This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Slovakia, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Slovakia.
In Slovakia, the total installed capacity of the units in operation is 1950 MW(e). There are four units of WWER-440/213 type reactors (water cooled, water moderated power reactor) in operation, including two units at the Bohunice site and two units at the Mochovce site. There are also two units with WWER-440/V213 type reactors under construction at the Mochovce site (Mochovce 3 and 4). Three other nuclear units at the Bohunice site are under decommissioning — the first Czech–Slovak unit, Bohunice A-1 nuclear power plant (NPP), cooled by gas and moderated by heavy water, and two units of older WWER-440/V230 type, Bohunice V-1 NPP.
The owner and holder of the licence for operation of all nuclear units in operation and units under construction is the joint stock company Slovenské elektrárne (SE). The licensee for decommissioning and radioactive waste management activities is the state owned joint stock company Jadrová a vyradovacia spolocnost (Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, JAVYS). The state regulatory authority for state supervision over nuclear safety of nuclear installations, including radioactive waste management, spent fuel management and nuclear materials inspection and registration is the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (ÚJD SR).
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
The energy policy of Slovakia was approved by a resolution of the Slovak Government No. 548 of 5 November 2014. The energy policy is a strategic document defining the energy sector’s primary objectives and priorities through 2035, with a vision also provided through 2050. The energy policy is a component of Slovakia’s national economic strategy, given that sustainable economic growth is conditioned by a reliable supply of affordable energy. The priority from this perspective is ensuring the reliability and stability of energy supply, efficient energy utilization at optimum costs and environmental protection. It is envisioned that a well functioning energy market with a competitive environment will be strengthened by domestic energy policy implementation. The task of the energy policy is to create a stable framework for a safely operating energy market that motivates investments in energy.
Slovakia became a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1994 and a party to the Kyoto Protocol in 2002.
By Resolution No. 256/2014, the Government adopted the Policy, Principles and Strategy for Further Development of Nuclear Safety. The aim of the resolution is to summarize and strengthen the principles needed to protect the public and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation associated with peaceful uses of nuclear energy (see www.economy.gov.sk and www.ujd.gov.sk).
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Total amount*||1 087||10||26||10 000|
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||0.02||0.21|
Source: See Ref. .
* Solid, liquid: million tonnes; gas: billion m3; uranium: tonnes; hydro and renewable: TW.
1.1.3. Energy statistics
Slovakia has limited available domestic energy resources (i.e. brown coal, oil, natural gas and renewable resources).
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|2000||2010||2015||2017||Compound annual growth rate 2000–2017 (%)|
|Total energy consumption (EJ)*||0.77||0.73||0.68||0.722||-0.38|
|Total energy production (EJ)||0.28||0.26||0.26||0.270||-0.21|
Source: Statistics Office of Slovakia. Latest available data are for 2017.
* Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + net imports (imports - exports) of secondary energy.
** Solid fuels include coal, lignite.
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
On 31 July 2012, the Law on Regulation in Network Industries (Act No. 250/2012 Coll.) was approved by Parliament. It entered into force on 1 September 2012.
This law states that the Regulatory Office for Network Industries (URSO) is legally separate and functionally independent from any state, public or private institutions. Its representatives act independently, without any market or other interests, and while performing their duties they do not follow instructions from any third parties.
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
SE is the largest electricity producer in Slovakia, also generating and selling heat and providing ancillary services for the power grid. It has an installed capacity of 4080.92 MW(e) with an ideal energy mix for the country — nuclear, hydro and conventional sources in combination with biomass cogeneration and photovoltaic sources. It operates 31 hydropower plants, two NPPs, two thermal power plants and two photovoltaic plants.
SE had two shareholders. The majority shareholder is Slovak Power Holding (SPH), owning a 66% share in SE’s registered capital. A 50% of the share capital of SPH is owned by EP Slovakia (a subsidiary of the EPH Group) and the remaining 50% belongs to the Enel Group. The minority shareholder is the State, represented by the Ministry of Economy, owning 34% of the shares.
The transmission system is owned and operated by Slovenská elektrizacná prenosová sústava (Slovak power grid operator, SEPS), which acts as the power system operator (www.sepsas.sk/en_index.asp). The State owns 100% of company shares, with the Ministry of Finance acting on its behalf. The transmission system consists of 2138 km of 400 kV lines, 826 km of 220 kV lines and 80 km of 110 kV lines.
Slovakia’s transmission grid is connected to the wider European transmission system and Ukraine by means of 8 extra high voltage (400 kV) and 2 high voltage (220 kV) interconnectors, including 5 with the Czech Republic (3 extra high and 2 high voltage), 2 EHV with Poland, 1 EHV with Ukraine and 2 EHV with Hungary. Two new EHV interconnectors with Hungary are also in the planning stages and are on the European Union’s list of projects of common interest. All neighbouring countries have interconnections with Slovakia, apart from Austria. From the historical perspective, Slovakia is also interconnected with the Czech Republic at the 110 kV level (operated by the distribution system operator).
22.214.171.124. Distribution and supply
As of 1 July 2007, the legal unbundling of electricity supply from electricity distribution took place in the vertically integrated companies Západoslovenská energetika (ZSE, www.zse.sk/english), Stredoslovenská energetika (SSE, www.sse.sk) and Východoslovenská energetika (VSE www.vse.sk/web/sk/domacnosti/uvod). Thus, three legally independent companies emerged as operators of regional distribution systems: ZSE distribúcia, SSE distribúcia and VSE distribucná, with the licence for conducting business in electricity distribution, and electricity supply secured by these three household electricity end suppliers. Further electricity suppliers are represented by electricity producers, small businesses and electricity traders.
