building (OKBM), Nizhny Novgorod.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies
From 2020–2025, it is envisaged that fast neutron power reactors will play an increasing role in Russia, with a large role for recycled fuels.
The fast reactor BN-1200 is being developed by OKBM Afrikantov in Zarechny, partly funded by a federal nuclear technology programme. The BN-1200 will produce 2900 MW(th) (1220 MW(e) gross), has a 60 year design life, simplified refuelling, and burnup of up to 120 GWd/t, with breeding ratio quoted as 1.2 to 1.4. Rosatom’s Scientific and Technical Board reviewed it along with cost estimates in August 2015. A detailed design of the prototype was completed in 2017.
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
Rosatom cooperates with other countries in many fields of activities, such as:
Fundamental research into properties of matter;
Controlled thermonuclear fusion;
Physics of semiconductors and high temperature superconductivity;
Technologies of elementary particle accelerators and electrophysical equipment;
Atomic energy generation and nuclear fuel cycles;
Radioactive waste management;
Rosatom’s scientists and researchers are engaged in a wide range of studies conducted by the various international centres for nuclear research, including the European Organization for Nuclear Research, the National Accelerator Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The Russian Federation participates in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor quadripartite project. Rosatom scientists and engineers participate actively in both national and international symposia, seminars and conferences. Rosatom is engaged in intensive sharing and exchange of information on a bilateral level and through the International Nuclear Information System. Within Rosatom, there is a special institute (Atominform), merging all information flows of the industry and dealing with the problems associated with protecting Rosatom’s rights to the objects of intellectual property resulting from activities financed by the Ministry, as well as legal aspects of the transfer of these rights to third parties.
Recently, the problems of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, of NPP safety and of environmental protection have been gaining in importance. The Russian Federation cooperates with the United States Department of Energy through the International Centre of Ecological Safety in the Russian Federation (Rosatom) and in the United States of America (the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). Cooperation started in 1993, in management of spent nuclear fuel and of radioactive waste and in rehabilitation of contaminated territories in the northwest of the Russian Federation, with France, Norway, Sweden, the United States of America and the European Commission, and these initiatives are still in progress. In 1998, through the Minatom initiative, the Russian Federation began to cooperate with France and Germany to construct a European pressurized water reactor in the Russian Federation. A joint working group was formed, including experts from Minatom, Framatome and Siemens Company. The European Commission, rendering technical assistance on a gratuitous basis within the frameworks of the TACIS Programme, is one of the leading Western partners. In 1998, the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the Russian Federation and the European Union was implemented. Throughout recent years, the Russian Federation has taken part in activities in compliance with the agreement on the International Science and Technology Centre.
From 1994 to 1997, research and development activities to fabricate uranium–plutonium fuel for Canada deuterium–uranium (CANDU) reactors from weapons grade plutonium were carried out in cooperation with Canada. At present, the joint Russian–US efforts are focused on decommissioning of weapons grade plutonium production reactors. In 1999, a draft intergovernmental agreement between the Russian Federation and the Netherlands on cooperation in safe dismantling of nuclear weapons in the Russian Federation and in utilization of removed nuclear powered submarines was elaborated.
By convention, the designing, mounting and commissioning of NPPs and large scale production installations in the territories of the CIS and other countries form an essential part of the international cooperation of Rosatom. Ukraine and Kazakhstan are the Russian Federation’s most active partners. A draft agreement on cooperation in the nuclear fuel cycle was elaborated and coordinated recently with Ukraine. Activities to complete construction and to put into operation the Rovno and the Khmelnitsky NPPs are in progress. The Russian Federation supplies nuclear fuel to Ukraine, and transports spent nuclear fuel out of the country. Russia cooperates with Kazakhstan in production of nuclear fuel and in other aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.
Rosatom cooperates with Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Slovakia and the Syrian Arab Republic in construction and operation of NPPs and large scale production installations. There is also progress in Russian–Japanese relations in the field.
Russia takes part in the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). The objective of INPRO is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the global energy needs of the 21st century. INPRO provides an open international forum for studying the nuclear power option and associated requirements, and its potential application in IAEA Member States. INPRO helps to make adequate competence available for the development and deployment of innovative nuclear energy systems and helps to assist Member States in the coordination of related collaborative projects.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
The industry personnel policy serves to maintain and add to the personnel potential. There are six centres and Institutes for Advanced Professional Training of managerial and engineering staff, where up to 10 000 persons per year may be trained. The young personnel are trained in 20 higher education institutions, including 7 industrial ones, and in 21 technical colleges and professional and technical schools. The total number of persons trained in the industry educational institutions is over 18 500, including over 6 000 students of higher education institutions.
