PREAMBLE AND SUMMARY
This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Slovakia, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Slovakia.
In Slovakia, the total installed capacity of the units in operation is 2020 MW(e). There are four units of WWER-440/213 type reactors (water cooled, water moderated power reactor) in operation, including two units (505 MW(e) each) at the Bohunice site and two units (505 MW(e) each) at the Mochovce site. There are also two units with WWER-440/V213 type reactors under construction at the Mochovce site (Mochovce 3 and 4). Three other nuclear units at the Bohunice site are under decommissioning: the first Czech–Slovak unit, the Bohunice A-1 nuclear power plant (NPP), cooled by gas and moderated by heavy water, and two units of older WWER-440/V230 type reactors at the Bohunice V-1 NPP.
The owner and holder of the licence for all nuclear units in operation and units under construction is the joint stock company Slovenské elektrárne (SE, a. s.). The licensee for decommissioning and radioactive waste management activities is the state owned joint stock company Jadrová a vyradovacia spolocnost (Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, JAVYS, a. s.). The state regulatory authority for state supervision over nuclear safety of nuclear installations, including radioactive waste management, spent fuel management, nuclear materials inspection and registration, as well as over physical protection of nuclear installations and nuclear materials provided for by the relevant licence holder, is the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (ÚJD SR).
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
The energy policy of Slovakia was approved by a resolution of the Slovak Government, No. 548/2014 of 5 November 2014. The energy policy is a strategic document defining the energy sector’s primary objectives and priorities through 2035, with a vision also provided through 2050. The energy policy is a component of Slovakia’s national economic strategy, given that sustainable economic growth is conditioned by a reliable supply of affordable energy. The priority from this perspective is ensuring the reliability and stability of energy supply, efficient energy utilization at optimum cost and environmental protection. It is envisioned that a well functioning energy market with a competitive environment will be strengthened by domestic energy policy implementation. The task of the energy policy is to create a stable framework for a safely operating energy market that motivates investments in energy.
Slovakia became a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1994 and a party to the Kyoto Protocol in 2002.
By resolution of the Slovak Government No. 256/2014, the Government adopted the Policy, Principles and Strategy for Further Development of Nuclear Safety. The aim of the resolution is to summarize and strengthen the principles needed to protect the public and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation associated with peaceful uses of nuclear energy (see www.economy.gov.sk and www.ujd.gov.sk).
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Total amount*||1 066||10||26||10 000|
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||0.02||0.21|
Source: Slovak Minerals Yearbook 2011, State Geological Institute of Dionyz Stur, Bratislava (2011) and Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic (MH SR).
* Solid, liquid: million tonnes; gas: billion m3; uranium: tonnes; hydro and renewable: TW.
1.1.3. Energy Consumption Statistics
Slovakia has limited available domestic energy resources (i.e. lignite, oil, natural gas and renewable resources).
TABLE 2. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
|Final Energy consumption [PJ]||2000||2005||2010||2015||2019||Compound
rate 2000–2019 (%)
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||92||88||92||78||74||-1.14|
|Bioenergy and Waste||13||14||23||34||36||5.51|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Total energy derived from primary and secondary generation sources. Figures do not reflect potential heat output that may result from electricity co-generation.
—: data not available.
Source(s): United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
On 31 July 2012, the Law on Regulation in Network Industries (Act No. 250/2012 Coll.) was approved by Parliament. It entered into force on 1 September 2012. Since then it has been amended several times.
This law states that the Regulatory Office for Network Industries (ÚRSO) is legally separate and functionally independent from any state, public or private institutions. Its representatives act independently, without any market or other interests, and while performing their duties they do not follow instructions from any third parties.
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
SE, a. s., is the largest electricity producer in Slovakia, also generating and selling heat and providing ancillary services for the power grid. It has an installed capacity of 4112 MW(e) with an ideal energy mix for the country — nuclear energy, hydropower and conventional sources in combination with biomass cogeneration and photovoltaic sources. SE, a. s., operates 31 hydropower plants, two NPPs, two thermal power plants and two photovoltaic plants.
SE, a. s., has two shareholders. The majority shareholder is Slovak Power Holding (SPH), owning a 66% share in the registered capital of SE, a. s. On 28 July 2016, Energetický a prumyslový holding, a. s. (EPH) closed the first phase of buying into SE, a. s., through EPH’s subsidiary, EP Slovakia BV. EP Slovakia BV became a 50% shareholder in SPH, and the other 50% remains under ENEL Group’s ownership for the time being. The minority shareholder is the Slovak Republic, represented by MH SR, owning 34% of the shares.
The transmission system is owned and operated by Slovenská elektrizacná prenosová sústava (SEPS), which acts as the power system operator (www.sepsas.sk/en_index.asp). The Slovak Republic owns 100% of company shares, with the Ministry of Finance acting on its behalf. The transmission system consists of 2138 km of 400 kV lines, 769 km of 220 kV lines and 80 km of 110 kV lines.
Slovakia’s transmission grid is connected to the wider European transmission system and Ukraine by means of 11 extra high voltage (EHV, 400 kV) and 2 high voltage (220 kV) interconnectors, including 5 with the Czech Republic (3 EHV and 2 high voltage), 2 EHV with Poland, 1 EHV with Ukraine and 5 EHV with Hungary. Two new EHV interconnectors with Hungary have been in operation since April 2021. All neighbouring countries have interconnections with Slovakia, apart from Austria. From the historical perspective, Slovakia is also interconnected with the Czech Republic at the 110 kV level (operated by the distribution system operator).
184.108.40.206. Distribution and supply
As of 1 July 2007, the legal unbundling of electricity supply from electricity distribution took place in the vertically integrated companies Západoslovenská energetika (ZSE, www.zse.sk/english), Stredoslovenská energetika (SSE, www.sse.sk) and Východoslovenská energetika (VSE, www.vse.sk/web/sk/domacnosti/uvod). Thus, three legally independent companies emerged as operators of regional distribution systems — Západoslovenská distribucná, Stredoslovenská distribucná and Východoslovenská distribucná — with licences for conducting business in electricity distribution, and electricity supply is secured by these three household electricity end suppliers. Further electricity suppliers are represented by electricity producers, small businesses and electricity traders.
As of 1 July 2007, the electricity market has been opened to all electricity consumers, including households, based on European Union legislation provisions, such as Directive (EU) 2019/944 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 on common rules for the internal market for electricity and amending Directive 2012/27/EU .