As of 1 July 2007, the electricity market was opened to all electricity consumers, including households, based on the European legislation provisions, such as Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC (Text with EEA relevance) .
1.2.3. Main indicators
TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
|2007||2010||2015||2017||2018||Compound annual growth rate 2007–2017 (%)|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GW(e))||G/N|
|Electricity production (TW·h)||G/N|
|Total electricity consumption (TW·h)||29.78||28.90||29.58||31.06||30.95||0.12|
Source: SEPS (www.sepsas.sk/en_index.asp) and Ministry of Economy. Latest available data are for 2018.
* —: data not available.
** Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption (kW·h/capita)||-||38 220||35 236||37 039||-|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||42.54||38.53||37.76||37.33||-|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||51.47||50.41||55.72||53.8||54.7|
Source: Eurostat, SEPS and Ministry of Economy. Latest available data are for 2018.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Commercial utilization of nuclear power in Slovakia (at that time as a part of Czechoslovakia) began in 1972. Nowadays, there are four operational NPPs: Bohunice Units 3 and 4 (V-2) and Mochovce Units 1 and 2. NPP Bohunice V-1 and NPP Bohunice A-1 are in permanent shutdown (decommissioning stages), while construction of NPP Mochovce Units 3 and 4 was restarted in mid-2009.
2.1.2 Current organizational structure
FIG. 3. Slovak institutions involved in the nuclear sector.
Licensees are SE and JAVYS, and governmental organizations with responsibility in the nuclear field include the following:
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
In Slovakia, there are currently four WWER-440/V213 type nuclear units in operation — two units at the Bohunice site and two units at the Mochovce site. In addition, there are two additional WWER-440/V213 units in Mochovce under construction. The total installed capacity of units in operation is 1950 MW(e). The owner and holder of the licence to operate all the units in operation in Slovakia is SE. In 2018, NPP Bohunice produced 7623 GW·h and NPP Mochovce 7329 GW·h of electricity in total.
The owner and operator of the NPP Bohunice V-1 and NPP Bohunice A1, both in the decommissioning stages, is the utility JAVYS (see Table 5).
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|BOHUNICE A1||HWGCR||93||Permanent Shutdown||JAVYS||SKODA||1958-08-01||1972-10-24||1972-12-25||1972-12-25||1977-02-22|
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
Note: HWGCR — heavy water moderated, gas cooled reactor; PWR — pressurized water reactor; UCF — unit capability factor.
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
The NPPs were upgraded in numerous ways throughout their operational lifetime, and improvement of the containment tightness/integrity of existing plants is considered a major achievement.
Based on the Atomic Act, a licence for operation is valid for an unlimited period. However, in accordance with legal requirements of the Atomic Act, all the plants are subject to periodic safety reviews (PSR) every ten years. The latest periodic reviews were completed for NPP Bohunice V-2 in 2017 and for NPP Mochovce 1, 2 in 2018. The aim of these reviews was a comprehensive review of NPPs in terms of compliance with legislation and international safety standards, as well as in terms of project changes made with a view to increasing the level of safety, the licensee implemented corrective measures specified in the final report of ÚJD SR from the PSRs. ÚJD SR in its reports on both PSRs, identified the findings and granted measures for their subsequent removal. The ÚJD SR report on the PSR of NPP Bohunice V-2 is fully published on the ÚJD SR web site.
Since 1991, the missions which have taken place include: around 35 missions from the IAEA (including site review, design review, Operational Safety Review Team (OSART), and International Probabilistic Safety Assessment Review Team (IPSART) missions); 9 World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) missions; 2 RISKAUDIT missions and 1 Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) mission. With regard to the results, the operator of both NPPs took measures to further improve the safety and reliability of operations. The measures were aimed at improving the management and organization of activities, staff training, operational documentation and marking of equipment.
Detailed information on plants upgrade and safety improvements is possible to find in the Slovak National Report under the Convention on Nuclear Safety (www.ujd.gov.sk/ujd/www1.nsf/ID/En-09-01-01).
2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
The decommissioning of nuclear installations represents a set of administrative and technical activities to be done after operation termination, with the aim of excluding the nuclear installation from the scope of the Atomic Act. The licence holder is obliged to ensure successful decommissioning, including ensuring the necessary financial means. The decommissioning stage can start based on ÚJD SR authorization. The holder of a licence for the decommissioning stage is responsible for the decommissioning process.
The basic concept of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste management is provided by the National Policy and the National Programme for SNF management and radioactive management. On 8 July 2015, Government by Resolution No. 387 approved the national policy and the programme, replacing the previous strategy for the back end of peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Slovakia. The National Policy is based on the principles provided by the Act No. 238/2006 Coll. on the National Nuclear Fund for the decommissioning of nuclear installations and for the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste and on amendments to certain laws as amended.
At present, the two ongoing decommissioning projects in Slovakia are NPP Bohunice A-1 and Bohunice V-1.
With regard to Bohunice A-1, following two serious accidents in 1977, the NPP was shut down and scheduled for gradual decommissioning. The process of decommissioning commenced after the licence for decommissioning was obtained in 1999. This process was divided into five successive stages. At the end of February 2016, JAVYS submitted an application for licences for Stages 3 and 4 of decommissioning of NPP Bohunice to ÚJD SR under the legislation applicable for A-1. ÚJD SR issued Decision No. 369/2016, which licensed JAVYS to commence Stages 3 and 4 decommissioning of NPP Bohunice A-1, as well as authorization for radioactive waste management during decommissioning. Work related to these stages of decommissioning is scheduled to run through the end of 2024. After its completion, Stage 5 of decommissioning will follow. Completion of the decommissioning process for NPP Bohunice A-1 is scheduled for 2033. Decommissioning is financed by the National Nuclear Fund. The SNF was exported to the Russian Federation based on an original contract and the transport of spent fuel were completed in 1999.