Training of the industry’s scientific personnel, in 30 post-graduate schools established on the basis of the industry enterprises and in institutes where up to 500 engineers are trained annually, occupies a highly important place.
Changeover from focusing on the solution of individual issues to the combined implementation of the complex programme of job security, social and economic development, social insurance, and the like is in progress, in cooperation with the local self-administrative bodies and involving interaction with close administrative and territorial entities.
The training and procedure papers, simulators and training equipment have been developed within the frameworks of international scientific and engineering cooperation with France, Germany, Japan, the Syrian Arab Republic, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Over 350 Russian engineers were trained abroad, and the training of foreign students in the industry based institutes was arranged.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
Rosenergoatom fulfils the policy of transparency as a key element in all stakeholder communication.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
As an operator, under the Use of Nuclear Energy Federal Act, Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC assumes total responsibility and ensures nuclear and radiation safety for all stages of the nuclear plant life cycle. Therefore, Rosenergoatom has achieved a high level in management of nuclear and radiation risks, and environmental and physical safety. As part of ensuring nuclear plant safety, Rosenergoatom pays a great deal of attention to the industrial safety of dangerous production facilities that run as components of NPPs.
Special safety measures, including anti-terrorist resistance of nuclear plants, with robust physical protections at every stage of the life cycle (project design, construction, operation, decommissioning), are needed as nuclear materials are involved. The integrity of state secrets, commercial and executive secrets, and corporate business security, while enforcing the law and protecting Rosenergoatom’s corporate interests, are of high priority.
To contain and prevent emergencies, the active nuclear plants have created systems of communication, alerting and information support; coordination services; standing executive bodies; routine management bodies; and forces and equipment. Detailed information about the system to prevent and eliminate emergencies is available in section 3.3 of Safety of Russian NPPs: Radiation Impact on Personnel and Citizens.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
The Russian Federal Supervision of Nuclear and Radiological Safety (Gosatomnadzor) is the nuclear regulatory body of the Russian Federation, with headquarters in Moscow and seven regional offices throughout the country.
The following regulations determine the procedure for NPP licensing:
Regulations on the order of special permission, issued by Gosatomnadzor for examination of design and other materials and documents, substantiating safety of nuclear and radiologically dangerous installations and works: RD-03-12-94.
Regulations on arranging and carrying out examination of design and other materials and documents, substantiating safety of nuclear and radiologically dangerous installations and works: RD-03-13-94.
Regulations on the order of issuing of special temporary permissions for designing nuclear and radiologically dangerous installations and works: RD-03-14-94.
3.1.2. Licensing process
The stages of obtaining the temporary permission (licence) for NPP unit operation can be represented in brief:
Licence demand (submission of application documents);
Gosatomnadzor decision on the demand control;
Analysis of substantiating materials for demand;
Inspection of the NPP;
Conclusion of examination of substantiating materials;
Conclusion of NPP inspection;
General conclusion of obtaining temporary permission (licence);
Licence (temporary permission).
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The main laws controlling nuclear power in the Russian Federation are the Law on Utilization of Atomic Energy and the Law on State Policy in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management.
Technical regulations created by Gosatomnadzor, which are in force today, are the legal framework for nuclear energy utilization. These regulations and rules address the aspects of safety assurance during site selection, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations. All regulating documents developed by Gosatomnadzor have been compiled into a list of main scientific and technical documents, used by Gosatomnadzor for safety regulation and supervision during production and utilization of atomic energy, including handling of nuclear materials and radioactive substances (P-01-01-03, Gosatomnadzor, 2003).
Some aspects of nuclear related activity are regulated by decrees of the President or Government of the Russian Federation.
Decrees of the President:
On the Control of the Export of Nuclear Materials, Equipment and Technologies, of 27 March 1992;
On the Utilities with Nuclear Power Plants, of 7 September 1992;
On Privatization of Enterprises under the Authority of the Ministry for Atomic Energy, and Their Management in a Market Economy, of 15 April 1993, among others.
Decrees of the Government:
On Approval of Documents, Regulating the Export of Equipment and Materials and of Corresponding Technology, Used for Nuclear Purposes, of 29 May 1992;
On Measures of Protection of the Population Living Adjacent to Nuclear Power Installations, of 15 October 1992;
On Reorganization of the Nuclear Power Industry of the Russian Federation, of 17 April 2007, among others.