1.2.3. Main indicators
TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
|Electricity production (GWh)||2000||2005||2010||2015||2019||Compound
rate 2000–2019 (%)
|Total||31 158||31 455||27 858||26 903||29 548||-0.28|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||6 111||5 980||4 080||3 332||3 230||-3.30|
|Natural gas||3 344||2 184||2 206||1 604||3 767||0.63|
|Bioenergy and Waste||32||56||686||1 688||1 376||21.89|
|Hydro||4 975||4 741||5 649||4 137||4 514||-0.51|
|Nuclear||16 494||17 727||14 574||15 146||15 505||-0.32|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
—: data not available.
Source: United Nations Statistical Division, OECD/IEA and IAEA RDS-1
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption (kW·h/capita)||—||38 220||35 236||—|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||42.54||38.53||37.76||—|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||51.47||50.41||55.72||53.9||53.26|
*Latest available data.
Source: RDS-1 and RDS-2
—: data not available.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Commercial utilization of nuclear power in Slovakia (at that time as a part of Czechoslovakia) began in 1972. Nowadays, there are four operational NPPs: Bohunice Units 3 and 4 (V-2) and Mochovce Units 1 and 2. NPP Bohunice V-1 and NPP Bohunice A-1 are in permanent shutdown (decommissioning stages), while construction of NPP Mochovce Units 3 and 4 was restarted in mid-2009.
2.1.2 Current organizational structure
FIG. 1. Organizational structure of regulatory authorities and relation to governmental organization in the nuclear sector in the Slovak Republic (SR)
Licensees are SE, a. s., and JAVYS, a. s., the governmental organizations with responsibility in the nuclear field include the following:
ÚJD SR (www.ujd.gov.sk);
Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic, Public Health Authority (www.uvzsr.sk);
MH SR (www.economy.gov.sk);
Ministry of Environment (www.minzp.sk);
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (www.employment.gov.sk );
Ministry of Transport and Construction of the Slovak Republic (www.mindop.sk);
Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic (www.minv.sk).
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
In Slovakia, there are currently four WWER-440/V213 type nuclear units in operation — two units at the Bohunice site and two units at the Mochovce site. In addition, there are two additional WWER-440/V213 units in Mochovce under construction. The total installed capacity of units in operation is 2020 MW(e). The owner and holder of the licence to operate all the units in operation in Slovakia is SE, a. s. In 2020, NPP Bohunice produced 7975.35 GW·h and NPP Mochovce 7468.99 GW·h of electricity in total.
The owner and operator of NPP Bohunice V-1 and NPP Bohunice A-1, both in the decommissioning stages, is the utility JAVYS, a. s. (see Table 5).
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|BOHUNICE A1||HWGCR||93||Permanent Shutdown||JAVYS||ŠKODA||8/1/1958||10/24/1972||12/25/1972||12/25/1972||2/22/1977|
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
The NPPs were upgraded in numerous ways throughout their operational lifetimes, and improvement of the containment tightness/integrity of existing plants is considered a major achievement.
Based on Act No. 541/2004 Coll. on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and on the Amendment and Alteration of Several Other Acts as Amended (Atomic Act), a licence for operation is valid for an unlimited period. However, in accordance with legal requirements of the Atomic Act, all the plants are subject to periodic safety reviews (PSRs) every ten years. The latest periodic reviews were completed for NPP Bohunice V-2 in 2017 and for NPP Mochovce 1, 2 in 2018. The aim of these reviews was a comprehensive review of NPPs in terms of compliance with legislation and international safety standards, as well as in terms of project changes made with a view to increasing the level of safety, the licensee implemented corrective measures specified in the final report of ÚJD SR from the PSRs. In its reports on both PSRs, ÚJD SR described its findings and established measures for their subsequent removal. The complete ÚJD SR reports on the PSR of NPP Bohunice V-2 and Mochovce 1, 2 are published on the ÚJD SR web site.
Since 1991, the missions which have taken place include: approximately 35 missions from the IAEA (including site review, design review, Operational Safety Review Team (OSART), PRE-OSART, and International Probabilistic Safety Assessment Review Team (IPSART) missions); 9 World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) missions; 2 RISKAUDIT missions and 1 Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) mission. With regard to the results, the operator of both NPPs took measures to further improve the safety and reliability of operation. The measures were aimed at improving the management and organization of activities, staff training, operational documentation and marking of equipment.
Detailed information on plant upgrade and safety improvements is available in the Slovak National Report under the Convention on Nuclear Safety
2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
The decommissioning of nuclear installations represents a set of administrative and technical activities to be done after operation termination, with the aim of excluding the nuclear installation from the scope of the Atomic Act. The licence holder is obliged to ensure successful decommissioning, including ensuring the necessary financial means. The decommissioning stage can start based on ÚJD SR authorization. The holder of a licence for the decommissioning stage is responsible for the decommissioning process.
The basic concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste management is provided by the National Policy and the National Programme for SNF management and radioactive management. On 8 July 2015, the Government by resolution No. 387/2015 approved the National Policy and the National Programme, replacing the previous strategy for the back end of peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Slovakia. The National Policy is based on the principles provided by Act No. 308/2018 Coll. on the National Nuclear Fund and Amending and Supplementing the Atomic Act.
At present, the two ongoing decommissioning projects in Slovakia are NPP Bohunice A-1 and NPP Bohunice V-1.
With regard to Bohunice A-1, following two serious accidents in 1977, the NPP was shut down and scheduled for gradual decommissioning. The process of decommissioning commenced after the licence for decommissioning was obtained in 1999. This process was divided into five successive stages. At the end of February 2016, JAVYS, a. s., applied for licences for Stages 3 and 4 of decommissioning of NPP Bohunice to ÚJD SR under the legislation applicable for A-1. ÚJD SR issued Decision No. 369/2016, which licensed JAVYS, a. s., to commence Stages 3 and 4 of decommissioning of NPP Bohunice A-1, as well as authorization for radioactive waste management during decommissioning. Work related to these stages of decommissioning is scheduled to run through the end of 2024 and is focused on the ongoing treatment of liquid radioactive waste (RAW), sludge from long term storage, and long term storage casings of SNF. The licence holder continues to carry out activities related to the decommissioning of original, non-functional and disused technological systems of external facilities and technological equipment buildings of the main generating unit of the reactor hall and interim hall. After Stage 4 completion, the final fifth stage of decommissioning will follow. Completion of the decommissioning process for NPP Bohunice A-1 is scheduled for 2033. Decommissioning is financed by the National Nuclear Fund. The SNF was exported to the Russian Federation based on the original contract and the transport of spent fuel was completed in 1999.