Bohunice V1 NPP Units 1 and 2 were shut down in 2006 and 2008, respectively, based on Slovakian commitments during accession to the European Union. Decommissioning is being implemented in two stages, with the final deadline in 2025. The first stage was in progress from 20 July 2011 to 31 December 2014. The second stage commenced on 1 January 2015 and is planned to be completed before 31 December 2025. The final condition of the site at the end of the second stage will be brownfield. The current state of decommissioning of NPP V1 has been continuously monitored and is in line with the plan for Stage II of the decommissioning of NPP V1 as of 31 December 2016. After the final inspection, the site will be released from control by regulatory authorities. Spent fuel from these units has already been transported to the interim spent fuel storage (ISFS).
Total Bohunice V-1 NPP operation termination costs were calculated to be €1239 billion. Operation termination activities and preparation for decommissioning of the Bohunice V1 NPP is co-financed by the National Nuclear Fund and the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund. More information is available in the Slovak National Report to the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (www.ujd.gov.sk/ujd/www1.nsf/ID/En-09-01-01)
TABLE 6. STATUS OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit||Shutdown reason||Decommissioning strategy||Current decommissioning phase||Current fuel management phase||Decommissioning licensee||Licence termination year|
|Bohunice Units 1 and 2||Commitment of the Government in the EU accession process||See above||Stage 2||Spent fuel removed from reactor in 2011||Stage 1: 20 July 2011 to 31 December 2014
Stage 2: 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2025
|Bohunice A-1||Serious accidents in 1976 and 1977||See above||Stages 3 and 4||The spent nuclear fuel exported to the Russian Federation||1999 — Licence for Stage 1 of decommissioning
2016 — Licence for Stages 3 and 4 of decommissioning
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The document New Nuclear Source at the Jaslovské Bohunice Site was approved by a governmental resolution in 2008, in which the Government required an evaluation of legal and economic implications within the context of the locality of NPP Bohunice and establishment of a venture which will support construction of a new nuclear power plant at the Jaslovské Bohunice site.
The proposal for establishment of the company Jadrová energetická spolocnost Slovenska (Nuclear Energetic Company of Slovakia, JESS) was approved by a governmental resolution in December 2009. JESS was established as a joint venture consisting of the companies JAVYS and CEZ (see Table 7). The shares of both investors are in compliance with the stockholder contract — 51% for JAVYS and 49% for CEZ.
TABLE 7. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit/Project name||Owner||Type||Capacity in MW(e)||Expected construction start year||Expected commercial|
|New NPP project on Bohunice site||JESS||GEN-III+||Up to 1200|
2.3.2. Project management
In 2012, a feasibility study to assess the key aspects of the planned new NPP in Slovakia was elaborated and presented. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) process started in 2013. The development of the EIA immediately followed the preliminary study for the proposed activity. The preliminary study was submitted to the Ministry of Environment on 5 March 2014. Following publication of the EIA report, there were public hearings on the municipal level in Slovakia and across the borders in Austria, Germany, Hungary and Ukraine. The EIA process was concluded by a positive final statement on the project in the first half of 2016. This statement is an indispensable basis for further licensing activities in the context of the authorization procedure, within the framework of the Atomic Act and the Construction Act.
The project of the new NPP is now in an advanced preparatory stage, which should be completed by selection of a particular supplier, including the appropriate investment and financial model.
However, the project has been attenuated for 2017–2018 and future steps depend on a governmental analysis outcome and stakeholders’ decision.
2.3.3. Project funding
The new NPP is expected to be funded and financed by the private sector.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
In the presence of JESS and SEPS management, the results of the feasibility study and the requirements for further cooperation in the implementation of project NNPP were presented.
Information can be found at www.jess.sk/en
2.3.6. Public acceptance
Information can be found at www.jess.sk/en/home/press/press-releases/representative-quantitative-opinion-poll
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
The contractual strategy adopted for the completion of Mochovce 3, 4 is multicontractual (more than 100 contracts). The architect–engineer role is held by the owner, SE. The other main contractors are:
Civil works: Inžinierske stavby Košice.
Mechanical systems: Škoda JS, ENSECO, VUJE.
Electrical systems and equipment: PPA.
Control system: Areva/Siemens.
Other suppliers: ASE, Rolls-Royce, GSE.
SE’s policy for national and local industrial involvement is to maximize the project spinoff for the Slovak and Czech market: more than 85% of the awarded contracts are in the Slovak and Czech markets.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE OPERATION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
The ownership structure of SE includes the National Property Fund (34%) and SPH (66%). The company’s line of business includes:
Imports, exports, sales and distribution;
Heat generation and sales;
Maintaining relationships with different external organizations in business areas or based on valid legislation;
Cooperation with contractors who provide specific services such as selected maintenance activities, deliveries of components and equipment or research work;
Cooperation with national and international supervisory and advisory authorities (ÚJD SR, IAEA, WANO and others).
The companies listed in Table 8 provide services for the operator.
