This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Spain, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operation of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Spain.
The Spanish government plans to approve a Comprehensive Energy and Climate Plan that will realign the energy mix in order to comply with European commitments regarding climate change. The Spanish plan will set the contribution of each source of energy to the energy mix, including nuclear power; the aim is to guarantee the competitiveness of the economy, economic growth, job creation and environmental sustainability. At present, Spain has seven nuclear reactors in operation in five sites, whereas three power reactors are currently shut down.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
The energy system in Spain is regulated by the Ministry for the Ecological Transition(1) (MITECO) and by the National Commission on Markets and Competition(2) (CNMC). MITECO holds regulatory powers, whereas CNMC is in charge of supervision, control and information gathering in order to promote the proper functioning of the system.
The main goals of the Spanish energy policy are to guarantee supply, to ensure a larger contribution of energy in increasing the competitiveness of the Spanish economy, to reduce energy consumption and to comply with environmental objectives. The key priority for all stakeholders is to obtain a sustainable energy system for the future. In order to achieve this goal, different regulatory measures have been taken in recent years.
The energy policy in Spain has tended to progressively liberalize the markets with the main target of decreasing energy prices, ensuring the energy supply and quality, improving energy efficiency, reducing consumption and protecting the environment. This liberalization of the system began with Law No. 54 of 27 November 1997 on the electricity sector , and with Law No. 34 of 7 October 1998 on the hydrocarbon sector .
Law No. 54 of 1997 introduced third party access to the network as well as an organized energy trading system and reduced Government intervention in system management. There were two kinds of activities related to the power supply: 1) activities carried out as a natural monopoly (transmission and distribution) that remained regulated, and 2) activities carried out under free competition (power generation and commercialization) under fully liberalized conditions. In 2013, a new Law on the Electric Sector (Law No. 24 of 26 December 2013 ) replaced the previous law, after a deep reform of the system aimed to ensure the economic and financial sustainability of the system.
Owing to increasing concern about climate change and the importance of sustainability, energy policy has focused on fostering the integration of renewable energy and on boosting energy efficiency. Hence, energy policy is now framed in two plans: the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2017–2020 , and the Renewable Energy Plan 2011–2020 .
Spain is relatively dependent on foreign energy resources. In 2016 (last data available ), about 27% of the primary energy consumed was produced from domestic resources, mainly renewable and nuclear energy. Therefore, renewable energy and nuclear energy have become of key importance in the challenge of reducing Spain’s dependence on foreign resources, in order to foster the guarantee of supply, which is one of the main goals of its energy policy.
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Total amount in specific units*||530||19||2.5||33 000||65.6||n.a.|
*Solid, liquid: million tonnes; gas: billion m3; uranium: metric tonnes; hydro, renewable: TWh/year.
n.a.: data not applicable.
Sources: Survey of Energy Resources, 2016 ; Uranium 2016: Resources, Production and Demand ; Plan de Energías Renovables 2011–2020 .
1.1.3. Energy statistics
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|1980||1990||2000||2010||2015||2016*||Compound annual growth rate** (%)
2000 to 2016*
|Energy consumption [PJ]***|
|- Total||3 030||3 710||5 222||5 570||5 159||5 170||–0.06|
|- Liquids||2 070||1 880||2 707||2 618||2 226||2 287||–1.05|
|- Gases||80||230||637||1 310||1 027||1 048||3.16|
|- Other renewables||187||473||608||627||7.87|
|Energy production [PJ]|
|- Total||850||1 400||1 336||1 443||1 394||1 378||0.19|
|- Other renewables||187||473||607||572||7.25|
|Net import (Import-Export) [PJ]|
|- Total||2 180||2 310||3 886||4 128||3 765||3 792||–0.15|
*Latest available data.
** Compound annual growth rate: CAGR = (EV/BV)1/n – 1.
***Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import-Export) of secondary energy.
****Solid fuels include coal, lignite.
Source: Libro de la Energía en España 2000–2016 .
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
Electricity supply is considered a service of general economic interest, since it is essential for robust economic activity. The electricity system in Spain comprises two kinds of activities: those carried out under a natural monopoly regime (electricity transmission and distribution), and those carried out on the basis of a market economy (generation and commercialization). Hence, the Government approves the specific regulations, whereas the economic agents establish the prices.
In 2012, the Spanish Government carried out a deep reform of the electricity system in order to set up the basis of a real sustainable system for the future. The main goals of the reform are to assure the economic and financial sustainability of the system, to guarantee an electricity supply of appropriate quality and at the lowest economic and environmental cost, and to achieve an effective level of competition. The reform culminated with Law No. 24 of 26 December 2013 on the electricity sector , which provides the actual framework of the system.