Bohunice V-1 NPP Units 1 and 2 were shut down in 2006 and 2008, respectively, based on Slovakian commitments associated with the accession process to the European Union. Decommissioning is being implemented in two stages, with the final deadline in 2025. The first stage was in progress from 20 July 2011 to 31 December 2014. The second stage commenced on 1 January 2015 and is planned to be completed before 31 December 2025. The second stage mainly includes the decommissioning of the buildings of the main generating unit and the building of auxiliary facilities. The most important activities are dismantling of reactors, equipment of the primary circuit and other equipment in the controlled zone, their decontamination and radiation control. The final condition of the site at the end of the second stage will be brownfield. The current state of decommissioning of NPP V-1 has been continuously monitored and is in line with the plan for Stage 2 of the decommissioning of NPP V-1 as of 31 December 2016. After the final inspection, the site will be released from control by regulatory authorities. Spent fuel from these units has already been transported to the interim spent fuel storage (ISFS).
The total operation termination costs for Bohunice V-1 NPP were calculated to be €1239 billion. Operation termination activities and preparation for decommissioning of the Bohunice V-1 NPP are co-financed by the National Nuclear Fund and the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund. More information is available in the Slovak National Report to the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management as of August 2020.
TABLE 6. STATUS OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit||Shutdown reason||Decommissioning strategy||Current decommissioning phase||Current fuel management phase||Decommissioning licensee||Licence termination year|
|Bohunice Units 1 and 2||Commitment of the Government in the EU accession process||See above||Stage 2||Spent fuel removed from reactor in 2011||Stage 1: 20 July 2011 to 31 December 2014
Stage 2: 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2025
|Bohunice A-1||Serious accidents in 1976 and 1977||See above||Stages 3 and 4||SNF exported to the Russian Federation||1999 — Licence for Stage 1 of decommissioning
2016 — Licence for Stages 3 and 4 of decommissioning
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The document New Nuclear Source at the Jaslovské Bohunice Site was approved by a governmental resolution in 2008, in which the Government required an evaluation of legal and economic implications within the context of the site of NPP Bohunice and establishment of a venture which will support construction of a new NPP at the Jaslovské Bohunice site.
The proposal for establishment of the company Jadrová energetická spolocnost Slovenska (Nuclear Energy Company of Slovakia, JESS) was approved by a governmental resolution in December 2009. JESS was established as a joint venture consisting of the companies JAVYS, a. s., and CEZ Bohunice, a. s., subsidiary of the company CEZ, a. s. The shares of both investors are in compliance with the stockholder contract — 51% for JAVYS, a. s., and 49% for CEZ, a. s.
TABLE 7. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit/Project name||Owner||Type||Capacity in MW(e)||Expected construction start year||Expected commercial|
|New NPP project at Bohunice site||JESS||GEN-III+||Up to 1200||2032||2040|
2.3.2. Project management
In 2012, a feasibility study to assess the key aspects of the planned new NPP in Slovakia was elaborated and presented. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) process started in 2013. The development of the EIA immediately followed the preliminary study for the proposed activity. The preliminary study was submitted to the Ministry of Environment on 5 March 2014. Following publication of the EIA report, there were public hearings on the municipal level in Slovakia and across the borders in Austria, Germany, Hungary and Ukraine. The EIA process was concluded by a positive final statement on the project in the first half of 2016. This statement is an indispensable basis for further licensing activities in the context of the authorization procedure, within the framework of the Atomic Act and the Construction Act.
The project activities were attenuated in 2017–2018; in 2019 the preparation of the new NPP project in accordance with Government Program Statement was updated and the plan of the project for 2019–2025 was approved by stakeholders of JESS. The project of the new NPP is now in a pre-preparatory stage, which will be completed by obtaining a site permit and which requires the necessary amendment of legislation. Future steps depend on a stakeholders’ decision to continue with the new NPP project through the preparatory stage, which will be completed by selection of a particular supplier, including the appropriate investment and financial model.
2.3.3. Project funding
The new NPP is expected to be funded and financed by the private sector.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
In recent years, JESS, in cooperation with SEPS and Západoslovenská distribucná, has prepared more detailed studies of the connection of the new NPP to the transmission and distribution systems. Based on their results, both electrical system operators may consider the future application of the new NPP in the transmission and distribution systems.
Information can be found at www.jess.sk/en.
2.3.6. Public acceptance
Information can be found at www.jess.sk/en/home/press/press-releases/representative-quantitative-opinion-poll.
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
The contractual strategy adopted for the completion of Mochovce 3, 4 NPP is multicontractual (more than 100 contracts). The architect–engineer role is held by the owner, SE, a. s. The other main contractors are:
Civil works: Inžinierske stavby Košice;
Mechanical systems: Škoda JS, ENSECO, VUJE;
Electrical systems and equipment: PPA;
Main Control system: Areva /Siemens;
Other suppliers: ASE, Rolls-Royce, GSE.
Civil works: ZIPP;
Mechanical systems: Škoda Power, Modrany Power;
Electrical systems and equipment: CKD, PPA, Energo & Schneider, Brush SEM, Techimp.
The policy of SE, a. s., for national and local industrial involvement is to maximize the project spinoff for the Slovak and Czech market: more than 85% of the awarded contracts are in the Slovak and Czech markets.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE OPERATION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
As mentioned in the Chapter 1.2.2, the ownership structure of SE, a. s., is the following: the Slovak Republic owns 34% (shareholder’s rights are executed by MH HR) and SPH owns 66%. The company’s line of business includes:
Imports, exports, sales and distribution;
Heat generation and sales;
Maintaining relationships with different external organizations in business areas or based on valid legislation;
Cooperation with contractors who provide specific services such as selected maintenance activities, deliveries of components and equipment or research work;
Cooperation with national and international supervisory and advisory authorities (ÚJD SR, IAEA, WANO and others).
The companies listed in Table 8 provide services for the operator.