TABLE 8. COMPANIES PROVIDING SERVICES FOR NPP OPERATOR
|VUJE, a. s. |
|Engineering, design and research organization. The company takes part in developing new solutions for the nuclear power industry, upgrading and testing of NPP safety.|
|JAVYS, a. s. |
|State owned company responsible for NPP decommissioning and spent nuclear fuel handling.|
|VUEZ, a. s. |
|The Research Institute for Power Facilities is an engineering, manufacturing and installation company. The company concentrates on specialized and superior standard operations in the field of power engineering.|
|Energoprojekt Slovakia, a. s. (www.netax.sk/energoprojekt)||The company develops its activities in designing, engineering and consulting areas related to nuclear equipment.|
|Škoda Slovakia, s. r. o.||Technical end engineering services, pipelines, turbines, generators and fittings.|
|ENSECO, a. s. |
|The company provides services in the supply of technological units and their commissioning in the power industry.|
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
JAVYS is the holder of the decommissioning licence for NPP Bohunice A-1 and NPP Bohunice V-1; its main activities focus on:
Decommissioning nuclear facilities;
Managing SNF and transporting SNF and fresh nuclear fuel;
Managing radioactive waste and transporting radioactive waste.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
The basic concept for SNF and radioactive waste management is given by the Strategy for the Back End of the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy in the Slovak Republic, which was approved by Resolution No. 26/2014 of 15 January 2014. The basic features of the current concept for SNF management in Slovakia can be summarized as follows:
Operational nuclear reactors in Slovakia apply an open fuel cycle. Currently, it is not possible to realize a closed fuel cycle because the WWER-440 reactors in Slovakia are not licensed to use reprocessed mixed oxide fuel.
For SNF management, there is no consideration of SNF exports for reprocessing abroad or subsequent return of products from reprocessing (plutonium and uranium, among others) back to Slovakia.
Short term storage of SNF (3–7 years after being removed from the reactor) is located in the pools next to the reactors, which are located at each reactor unit.
Long term storage of SNF (40–50 years after its utilization in the reactor) is in a separate ISFS facility at the Bohunice site.
The long term goal of SNF management is to build an interim storage facility (60–70 years) for SNF produced by the NPP and a deep repository for SNF in Slovakia.
Possibilities are verified to export SNF for permanent storage abroad, or to reprocess SNF abroad without returning products from reprocessing back to Slovakia.
Possibilities are verified for an international or regional solution for final disposal of SNF; new technology in SNF management is followed.
ISFS at Jaslovské Bohunice (in operation since 1987) is being used to store spent fuel assemblies in a water filled pool (wet storage). After its reconstruction, based on changes in the layout of stored assemblies, ISFS has a higher final storage capacity (14 112 spent fuel assemblies, i.e. approximately 1700 tonnes of heavy metal). Reconstruction also secures higher seismic resistance and extends the service life of nuclear installations to 50 years. This capacity is sufficient to store all SNF produced by the WWER type power plants at the Jaslovské Bohunice site. Currently, the SNF from NPP Mochovce 1, 2, after several years of storage in the interim storage pool next to the reactors, is transported for long term storage at ISFS Jaslovské Bohunice. The construction of a dry storage facility is anticipated based on a principle of using dual use transport and storage containers.
Liquid and solid radioactive waste from decommissioning and operation of NPPs, institutional radioactive waste as well as radioactive waste from providing further commercial services is treated and processed in the nuclear facility’s radioactive waste processing and treatment technologies.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. Research and development organizations
R&D activities in Slovakia are based on national long term strategic plans transferred into medium term projects, which reflect country specific conditions and Slovakia’s nuclear energy needs. The strategic plans and projects are bound to international research and development activities, particularly those conducted within the European Union or OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) members.
R&D is financed from the state budget and is completed with funds from the private sector or support from the European Union. R&D expenditure is limited but amounts to several hundred thousand US dollars per year.
Technical support organizations related to utilities and universities participate in relevant R&D. Typically, activities focus on the effective and efficient use of nuclear fuel, efficient conversion of nuclear energy into heat and electricity, treatment and disposal of radioactive materials and spent fuel, improvement and validation of analytical computer codes, emergency preparedness and planning, and safety enhancement of nuclear facilities. The Slovak regulatory body initiates the R&D where it considers that there is a need for additional studies beyond those undertaken by utilities or it can apply to suitable critical considerations in its review and assessment.
Organizations which conduct nuclear research and development in Slovakia include:
DECOM SLOVAKIA, Trnava;
Slovak Academy of Sciences;
Slovak Technical University, Bratislava;
Commenius University, Bratislava.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
Slovakia participates in the Allegro project, which is a low power gas cooled fast reactor that is under consideration in the European framework.
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
Slovakia is a member of the following international organizations:
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO).
ÚJD SR takes part in several international cooperative groups, including:
European High Level Group on Nuclear Safety and Waste Management organized by the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG, cooperation to progressively develop a common understanding and further common approaches in priority domains related to the safety of nuclear installations);
Standing technical committees of the OECD/NEA;
Network of Regulators of Countries with Small Nuclear Programmes (NERS) ;
Zangger Committee (dealing with controlling the export of nuclear materials and equipment);
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG, dealing with controlling the export of nuclear materials and equipment and dual use materials and equipment);
Forum of the State Nuclear Safety Authorities of the Countries Operating WWER Type Reactors (WWER Regulators’ Forum).
Slovakia has bilateral governmental agreements with neighbouring countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine; and with Canada, France, Germany, Romania, the Russian Federation, Slovenia and the United States of America.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
High quality of human resources is the basic prerequisite for providing safe, reliable, economic and ecological operation of nuclear installations. From the point of view of the influence of work activities on nuclear safety, the staff of the licensee is divided into two basic groups:
Employees with a direct impact on nuclear safety: Selected employees, whose special professional competence is verified by an exam conducted by an examination committee established by ÚJD SR, which issues a licence of special professional competency.
Employees with an impact on nuclear safety: Professionally competent employees, whose professional competence was verified by an expert committee established by the operator of a specialized facility through written and oral exams, which upon successful completion issues a certificate of professional competency.
Special professional competency of employees according to the Atomic Act means expertise, practical experience, principal attitudes and knowledge of generally binding legal regulations and operating procedures issued by the licensee for ensuring nuclear safety, which is necessary for performing work activities having a direct impact on nuclear safety.