Annual Report of the UES in 2018 (http://so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2019/ups_rep2018.pdf
Annual Report of the UES in 2017 (http://so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2018/ups_rep2017.pdf)
Annual Report of the UES in 2015 (http://so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2016/ups_rep2015.pdf).
Annual Report of the UES in 2013 (http://so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2014/ups_rep2013.pdf).
Annual Report of the UES in 2012 (http://so-ups.ru/fileadmin/files/company/reports/disclosure/2013/ues_rep2012.pdf).
Annual Report of Concern Rosenergoatom — 2017 (www.rosenergoatom.ru/upload/iblock/42b/42b205cc70895353d43019d9cf1d5afc.pdf)
The main results of JSC “Concern Rosenergoatom” for January–December 2012 (www.rosenergoatom.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosenergoatom/site/about/work/16f469004e4445038b3c8b8cb8b4ed30).
Russia in figures — 2018 (www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1135075100641)
Russia in figures — 2016 (www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2016/rusfig/rus16e.pdf).
Russia in figures — 2015 (www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2015/rusfig/rus-15e.pdf).
Russia in figures — 2011 (www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b11_12/Main.htm).
Russia in figures — 2010 (www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b10_11/Main.htm).
Russia in figures — 2009 (www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b09_12/Main.htm).
Russia in figures — 2009 (www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b09_12/Main.htm).
Nuclear Power in Russia (www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf45.html).
Annual Report — 2009 of Concern Rosenergoatom (http://atomenergoprom.ru/en/org/npp/).
CIS Countries Economics. Moscow. Finstatinform. (1993) (in Russian).
CIS Countries in 1991. Annual Statistic Report. Moscow. Finstatinform. (1992) (in Russian).
Energy Strategy of Russia. Main Concepts. Moscow. (1995) (in Russian).
Annual Report of Mintopenergo of Russia 1993. Moscow. (1993) (in Russian).
Technical and Economic Characteristics of Electric Power in Russia. NIIEE. Moscow. (1992) (in Russian).
Data of the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation. (1993).
Fuel and Power in Russia. VNIIKTEP. Moscow. (1992) (in Russian).
Strategy of Nuclear Power Development in Russia. Moscow. (1994) (in Russian).
Performance Indicators of Russian NPPs in 1993. “Rosenergoatom” Concern. (1994).
Minatom of Russia. Atominform. (1992).
International Affairs. Special Issue. Russian Nuclear Complex Opens to the Country and the World. (1994).
NPP operation in the Russian Federation. The 1993 Report. “Rosenergoatom” Concern. (1994).
On the Activity Related to the Future Development of the Russian Electric Energy Sector in the New Economic Conditions. Energy Construction. Vol 11. (1994) (in Russian).
Programme of Russian Federation Nuclear Power Development in 1998–2005 and for perspective up to 2010. Moscow. (21 July 1998).
About Status and Perspective of Nuclear Power Development. Rosenergoatom. (1999).
National Report of Russian Federation about Realization of Obligations of Nuclear Safety Convention. Moscow. (1998).
Russian Annual Statistical Transactions. Moscow (1998).
Russian Annual Statistical Transactions. Moscow (1999).
Russian Annual Statistical Transactions. Moscow (2000).
Russian nuclear power plants. Rosenergoatom. Moscow (2001) IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base (EEDB).
IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).
Russia in figures. Summary Statistical Transactions. Moscow (2002).
Country Nuclear Fuel Cycle Profiles. IAEA.
Russian nuclear power plants. Rosenergoatom. Moscow (2002).
Unified Energy System of Russia (UES). Annual Report 2003.
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA
MAIN INTERNATIONAL TREATIES
OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL TREATIES/UNDERTAKINGS
Bilateral agreements on the peaceful use of atomic energy have been signed with Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Korea, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and other countries:
Bilateral Agreement between Governments of the Russian Federation and the United States of America on Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Field of Management of Plutonium Withdrawn from Nuclear Military Programmes, Moscow, 24 July 1998.
Trilateral Agreement between the Governments of the Russian Federation, Federal Republic of Germany and Republic of France on Cooperation in the Field of Peaceful Utilization of Plutonium Being Released as a Result of Dismantling of Russian Nuclear Weapons, Moscow, 28 November 2001.
Russian Federation–United States of America: Agreement on Cooperation in Research on Radiation Effects for the Purpose of Minimizing the Consequences of Radioactive Contamination on Health and the Environment, Moscow, 14 January 1994.
Russian Federation–United States of America: Agreement on Increasing of Operational Safety. Measures to Decrease Risk and on Nuclear Safety Standards of Civil Nuclear Facilities in the Russian Federation, Moscow, 16 December 1993.