TABLE 8. COMPANIES PROVIDING SERVICES FOR NPP OPERATOR
|VUJE, a. s. |
|Engineering, design and research organization. The company takes part in developing new solutions for the nuclear power industry, upgrading and testing of NPP safety.|
|JAVYS, a. s. |
|State owned company responsible for NPP decommissioning and RAW and SNF handling.|
|VUEZ, a. s. |
|The Research Institute for Power Facilities is an engineering, manufacturing and installation company. The company concentrates on specialized and superior standard operations in the field of power engineering.|
|Energoprojekt Slovakia, a. s. (www.netax.sk/energoprojekt)||The company develops its activities in designing, engineering and consulting areas related to nuclear equipment.|
|Škoda Slovakia, s. r. o.||Technical end engineering services, pipelines, turbines, generators and fittings.|
|ENSECO, a. s. |
|The company provides services in the supply of technological units and their commissioning in the power industry.|
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
JAVYS, a. s., is the holder of the decommissioning licence for NPP Bohunice A-1 and NPP Bohunice V-1; its main activities focus on:
decommissioning nuclear facilities;
managing SNF and transporting SNF and fresh nuclear fuel;
managing radioactive waste and transporting radioactive waste.
In March 2021 JAVYS, a. s., became a Collaborating Centre with the IAEA and Slovakia became the third country in the field of nuclear facilities decommissioning with which the IAEA signed a cooperation agreement.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
The basic concept for SNF and radioactive waste management is provided by the National Policy and the National Programme for SNF management and radioactive waste management. https://www.njf.sk/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/The_National_Policy_for_handling_of_SNF_and_RAW_in_SR.pdf.
The objectives of the National Policy of the Slovak Republic for SNF and RAW management in Slovakia are as follows:
Safe and reliable decommissioning of nuclear installations;
Minimization of wastes;
Selection of appropriate fuel cycle;
Safe handling of RAW;
Application of graded approach;
Principle of ‘polluter pays’;
Objective decision making process;
ISFS at Jaslovské Bohunice (in operation since 1987) is being used to store spent fuel assemblies in a water filled pool (wet storage). After its reconstruction, based on changes in the layout of stored assemblies, ISFS has a higher final storage capacity (14 112 spent fuel assemblies, i.e. approximately 1700 tonnes of heavy metal). Reconstruction also secures higher seismic resistance and extends the service life of nuclear installations to 50 years. This capacity is sufficient to store all SNF produced by the WWER type power plants at the Jaslovské Bohunice site. Currently, the SNF from NPP Mochovce 1, 2, after several years of storage in the interim storage pool next to the reactors, is being transported for long term storage at ISFS Jaslovské Bohunice. An application for a permit for the construction of a dry storage facility was delivered to ÚJD SR in 2020.
Liquid and solid radioactive waste from the decommissioning and operation of NPPs, institutional radioactive waste, as well as radioactive waste from further commercial services is processed using the nuclear facility’s radioactive waste processing technologies into a form that meets the requirements for final disposal. Very low level RAW and low level RAW are disposed in the National Radwaste Repository at the Mochovce site.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. Research and development organizations
R&D activities in Slovakia are mostly based on solving the current specific problems arising from practice in industry. Individual projects are bound to international R&D activities, particularly those conducted within the European Union or OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) members.
R&D is financed partially from the state budget and is completed with funds from the private sector or support from the European Union. Currently ongoing international R&D projects are funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 scheme and IAEA’s Regional Cooperation Project (RER). National projects are supported by the National Nuclear Fund, the Slovak National Agency for Science and Research (APVV) and the Slovak National Scientific Agency (VEGA).
Technical support organizations related to utilities and universities participate in relevant R&D. Typically, activities focus on:
Research, development and engineering activities in the area of the evaluation of safety, reliability and effectiveness of operation in the phases of commissioning and decommissioning of energy and heat sources;
Development of design and safety documentation necessary for the licensing process of nuclear installations, e.g. basic and detailed design of safety and operation systems of NPPs, safety reports for diverse phases of licensing, environmental impact assessment including monitoring, emergency planning and crisis management, and others;
Research and development activities in the area of decommissioning of energy and heat sources, facilities for the management of waste, and facilities for the transport of both harmful and dangerous materials;
Assessment of power installations and of their impact on the environment including monitoring, emergency planning and crisis management;
Development and use of information, management and supporting systems for increasing the safety and reliability of operation of industrial objects;
Training in the area of safety, reliability and effectiveness of operation and decommissioning of energy and heat sources.
ÚJD SR initiates R&D where it considers that there is a need for additional studies beyond those undertaken by utilities or where suitable critical considerations have to be applied.
Organizations which conduct nuclear research and development in Slovakia include:
Slovak Academy of Sciences;
Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava;
Commenius University, Bratislava;
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
Slovakia participates in the ALLEGRO project, which is a low power gas cooled fast reactor (GFR) project under consideration in the European Union framework. The concept of the ALLEGRO demonstrator was originally developed in the first decade of this century by France’s CEA. In 2010 four companies and research organizations from Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland (VUJE, UJV REŽ, EK and NCJB) signed a memorandum of understanding, which resulted in 2013 into the establishment of a legal entity, the V4G4 Centre of Excellence (V4G4 CoE), with CEA as an associated member since 2017 and Research Centre Rež as an associated member since 2019. The goal of the V4G4 Centre of Excellence has been the continuation of the GFR development.
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
Slovakia is a member of the following international organizations:
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO);
Western European Nuclear Regulators’ Association (WENRA).
ÚJD SR takes part in several international cooperative groups, including:
European High Level Group on Nuclear Safety and Waste Management organized by the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG, cooperation to progressively develop a common understanding and further common approaches in priority domains related to the safety of nuclear installations);
Steering Committee, Standing Technical Committees and working groups of the OECD/NEA;
Network of Regulators of Countries with Small Nuclear Programmes (NERS);
Zangger Committee (dealing with controlling the export of nuclear materials and equipment);
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG, dealing with controlling the export of nuclear materials and equipment and dual use materials and equipment);
Forum of the State Nuclear Safety Authorities of the Countries Operating WWER Type Reactors (WWER Regulators’ Forum).
Additionally, other institutions involved also in R&D activities in the nuclear area (VUJE, NJF, STU, SE, a. s.) have joined the research projects of the European Commission within the Horizon 2020 scheme, OECD/NEA Joint Projects and IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
High quality of human resources is the basic prerequisite for providing safe, reliable, economic and ecological operation of nuclear installations. From the point of view of the influence of work activities on nuclear safety, the staff of the licensee is divided into two basic groups:
Employees with a direct impact on nuclear safety: Selected employees, whose special professional competence is verified by an exam conducted by an examination committee established by ÚJD SR, which issues a licence of special professional competency.