Professional competency means expertise, practical experience, knowledge of generally binding legal regulations and operating procedures issued by the licensee and necessary for performing work activities of the licensee’s employee. Professional competence is acquired by successful completion of training at a specialized facility.
The licensee is responsible for the general (professional, health and mental) capacity of its employees to perform work activities at nuclear installations. An authorization to perform work activities is issued as part of an integrated management system of quality assurance for the nuclear installation licensee for every selected and professionally competent employee. The authorization is issued for a given job and a specific nuclear installation only for those selected and professionally qualified staff of the licensee who hold valid certificates of special competency or certificates of professional competency and have completed the relevant type of training. The authorization is evidence of the working competency of an employee in relation to regulatory authorities. In the system of professional training, each position has defined requirements for education, experience, training, health and mental capacity. The direct supervisor of the employee is responsible for meeting these requirements. The system of professional training is updated on the basis of operational experience, implemented organizational changes, technical solutions (modernization) carried out on the equipment, requirements of regulatory bodies, audits, reviews and recommendations from the IAEA. This is provided for by the necessary human, financial and material resources.
Professional training of employees of the licence holder, as well as the staff of the third parties (third parties are the contractor organizations) is carried out in compliance with the management documentation of the quality assurance programme developed and maintained in compliance with:
Generally binding legal regulations;
IAEA safety standards;
STN EN ISO 9001:2001 and 14001:2004 standards;
Management documentation of the Quality System.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
2.10.1. General public
It is important that the general public be as well informed about the operation of power plants as possible. Therefore, all activities that contribute towards that goal are supported and operators organize a number of their own initiatives, such as public events where citizens have a chance to get more information on the use of nuclear energy and NPP operation. In October 2014, SE opened a new information centre, ENERGOLAND, located close to their NPPs in Mochovce. The project was equipped with the latest interactive and display technologies to help visitors better understand nuclear energy.
2.10.2. Local communities
Slovakia considers local communities to be of primary importance.
The Bohunice Local Information Commission (OIK) was established to improve public awareness among inhabitants of the region within the danger perimeter of the nuclear facilities at Jaslovské Bohunice, including all aspects of their operation, safety and the influence of these nuclear facilities on the environment.
The Mochovce OIK was established to improve awareness among inhabitants of the region within the danger perimeter of the Mochovce nuclear energy compound about all aspects of its operation and about the safety and influence of the Mochovce NPP and the National Radioactive Waste Repository on the environment through the citizens’ delegates.
The Mochovce OIK is made up of representatives of townships and institutions from within a 20 km radius of the Mochovce NPP. The representatives of the citizens work together with appointed representatives of ÚJD SR, SE and JAVYS.
The Slovak Nuclear Society (SNUS) is a voluntary association of experts. The SNUS’s professional and study interests revolve around nuclear technology, nuclear energy and the uses of ionizing radiation, and it is also a member of the European Nuclear Society. SNUS coordinates expert activities of other organizations in Slovakia as well as international relations and cooperation. It works with social, governmental and municipal organizations and authorities, with companies and the media.
Cooperation with institutions is very open and effective. Interagency task groups were formed to address various issues, including the EIA process, public access to information and others. In addition, there is numerous and frequent contact with representatives of institutions on a need basis.
The media are recognized as a primary source of information dissemination to the public. Therefore, operators and regulatory bodies give full attention to all media requests. Regular formal and informal meetings with journalists are organized to provide them with comprehensive information on nuclear activities.
2.10.5. Neighbouring countries
All international obligations of Slovakia are fulfilled and good relations with neighbouring countries are maintained by organizing annual meetings on exchange of information and cooperation.
2.10.6. Stakeholder organizations
SE takes an active approach with respect to its participation in stakeholder organizations and provides various levels of support depending on the relevance and significance of each organization.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
2.11.1. National Organization of Emergency Preparedness
Act No. 387/2002 Coll. establishes the scope of powers of public authorities in managing the State in crisis situations outside a time of war and hostilities, the rights and obligations of legal entities and of individuals in preparing for emergencies outside a time of war and hostilities, and in resolution of these, and sanctions for breach of obligations established by this Act. Crisis management bodies include:
The Security Council;
Ministries and other central government authorities;
The National Bank of Slovakia;
Security councils of regions, district office;
Security councils of districts;
The Government, as the supreme authority in crisis management, in compliance with Act No. 378/2002 Coll., establishes a Central Crisis Staff as its executive body, which coordinates the activity of government bodies, local government bodies and other components designed to resolve a crisis situation during a crisis period (i.e. during resolution of an incident or an accident at a nuclear installation or during transport of nuclear material); it does not have a preventive function. The chairman of the Central Crisis Staff is the Minister of the Interior.
In order to provide the necessary measures to cope with potential emergencies at nuclear installations, in addition to measures to protect the public and the economy in case of an accident with impact on the surroundings, the national organization of emergency preparedness is structured on three levels. The first level consists of emergency committees of nuclear installations, the main functions of which are to manage work and measures on the territory of nuclear installations so that they establish the status of technological equipment, to manage measures for coping with emergency situations and to limit the consequences on the personnel, equipment, environment and public.
Another function at this level is an informative function for state administrative activities on the level of local government, which secures information about the status of equipment and the possible impacts on the surroundings. The second level is organized regionally and consists of crisis staff of local government and self-government, the territory of which falls within the area of risk, where there can be danger to life, health or property and where there are measures planned to protect the population. This area is defined by the boundaries of the plant of nuclear installations JAVYS Bohunice (only the territory of NPP Bohunice V-1, NPP Bohunice A-1, TSÚ RAW and ISFS), 21 km around NPP Bohunice V-2 and a radius of 20 km around NPP Mochovce.