Employees with an impact on nuclear safety: Professionally competent employees, whose professional competence has been verified by an expert committee established by the operator of a specialized facility through written and oral exams, which upon successful completion issues a certificate of professional competency.
Special professional competency of employees according to the Atomic Act means expertise, practical experience, principal attitudes and knowledge of generally binding legal regulations and operating procedures issued by the licensee for ensuring nuclear safety, which is necessary for performing work activities having a direct impact on nuclear safety.
Professional competency means expertise, practical experience, knowledge of generally binding legal regulations and operating procedures issued by the licensee and necessary for performing work activities of the licensee’s employee. Professional competence is acquired by successful completion of training at a specialized facility.
The licensee is responsible for the general (professional, health and mental) capacity of its employees to perform work activities at nuclear installations. An authorization to perform work activities is issued as part of an integrated management system of quality assurance for the nuclear installation licensee for every selected and professionally competent employee. The authorization is issued for a given job and a specific nuclear installation only for those selected and professionally qualified staff of the licensee who hold valid certificates of special competency or certificates of professional competency and have completed the relevant type of training. The authorization is evidence of the working competency of an employee in relation to regulatory authorities. In the system of professional training, each position has defined requirements for education, experience, training, health and mental capacity. The direct supervisor of the employee is responsible for meeting these requirements. The system of professional training is updated on the basis of operational experience, implemented organizational changes, technical solutions (modernization) carried out on the equipment, requirements of regulatory bodies, audits, reviews and recommendations from the IAEA. This is provided for by the necessary human, financial and material resources.
Professional training of employees of the licence holder, as well as the staff of third parties (third parties are the contractor organizations) is carried out in compliance with the management documentation of the quality assurance programme developed and maintained in compliance with:
Generally binding legal regulations;
IAEA safety standards;
STN EN ISO 9001:2016 and 14001:2016 standards;
Management documentation of the Quality System.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
2.10.1. General public
It is important that the general public be as well informed about the operation of power plants as possible. The access to information is guaranteed by the Constitution and other instruments on human rights since the early 1990s. Act No. 211/2000 Coll. on Free Access to Information and on Amendments and Supplements to Certain Acts (Freedom of Information Act) as Amended provides citizens with a statutory way to obtain necessary information. This act, together with the Atomic Act, Act No. 24/2006 Coll. on Environmental Impact Assessment and on Amendments and Supplements to Certain Acts as Amended, and Act No. 205/2004 Coll. on Collection, Storage and Dissemination of Environmental Information and Amending Certain Acts as Amended, implement, inter alia, the Aarhus convention, and as such constitute the legislative framework of communication with the public in the field of nuclear energy.
Therefore, all activities that contribute to inform and educate public are supported, and operators organize a number of their own initiatives, such as public events where citizens have a chance to get more information on the use of nuclear energy and NPP operation. Prominent communication channels of licence holders include: the information centre of SE, a. s., ENERGOLAND, located close to the NPPs in Mochovce; the information centres of JAVYS, a. s., in Bohunice and Mochovce; magazines ‘Energy for the country’ by SE, a. s., and ‘JAVYS with us’ by JAVYS, a. s.; and the websites of the license holders. Special access to a system with detailed information on RAW management has been enabled for majors in the vicinity of the nuclear installations of JAVYS, a. s. These projects are aimed to help the public to better understand nuclear energy.
2.10.2. Local communities
Slovakia considers local communities to be of primary importance.
The Bohunice Local Information Commission (OIK) was established to improve public awareness among inhabitants of the region within the Emergency Planning Zone of the nuclear facilities at Jaslovské Bohunice, including all aspects of their operation, safety and the influence of these nuclear facilities on the environment.
The Mochovce OIK was established to improve awareness among inhabitants of the region within the Emergency Planning Zone of the Mochovce NPP compound about all aspects of its operation and about the safety and influence of the Mochovce NPP and the National Radioactive Waste Repository on the environment through the citizens’ delegates.
The Mochovce and Bohunice OIKs are made up of representatives of townships and institutions from within a 20 km radius of the relevant NPP. The representatives of the citizens work together with appointed representatives of ÚJD SR, SE, a. s. and JAVYS, a. s.
The Slovak Nuclear Society (SNUS) is a voluntary association of experts. SNUS’s professional and study interests revolve around nuclear technology, nuclear energy and the uses of ionizing radiation, and it is also a member of the European Nuclear Society. SNUS coordinates expert activities of other organizations in Slovakia as well as international relations and cooperation. It works with social, governmental and municipal organizations and authorities, with companies and the media.
Cooperation with institutions is very open and effective. Interagency task groups have been formed to address various issues, including the EIA process, public access to information and others. In addition, there is frequent contact with representatives of institutions on a need basis.
The media are recognized as a primary source of information dissemination to the public. Therefore, operators and regulatory bodies give full attention to all media requests. Regular formal and informal meetings with journalists are organized to provide them with comprehensive information on nuclear activities.
2.10.5. Neighbouring countries
All international obligations of Slovakia are fulfilled and good relations with neighbouring countries are maintained by organizing annual meetings on exchange of information and cooperation.
2.10.6. Stakeholder organizations
SE, a. s., and JAVYS, a. s., take an active approach with respect to their participation in stakeholder organizations and provide various levels of support depending on the relevance and significance of each organization.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
2.11.1. National Organization of Emergency Preparedness
Act No. 387/2002 Coll. on the Management of State in Crisis Situations Other than Time of War and State of War as Amended establishes the scope of competencies of public authorities in managing the State in crisis situations outside a time of war and hostilities, the rights and obligations of legal entities and of individuals in preparing for emergencies outside a time of war and hostilities and for their resolution, and sanctions for breach of obligations established by this act. Crisis management bodies include:
The Security Council;
Ministries and other central government authorities;
The National Bank of Slovakia;
Security councils of regions, district office;
Security councils of districts;
The Government, as the supreme authority in crisis management, in compliance with Act No. 387/2002 Coll., establishes the Central Crisis Staff as its executive body, which coordinates the activity of government bodies, local government bodies and other components designed to resolve a crisis situation during a crisis period (i.e. during resolution of an incident or an accident at a nuclear installation or during transport of nuclear material). The chairman of the Central Crisis Staff is the Minister of Interior.
In order to provide the necessary measures to cope with potential emergencies at nuclear installations, in addition to measures to protect the public and the economy in case of an accident with impact on the surroundings, the national organization of emergency preparedness is structured on three levels. The first level consists of emergency committees of nuclear installations, the main functions of which are to manage work and measures on the territory of nuclear installations so that they establish the status of technological equipment, to manage measures for coping with emergency situations and to limit the consequences on the personnel, equipment, environment and public. Another role at this level is an information gathering function for local state administration on the national and regional levels, which secures information about the status of equipment and the possible impacts on the surroundings.
The second level is organized regionally and consists of crisis staff of local government, the territory of which falls within possibly affected areas of the Emergency Planning Zone, where there can be danger to life, health or property and where public protective actions are planned. This area is defined by the boundaries of the nuclear installations of JAVYS, a. s., in Bohunice (only the territory of NPP Bohunice V-1, NPP Bohunice A-1, RAW Processing and Treatment Technology (TSÚ RAO) and ISFS), 21 km around NPP Bohunice V-2 and a radius of 20 km around NPP Mochovce.
At the third — national — level, the Central Crisis Staff of the Government addresses an emergency if the scope of an event exceeds the territory of the region. Included on this level are emergency commissions of the licensees, which closely cooperates with activities of the local state administration. To fulfil its main task of quick mitigation and management of events, the Central Crisis Staff of the Government uses and coordinates its supporting bodies such as the Emergency Response Centre of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, the Radiation Monitoring Network of Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Emergency Response Coordination Centre of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic.
The Radiation Monitoring Network is a national system of radiation monitoring and radiological data collection, created and managed by the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (ÚVZ SR) in cooperation with designated central administration authorities. Its purpose is to assess the exposure and evaluate a potential impact of radiation on public health.
The Emergency Response Coordination Centre is a part of Crisis Management of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic and serves as national warning point, properly staffed to receive and coordinate information to and between emergency management officials at all levels of government.
The Emergency Response Centre of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic serves as a technical support system of ÚJD SR. Its main role is to prepare prognoses of event developments and recommendations of the public protective actions during radiological events at facilities in Slovakia or international events with possible impact on the territory of the Slovak Republic.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
220.127.116.11. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic
ÚJD SR is an independent central state administration authority (see Fig. 1). It executes state regulatory activities in the field of nuclear safety of nuclear installations, including the regulation of management of radioactive waste, spent fuel and other parts of the fuel cycle, as well as the transport and management of nuclear materials, including their control and record keeping system. It is responsible for assessing the goals of the nuclear energy programme and the quality of classified equipment, as well as for Slovakia’s commitments under international agreements and treaties in the field.
18.104.22.168. Role of the Regulatory Authority for Nuclear Safety
Pursuant to section 29 of Act No. 575/2001 Coll. on the Organization of the Activity of the Government and on the Organization of the Central State Administration as amended, ÚJD SR exercises state regulation of nuclear safety of nuclear installations, including regulation of the management of radioactive waste, spent fuel and other parts of the fuel cycle, as well as of nuclear materials, including their control and record keeping system, as well as of the physical protection of nuclear installations and nuclear materials provided for by the relevant licence holder. It ensures assessment of nuclear energy use programme goals and quality of classified equipment and nuclear technology equipment, as well as Slovakia’s commitments under international agreements and treaties concerning nuclear safety of nuclear installations and management of nuclear materials. Pursuant to the Atomic Act, ÚJD SR:
Carries out inspections of workplaces, operations and premises of nuclear facilities, and operations and premises of approval or authorization holders.
Checks the fulfilment of obligations pursuant to the Atomic Act, generally binding legal provisions issued on its basis, and operational procedures issued by the authorization holder; assesses whether limits and conditions of safe operation and safe decommissioning, of the quality assurance system, as well as of duties arising from decisions, measures or orders issued pursuant to the Atomic Act, are being observed; inspects the fulfilment of commitments under international agreements and treaties signed by Slovakia in respect of ÚJD SR competency.
Inspects the system of professional training of employees, training programmes for employees with professional competency and training programmes for licensed employees of authorization holders, and inspects professional competency as well as special professional competency of authorization holder employees.
Investigates on site the status, causes and consequences of selected failures, incidents and accidents at nuclear installations or events during transport of radioactive materials.
Serves as the contact point and, as such, provides information on nuclear accidents and radiological threats in the territory of the Slovak Republic to the European Commission and the IAEA, as well as informs the Ministry of Interior about international events with possible impact on the territory of the Slovak Republic.
22.214.171.124. Role of the Regulatory Authority in Radiation Protection
Pursuant to Act No. 575/2001 Coll. on the Organization of the Activity of the Government and on the Organization of the Central State Administration as amended, the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic is the central state administration authority for health care, health protection and other activities in the field of health care. The state administration in the field of radiation protection is carried out, pursuant to Section 4 of Act No. 87/2018 Coll. on Radiation Protection and amending and supplementing certain acts as amended, by the radiation protection authorities, namely:
Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic;
Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic;
Regional Public Health Authorities;
Other bodies of radiation protection with the competence in the relevant ministry.
The competence of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic includes, among others, the establishment of exposure limits and conditions for radioactive waste management in terms of their potential impact on public health.
Supervision of radiation protection in the Slovak Republic is ensured pursuant to the provisions of Section 155 of Act No. 87/2018 Coll. on Radiation Protection and amending and supplementing certain acts as amended by ÚVZ SR. ÚVZ SR issues various types of decisions, binding opinions, guidelines for the elimination of identified deficiencies, directives, recommendations, guidelines and expert guidance in the field of radiation protection. The competence of ÚVZ SR in the field of radiation protection is established in Section 6 of Act No. 87/2018 Coll. on Radiation Protection.
In the field of radiation protection, ÚVZ SR, inter alia:
Orders measures to prevent the emergence of diseases and other health disorders due to ionizing radiation exposure;
Performs monitoring of the radiation situation and data collection in the Slovak Republic for the purpose of evaluation of radiation exposure and assessment of radiation impact on public health, and creates, ensures and manages activities of the radiation monitoring network;
Keeps a register of activities leading to exposure, for which it has issued permits, and activities leading to exposure registered on the basis of notification;
Maintains a central register of ionizing radiation sources and a central register of doses and issues personal radiation licenses to external staff;
Provides expert guidance and information to persons who have come into contact with radioactive sources or have been exposed;
Provides information to the public on the radiation situation, incidents and possible exposure, on the risks caused by exposure and on measures and interventions to reduce exposure in case of radiation accidents;
Searches for workplaces and facilities where abandoned radioactive sources may be found;
Establishes an examination committee for examination and recognition of professional competence;
Establishes a committee that assesses the fulfilment of requirements for the recognition of competence of a natural person and a legal entity to act as a radiation protection expert;
Cooperates with the European Commission and the competent authorities and institutions of the Member States and represents the Slovak Republic in international organizations in matters of radiation protection.