The third level is a national level, the Central Crisis Staff of the Government with its supporting units (e.g. Emergency Response Centre of ÚJD SR, Centre of Radiation Monitoring Network — ÚRMS, Central Monitoring and Control Centre — CMRS). Their task is to address an emergency if the scope of an extraordinary event exceeds the territory of the region. Included on this level are emergency commissions of the licensees, which closely cooperate with the ERC of ÚJD SR, but also with local state administration. The main task of an emergency commission is to organize and coordinate quick liquidation of major and emergency events in corresponding production and distribution facilities.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authorities
126.96.36.199. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic
ÚJD SR is a central state administration authority. It executes state regulatory activities in the field of nuclear safety of nuclear installations, including the regulation of management of radioactive waste, spent fuel and other parts of the fuel cycle, as well as the transport and management of nuclear materials, including their control and record keeping system. It is responsible for assessing the goals of the nuclear energy programme and the quality of classified equipment, as well as for Slovakia’s commitments under international agreements and treaties in the field (see Fig. 5).
FIG. 5. Organizational structure and relation to governmental organization.
188.8.131.52. Role of the Regulatory Authority
Pursuant to section 29 of Act No. 575/2001 Coll., ÚJD SR provides for the exercise of state regulation for nuclear safety of nuclear installations, including regulation of the management of radioactive waste, spent fuel and other parts of the fuel cycle, as well as of nuclear material, including their control and record keeping system. It ensures assessment of nuclear energy use programme goals and quality of classified equipment and nuclear technology equipment, as well as Slovakia’s commitments under international agreements and treaties concerning nuclear safety of nuclear installations and management of nuclear materials. Pursuant to Act No. 541/2004 Coll., ÚJD SR performs the state regulation of nuclear safety of nuclear installations; in particular, the entity:
Carries out inspections of workplaces, operations and premises of nuclear facilities, and operations and premises of approval or authorization holders;
Checks the fulfilment of obligations pursuant to the Act, generally binding legal provisions issued on its basis, operational procedures issued by the authorization holder, whether limits and conditions of safe operation and safe decommissioning, quality assurance system, as well as of duties arising from decisions, measures or orders issued pursuant to the Atomic Act, are being observed; inspects fulfilment of commitments under international agreements and treaties signed by Slovakia in respect of ÚJD SR competency;
Inspects the system of professional training of employees, training programmes for employees with professional competency and training programmes for licensed employees of authorization holders, and inspects professional competency as well as special professional competency of authorization holder employees;
Investigates on-site the status, causes and consequences of selected failures, incidents and accidents at nuclear installations or events during transport of radioactive materials.
184.108.40.206. Public Health Authority
The regulation of health protection against radiation is provided by the Public Health Authority according to the provisions of Act No. 355/2007 Coll. on the protection, support and development of public health. The body undertaking public health supervision at the nuclear installations is ÚVZ SR.
In the field of radiation protection, the Public Health Authority, inter alia:
Provides conditions for implementation of activities leading to risk of exposure, and the release of radioactive substances and radioactive contaminated objects and materials under administrative control;
Determines the dose limits to optimize radiation protection for individual activities leading to risk of exposure and individual sources of ionizing radiation;
Issues permits for activities leading to exposure and permits for release of radioactive substances and radioactively contaminated objects under administrative control;
Exercises state health supervision in nuclear installations;
Orders measures to prevent the occurrence of diseases and other health disorders related to exposure to ionizing radiation;
Monitors the radiation situation and data collection in the territory of Slovakia for the purposes of assessing exposure and the impact of radiation on public health and manages the activity of the radiation monitoring network;
Issues directives and guides for ensuring radiation protection in implementing activities leading to exposure when releasing radioactive substances and radioactively contaminated materials from administrative control;
Maintains a central register of sources of ionizing radiation and a central register of doses, and issues personal radiation passes to external staff; provides information to the public on the radiation situation, extraordinary events, potential exposure, the risks caused by exposure, and measures and interventions to reduce irradiation during radiation accidents;
Searches workplaces and facilities where abandoned radioactive sources may be found;
Cooperates with the European Commission and relevant bodies and institutions of EU Member States and represents Slovakia in international organizations regarding matters of radiation protection.
3.1.2. Licensing process
To obtain a licence for activity in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the applicant is to demonstrate its capacity to comply with and to fulfil all the requirements set by the laws and regulations valid in Slovakia, in particular the requirements of the Atomic Act and of the implementing regulations of ÚJD SR hereto. The applicant must further demonstrate that the nuclear installation will be or is operated in a safe manner.
The licensing procedure for a nuclear installation consists of five main phases: siting of the nuclear installation, its construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. Before granting an operating licence, the regulatory body performs inspections according to the approved programme schedule for individual phases of commissioning the nuclear installation (tests, fuel loading, physical startup, energy startup and trial operation).
The basic condition for granting authorization is the elaboration and submission of safety documentation listed in annexes of the Atomic Act necessary for issuance of particular types of decision and meeting of legislative requirements for nuclear safety. An essential criterion is also the fulfilment of conditions preceding approval procedures and decisions of the regulatory authority.
The district construction authority issues decisions on siting of nuclear installation construction and its decision making follows the approval of ÚJD SR and of other regulatory authorities (Public Health Authority and labour inspection bodies). Authorization for nuclear installation construction, permission for temporary use of the facility (including authorization for trial operation) and a decision on construction approval (including authorization for operation of nuclear installation) are already issued by ÚJD SR as a construction authority. ÚJD SR exercises its competency as a construction authority and state administration authority for nuclear safety. Its directives are based on its own decisions (partial approval of safety documentation), as well as on the opinion of relevant regulatory authorities — Public Health Authority (radiation protection), National Labour Inspectorate (labour inspection and health and safety protection at work) and other bodies and organizations of state administration (fire prevention and defence).