3.1.2. Licensing process
To obtain a licence for activity in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the applicant has to demonstrate the capacity to comply with and to fulfil all the requirements set by the laws and regulations valid in Slovakia, in particular the requirements of the Atomic Act and of the implementing regulations of ÚJD SR hereto. The applicant must further demonstrate that the nuclear installation will be or is operated in a safe manner.
The licensing procedure for a nuclear installation consists of five main phases: siting of the nuclear installation, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. Before granting an operating licence, ÚJD SR performs inspections according to the approved programme schedule for individual phases of commissioning the nuclear installation (tests, fuel loading, physical start up, energy start up and trial operation).
The basic condition for granting authorization is the elaboration and submission of safety documentation listed in annexes of the Atomic Act that is necessary for issuance of particular types of decision and meeting of legislative requirements for nuclear safety. An essential criterion is also the fulfilment of conditions preceding approval procedures and decisions of ÚJD SR.
The district construction authority issues decisions on siting of nuclear installation construction and its decision making follows the approval of ÚJD SR and of other regulatory authorities (Public Health Authority and labour inspection bodies). Authorization for nuclear installation construction, permission for temporary use of the facility (including authorization for trial operation) and a decision on construction approval (including authorization for operation of a nuclear installation) are already issued by ÚJD SR as a construction authority. ÚJD SR exercises its competency as a construction authority and state administration authority for nuclear safety. Its directives are based on its own decisions (partial approval of safety documentation), as well as on the opinion of relevant regulatory authorities: the Public Health Authority (radiation protection), the National Labour Inspectorate (labour inspection and health and safety protection at work) and other bodies and organizations of state administration (e.g. for fire prevention and defence).
Documentation that must be attached to the application for issuance of certain decisions of ÚJD SR is listed in annexes 1 and 2 of the Atomic Act. Details concerning the scope, content and method of preparation of nuclear installation documentation needed for certain decisions are defined in ÚJD SR Decree No. 58/2006 Coll. of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, laying down details on the scope, contents, and manner of maintaining documentation of nuclear facilities necessary for individual decisions as Amended.
When authorizing activities leading to exposure or permitting service important in terms of radiation protection, ÚVZ SR proceeds in accordance with Act No. 71/1967 Coll. on Administrative Proceedings. The basic prerequisite for issuing authorization is the submission of the required documentation and fulfilment of the requirements stipulated by Act No. 87/2018 Coll. on Radiation Protection and Amending and Supplementing Certain Acts as Amended. The authorization of ÚVZ SR for activities leading to exposure in relation to nuclear installations is not the final license for operation of a nuclear installation, however, it is a condition for issuing a license for operation of a nuclear installation.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The most important act in the area of the peaceful use of nuclear power is the Atomic Act.
3.2.1. Laws and regulations in the field of nuclear safety
Legislation includes (see also www.ujd.gov.sk):
Act No. 541/2004 Coll. on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on the Amendment and Alteration of Several Acts as Amended; latest amendment: Act No. 279/2019 Coll.
Act No. 308/2018 Coll. on the National Nuclear Fund and amending and supplementing the Atomic Act as amended; latest amendment: Act No. 221/2019 Coll.
Act No. 21/2007 Coll. on Dual-use Goods and Technologies and amending and supplementing certain acts as amended.
Act No. 137/2010 Coll. on Air Quality as amended.
Act No. 24/2006 Coll. on the Environmental Impact Assessment and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended by later acts and on the amendments and supplements to certain acts.
Act No. 54/2015 Coll. on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and Its Financial Coverage and on amendments to certain acts as amended.
Act No. 91/2016 Coll. on the Criminal Liability of Legal Persons and on amendments to some acts as amended.
Act No. 125/2016 Coll. on Some Measures Related to the Adoption of the Civil Litigation Code, Civil Non-Litigation Code and Code of Administrative Justice and on the amendments and supplements to some acts as amended.
Implementing decrees of the Atomic Act are mainly:
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 48/2006 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 32/2012 Coll. laying down details on the manner of reporting operational events and events in transportation and details of ascertaining causes thereof.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 51/2006 Coll. laying down details of requirements for provisions of physical protection.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 52/2006 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 34/2012 Coll. and Decree No. 410/2019 Coll. on Professional Qualification.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 54/2006 Coll. on Accountancy for and Control of Nuclear Material as well as Notification of Selected Activities.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 55/2006 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 35/2012 Coll. and Decree No. 9/2018 laying down details on emergency planning for the event of an incident or accident.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 57/2006 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 105/2016 Coll. laying down details of the requirements for the transportation of radioactive materials.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 58/2006 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 31/2012 Coll. and Decree No. 102/2016 Coll. laying down details on the scope, contents, and manner of maintaining documentation necessary for individual decisions.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 430/2011 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 103/2016 Coll. on Nuclear Safety Requirements.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 431/2011 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 104/2016 Coll. on a Quality Management System.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 30/2012 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 101/2016 Coll. laying down details of requirements for managing nuclear materials, radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 33/2012 Coll. as amended by Decree No. 106/2016 Coll. and decree No. 71/2019 Coll. on the Regular, Comprehensive and Systematic Assessment of the Nuclear Safety of Nuclear Installations.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 170/2015 Coll. establishing a list of radioactive materials, their quantities and their physical and chemical parameters justifying the low risk of nuclear damage.
Decree of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic No. 112/2020 Coll. laying down the special materials and equipment falling under the supervision of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic.
3.2.2. Laws and regulations in the field of radiation protection
Act No. 87/2018 Coll. on Radiation Protection and amending and supplementing certain acts as amended.
Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic No. 96/2018 Coll. laying down the details of the operation of the Radiation Monitoring Network.
Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic No. 98/2018 Coll. laying down details on reducing exposure of workers and the population from natural sources of ionizing radiation.
Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic No. 99/2018 Coll. on Securing of Radiation Protection.
Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic No. 100/2018 Coll. laying down details on limiting exposure from drinking water, natural mineral water and from spring water.
Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic No. 101/2018 Coll. laying down details on ensuring radiation protection during medical exposure.
APPENDIX 1: MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL TREATIES
The following are selected legally binding regulations and safety guidelines in relation to nuclear and radiation safety.
Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency;
Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency;
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;
Agreement in Additional implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;
Protocol Additional to the Agreement in Additional implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;
Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (Seabed Treaty);
Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water;
Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty;
Agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;
Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities;
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident;
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency;
Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage;
Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention;
Convention on Nuclear Safety;
Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management;
Revised supplementary agreement concerning the provision of technical assistance by the IAEA to the Government of the Slovak Republic;
Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention);
Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention);
Declaration of Common Policy (Dublin declaration).
Agreement between the Government of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic and the Government of Hungary on Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection;
Agreement between the Government of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic and the Federal Government of Germany on Questions of Common Interest in Connection with Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection;
Agreement between the Government of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic and the Government of Austria on Questions of Common Interest in Connection with Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection;
Agreement between the Government of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic and the Government of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Czech Republic on Cooperation in the Field of State Supervision of Nuclear Installations and of State Supervision of Nuclear Materials;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Czech Republic on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Republic of Poland on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents, on Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Canada on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic, the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Field of Transportation of Nuclear Fuel between the Slovak Republic and the Russian Federation across the Territory of Ukraine;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic, the Government of the Czech Republic, the Government of the Russian Federation and Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Cooperation in the Field of Transportation of Nuclear Materials between the Czech Republic and the Russian Federation across the Territory of the Slovak Republic and the Territory of Ukraine;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents, on Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of the Republic of Slovenia for the Exchange of Information in the Field of Nuclear Safety;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Romania on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents and Information Exchange on Nuclear Facilities;
Agreement between the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Government of India on Cooperation in the field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization on Mutual Cooperation for Training and Exercise Activities of the Commission Related to On-Site Inspections.
BILATERAL ARRANGEMENTS WITH OTHER REGULATORY AUTHORITIES
Arrangement between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the United States of America for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Nuclear Safety Matters;
Agreement between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate of the French Republic for Exchange of Information and Cooperation in the Regulation of Nuclear Safety;
Administrative Arrangement between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada Pursuant to the Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Canada for Cooperation in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Agreement between the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic and the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes of the Republic of Bulgaria on Cooperation in the Field of State Supervision of Nuclear Safety in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Agreement between the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic and Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Field of State Supervision of Nuclear Safety in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy;
Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Safety between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority;
Amendment to the Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Safety between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority;
Arrangement between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of the Republic of Indonesia and for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation in Nuclear Safety;
Memorandum of Understanding between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Viet Nam Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam for the Exchange of Technical Information and Cooperation;
Memorandum of Understanding between the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus on Exchange of Information and Co-operation in the field of State Regulation of Nuclear Safety.
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|National Atomic Energy Authority |
|Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (ÚJD SR)|
P.O. Box 24
820 07 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 58 22 11 11|
fax: (+421 2) 58 22 11 66
|National Radiation Protection Authority|
|Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (ÚVZ SR)|
826 45 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 49 284 11 11 |
|Ministries and other state institutions|
|Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic (MŽP SR)|
Nám. L. Štúra 1
812 35 Bratislava
Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic (MH SR)
Mlynské nivy 44/a
827 15 Bratislava 212
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic
816 43 Bratislava
National Labour Inspectorate
040 01 Košice
National Nuclear Fund (NJF)
821 05 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 59 56 22 22 |
fax: (+421 2) 59 56 26 72
tel.: (+421 2) 48 54 1111
fax: (+421 2) 43 42 39 49
tel.: (+ 421 2) 20 46 00 00
tel.: (+421 55) 7979902
fax: (+421 55) 7979904: www.nip.sk
tel.: (+421) 901 774 493
|Other nuclear organizations|
|Slovenské elektrárne, a. s. (SE, a. s.)|
Mlynské nivy 47
821 09 Bratislava 2
Nuclear and Decommissioning company (Jadrová a vyradovacia spolocnost — JAVYS, a. s.)
Jaslovské Bohunice 360
919 30 Jaslovské Bohunice
Nuclear Energetic Company of Slovakia (Jadrová energetická spolocnost Slovenska — JESS)
821 02 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 58 66 11 11 |
fax: (+421 2) 53 41 75 25
tel.: (+421 33) 531 1111
tel.: (+421 2) 48 262 351
|Research and development organizations|
|VUJE, a. s.|
918 64 Trnava
|tel.: (+421 33) 599 1111 |
fax: (+421 33) 599 1193
|Research Institute of Welding (VUZ)|
832 59 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 49 24 64 00 |
fax: (+421 2) 44 25 48 67
|Research Institute of Cables and Insulating Materials (VUKI)|
831 07 Bratislava 36
|tel.: (+421) 906 063 202|
|Power Equipment Research Institute (VÚEZ, a. s.)|
934 39 Levice
|tel.: (+421 36) 635 5311 |
fax: (+421 36) 635 5313
830 08 Bratislava
|tel.: (+421 2) 44 46 01 38 |
fax: (+421 2) 44 46 01 39 www.relko.sk
|Jacobs Slovakia, s. r. o.|
917 01 Trnava
|tel.: (+421 33) 324 96 02 |
|Institute of Radioecology|
Horný Bankov 16
040 00 Kosice
|tel.: (+421 55) 6323 537 |
fax: (+421 55) 6223 764
|ABmerit, s. r. o.|
|tel.: (+421 33) 5513 345|
|Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (STU)|
812 43 Bratislava
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology of Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (FEI STU)
812 19 Bratislava 1
|tel.: (+421 2) 57 29 41 11|
fax: (+421 2) 57 29 45 37
tel.: (+421 2) 60 29 11 11
fax: (+421 2) 65 42 24 15
|Faculty of Natural Sciences of Comenius University |
842 15 Bratislava 4
|tel.: (+421 2) 60 29 61 11 |
fax: (+421 2) 65 42 90 64
email: email@example.com http://fns.uniba.sk
Name of report coordinator
Ms Miriam Vachova
Director of Chancellery
Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (ÚJD SR) Bajkalská 27P. O. Box 24820 07 Bratislava 27Slovakia
tel.: (+421 2) 58 22 11 38fax: (+421 2) 58 22 11 66email: firstname.lastname@example.org