Documentation that must be attached to the application for issuance of certain decisions of ÚJD SR is listed in annexes 1 and 2 of the Atomic Act. Details concerning the scope, content and method of preparation of nuclear installation documentation needed for certain decisions are defined in ÚJD SR Decree No. 58/2006 Coll.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The most important act in the area of the peaceful use of nuclear power is Act No. 541/2004 Coll. on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on the amendment and alteration of several other acts.
3.2.1. Laws and regulations in the field of nuclear safety
Legislation includes (see also www.ujd.gov.sk):
Act No. 541/2004 Coll. on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on amendment and alteration of several acts as amended; latest amendment: Act No. 96/2017 Coll.
Act No. 238/2006 Coll. on the National Nuclear Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and for Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste (the Nuclear Fund Act) and on the amendments and supplements to some acts.
Act No. 21/2007 Coll. on Dual-use Goods and Technologies and amending and supplementing some acts.
Act No. 94/2007 Coll. amending Act No. 541/2004 Coll. on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended by later acts, and amending and supplementing Act No. 238/2006 Coll. on the National Nuclear Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and for Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste (the Nuclear Fund Act) and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended by Act No. 528/2006 Coll.
Act No. 335/2007 Coll. amending and supplementing certain laws in connection with the abolition of a regional authority.
Act No. 408/2008 Coll. amending and supplementing Act No. 541/2004 Coll. on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended by later acts and on the amendments and supplements to some acts.
Act No. 120/2010 Coll. amending and supplementing Act No. 541/2004 Coll. on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended by later acts.
Act No. 137/2010 Coll. on Air Quality.
Act No. 145/2010 Coll. amending and supplementing Act No. 24/2006 Coll. on the Environmental Impact Assessment and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended by later acts and on the amendments and supplements to some acts.
Act No. 350/2011 Coll. amending and supplementing Act No. 541/2004 Coll. on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended by later acts.
Act No. 143/2013 Coll. amending and supplementing Act No. 541/2004 Coll., on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended by later acts, and amending and supplementing Act No. 238/2006 Coll. on the National Nuclear Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and for Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste (the Nuclear Fund Act) and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended by later acts.
Act No. 314/2014 Coll., amending and supplementing Act No. 24/2006 Coll. on the Environmental Impact Assessment and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended by later acts and on the amendments and supplements to some acts.
Act No. 54/2015 Coll. on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and Its Financial Coverage and on amendments to some acts.
Act No. 91/2016 Coll. on the Criminal Liability of Legal Persons and on amendments to some acts (effective from 1 July 2016).
Act No. 125/2016 Coll. on Some Measures Related to the Adoption of the Civil Litigation Code, Civil Non-Litigation Code and Code of Administrative Justice and on the amendments and supplements to some acts (effective from 1 July 2016).
Current effective decrees after incorporation of amendments include:
Decree No. 76/2018 Coll. — replaced Decree No. 46/2006 Coll. on dual use goods, which are under ÚJD SR supervision.
Decree No. 48/2006 Coll. on details of notification of operational events and events during shipment, as well as details of investigation.
Decree No. 51/2006 Coll. on details concerning requirements for provision of physical protection.
Decree No. 52/2006 Coll. on professional competency.
Decree No. 54/2006 Coll. on accountancy for and control of nuclear material as well as notification of selected activities.
Decree No. 9/2018 Coll. — amendment of Decree No. 55/2006 Coll. on details concerning emergency planning in case of a nuclear incident or accident.
Decree No. 57/2006 Coll. on details concerning the requirements for shipment of radioactive material.
Decree No. 58/2006 Coll. on details concerning the scope, content and method of preparation of nuclear installation documentation needed for certain decisions.
Decree No. 430/2011 Coll. on details on nuclear safety requirements for nuclear facilities.
Decree No. 431/2011 Coll. on a quality management system.
Decree No. 30/2012 Coll., laying down details of requirements for the handling of nuclear materials, nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel.
Decree No. 31/2012 Coll., changing and amending Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 58/2006 Coll., laying down details on the scope, contents and manner of preparation of documentation for nuclear facilities needed for individual decisions.
Decree No. 32/2012 Coll., amending and supplementing Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic Decree No. 48/2006 Coll., establishing details on the method of reporting operational incidents and incidents during transport and details on ascertaining their causes.
Decree No. 33/2012 Coll. on the regular, comprehensive and systematic evaluation of the nuclear safety of nuclear equipment.
Decree No. 34/2012 Coll., amending and supplementing Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic Decree No. 52/2006 Coll. on professional qualification.
Decree No. 35/2012 Coll., changing and amending Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 55/2006 Coll., on details of emergency planning in case of a nuclear incident or accident.
Decree No. 170/2015 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic of 6 July 2015 Establishing a List of Radioactive Materials, Their Quantities and Their Physical and Chemical Parameters Justifying the Low Risk of Nuclear Damage.
Decree No. 101/2016 amending Implementing Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 30/2012 laying down details of requirements for the handling of nuclear materials, radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.
Decree No. 102/2016 amending Decree No. 58/2006 Coll. of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, which lays down details of the scope, content and means of preparation of nuclear installation documentation necessary for individual decisions, as amended by Decree No. 31/2012 Coll. of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic.
Decree No. 103/2016 changing and amending Implementing Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 430/2011 on nuclear safety requirements.
Decree No. 104/2016 amending Implementing Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 431/2011 on a quality management system.
Decree No. 105/2016 changing and amending Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 57/2006, laying down details of requirements for the transport of radioactive materials.
Decree No. 106/2016 amending implementing decree No. 33/2012 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic on the regular, comprehensive and systematic evaluation of the nuclear safety of nuclear installations.
INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
The following are selected generally binding legal regulations and safety guidelines in relation to nuclear and radiation safety.
I.1. MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;
Additional implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;
Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (Seabed Treaty);
Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water;
Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty;
Agreement between the CSSR and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;
Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material;
Amendment to the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material;
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident;
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency;
Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage;
Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention;
Convention on Nuclear Safety;
Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management;
Revised supplementary agreement concerning the provision of technical assistance by the IAEA to the Government of the Slovak Republic;
Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context (ESPOO);
Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus);
Implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;
Additional implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;
I.2. GOVERNMENTAL BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Hungary on Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Federal Government of Germany on Questions of Common Interest in Connection with Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Austria on Questions of Common Interest in Connection with Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Czech Republic on Cooperation in the Field of State Supervision of Nuclear Installations and of State Supervision of Nuclear Materials;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Czech Republic on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Republic of Poland on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents, on Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Canada on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic, the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Field of Transportation of Nuclear Fuel between the Slovak Republic and the Russian Federation across the Territory of Ukraine;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic, the Government of the Czech Republic, the Government of the Russian Federation and Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Cooperation in the Field of Transportation of Nuclear Materials between the Czech Republic and the Russian Federation across the Territory of the Slovak Republic and the Territory of Ukraine;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents, on Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Republic of Slovenia for the Exchange of Information in the Field of Nuclear Safety;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Romania on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents and Information Exchange on Nuclear Facilities.
I.3. BILATERAL AGREEMENTS WITH OTHER REGULATORY AUTHORITIES
Renewal agreement between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the United States of America and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic for the exchange of technical information and cooperation in nuclear safety matters;
Agreement between ÚJD SR and the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate of the French Republic (DSIN) for Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Regulation of Nuclear Safety;
Administrative Arrangement between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada Pursuant to the Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Slovak Republic for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Agreement between the Ministry of Economy and the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes of the Republic of Bulgaria on Cooperation in the Field of State Supervision of Nuclear Safety in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Agreement between the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic and Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Field of State Supervision of Nuclear Safety in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Safety between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority;
Amendment to the Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Safety between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority;
Arrangement between the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of the Republic of Indonesia and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Nuclear Safety;
Memorandum of Understanding between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Viet Nam Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam for Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation.
MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|National Atomic Energy Authority |
|Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (ÚJD SR)|
P.O. Box 24
820 07 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 58 22 11 11|
fax: (+421 2) 58 22 11 66
|National Radiation Protection Authority|
|Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic|
826 45 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 49 284 11 11 |
|Ministry of the Environment|
Nám. L.Štúra 1
812 35 Bratislava
Ministry of Economy
Mlynské nivy 44/a
827 15 Bratislava 212
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic
816 43 Bratislava
National Labour Inspectorate
040 01 Košice
|tel.: (+421 2) 59 56 22 22 |
fax: (+421 2) 59 56 26 72
tel.: (+421 2) 48 54 1111
fax: (+421 2) 43 42 39 49
tel.: (+ 421 2) 20 46 00 00
tel.: (+421 55) 7979902
fax: (+421 55) 7979904: www.nip.sk
|Other nuclear organizations|
|Slovenské elektrárne., a. s. (SE, a. s.)|
Mlynské nivy 47
821 09 Bratislava 2
JAVYS. a. s.
821 02 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 58 66 11 11 |
fax: (+421 2) 53 41 75 25
tel.: (+421 2) 48 26 22 91
fax: (+421 2) 48 26 29 05
|Research and development organizations|
|VÚJE, a. s.|
918 64 Trnava
|tel.: (+421 33) 599 1111 |
fax: (+421 33) 599 1193
|Research Institute of Welding (VUZ)|
832 59 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 49 24 64 00 |
fax: (+421 2) 44 25 48 67
|Research Institute of Cables and Insulating Materials (VUKI)|
831 07 Bratislava 36
|tel.: (+421) 906 063 202|
|Power Equipment Research Institute (VÚEZ, a. s.)|
934 39 Levice
|tel.: (+421 36) 635 5311 |
fax: (+421 36) 635 5313
|DECOM, a. s.|
917 01 Trnava
|tel.: (+421 33) 599 2076 |
fax: (+421 33) 599 1645
830 08 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 44 46 01 38 |
fax: (+421 2) 44 46 01 39 www.relko.sk
|AMEC Foster Wheerer Nuclear Slovakia, s. r. o.|
917 01 Trnava
|tel.: (+421 33) 324 96 02 |
|Institute of Radioecology|
Horný Bankov 16
040 00 Kosice
|tel.: (+421 55) 6323 537 |
fax: (+421 55) 6223 764
|Slovak Technical University (STU)|
812 43 Bratislava
Faculty of Electric-Technology and Information (FEI)
812 19 Bratislava 1
|tel.: (+421 2) 57 29 41 11|
fax: (+421 2) 57 29 45 37
tel.: (+421 2) 60 29 11 11
fax: (+421 2) 65 42 24 15
|Faculty of Natural Sciences of Comenius University |
842 15 Bratislava 4
|tel.: (+421 2) 60 29 61 11 (central), |
fax: (+421 2) 65 42 90 64
email: firstname.lastname@example.org http://fns.uniba.sk
 STATE GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF DIONYZ STUR, Slovak Minerals Yearbook 2011, SGUDS, Bratislava (2011).
 Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC (Text with EEA relevance), Official Journal of the European Union L 211, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg (2009).
Name of report coordinator
Ms Miriam Vachova
Director of Chancellery
Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (ÚJD SR) Bajkalská 27P.O. Box 24820 07 Bratislava 27Slovakia
tel.: (+421 2) 58 22 11 38fax: (+421 2) 58 22 11 66email: email@example.com