For the electricity system, energy planning is key to guaranteeing the power supply. Its goal is to meet the demand of electricity in every circumstance at the lowest price feasible, all while respecting considerations of the environment. In Spain, energy planning is mainly non-binding, since most of the electricity supply activities are carried out under free competition. Planning activities take into account future demand, the resources that are necessary to meet that demand, and environmental criteria. However, binding decisions are also made, since energy planning includes infrastructures that are necessary for the electricity system, such as transmission facilities essential to address future supply needs. Hence, binding planning decisions address the large infrastructures that provide the basis of the complete national energy system.
Current energy planning is set out in the document Energy Plan for the Development of the Electric Power Transmission Network 2015–2020 , which was approved by the Council of Ministers in 2015. The plan includes the infrastructures needed to guarantee the electricity supply for the planning horizon 2015–2020, minimizing the environmental impact and taking into account economic criteria. Its main goals are to increase the international connection capacity, to achieve a higher integration of renewable energies and to meet the increasing needs of industrial activity.
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
As described in previous sections, the electric power sector comprises four different activities: power generation, transmission, distribution and commercialization. The activities of generation and commercialization are carried out under a free competition regime, whereas transmission and distribution are regulated activities.
The main organizations operating in the electric sector are corporate groups that integrate different companies dedicated to different activities (i.e. power generation, commercialization or distribution). The main organizations are Endesa S.A.; Iberdrola S.A.; Gas Natural SDG, S.A.; EDP España S.A. and Viesgo S.L.
Regarding electricity transmission, Red Eléctrica de España S.A. (REE) is the Spanish transmission system operator (TSO). REE is responsible for the technical management of the Spanish electricity system. Moreover, as the system operator, REE guarantees the continuity and security of the power supply and a proper coordination of the production and transmission system, performing its functions in coordination with the operators and clients of the electricity market. As the manager of the transmission grid, REE acts as the sole transmitter. REE must also ensure the proper management of the power transmission among external systems, see that the managers of other interconnected grids receive the information they need to carry out safe operations and guarantee third party access under equal conditions.
The wholesale market is operated by Operador del Mercado Ibérico–Polo Español S.A. (OMIE). OMIE is in charge of financial management, carrying out the necessary functions for the efficient development of the electricity trading market. Nevertheless, the technical management of the wholesale market is the responsibility of REE, as the TSO of the system. Along with Portugal, Spain set up in 2007 the Iberian Electricity Market (MIBEL), an initiative consisting of the integration of both national markets.
Finally, CNMC is the public authority for the supervision and regulation of several economic sectors, such as telecommunications and energy, among others. Its aim is to regulate the energy sector, and to maintain free competition and transparency in the system, in order to benefit all the stakeholders, including the consumers.
1.2.3. Main indicators
TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
|1980||1990||2000||2010||2015||2016*||Compound annual growth rate** (%)
2000 to 2016*
|Capacity of electrical plants (GW(e))||G/N|
|- Other renewables||G||—||0.163||2.372||5.502||8.945||8.487||8.29|
|Electricity production (TWh)||G/N|
|- Other renewables||G||—||—||6.94||11.297||19.839||19.533||6.68|
|Total electricity consumption (TWh)||—||134.559||214.75||277.996||265.097||267.158||4.08|
*Latest available data.
** Compound annual growth rate: CAGR = (EV/BV)1/n – 1.
*** Thermal includes coal, fuel, gas, combined cycle and cogeneration power plants.
**** Included in ‘Other renewables’ since specific data for geothermal are not available.
*****Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
—: data not available.
Sources: Capacity: Informe del Sistema Eléctrico Español 2000–2016 .
Production and consumption: Libro de la Energía en España 2000–2016 .
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)**||—||—||91.95||88.57||76.30||77.27|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)||—||—||4 612.76||5 278.42||4 997.51||5 027.78|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)***||—||—||57.53||75.05||72.41||71.67|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||—||—||27.63||20.61||20.43||21.38|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)****||—||—||73.10||73.96||72.97||73.36|
*Latest available data.
**Energy consumption refers to final energy.
***Energy production refers to primary energy.
****Net import/Total energy consumption.
—: data not available.
Source: Libro de la Energía en España 2000–2016 .
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The pursuit of nuclear energy in Spain started in 1947, promoted by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). One year later, the Nuclear Energy Board (JEN) was created. JEN was the main organization responsible in the field and had full powers for nuclear matters. Following this, Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964 on nuclear energy  was promulgated, establishing the basis and the structure of the nuclear energy programme in Spain.
As nuclear activities increased and with them regulation, other organizations and entities were created and the functions formerly attributed to JEN were transferred. The first, ENUSA(3), was set up in 1972 as a state owned company to manage all nuclear fuel cycle front end activities. In 1980, Law No. 15 of 22 April 1980  created the Nuclear Safety Council(4) (CSN), the sole organization competent in nuclear safety and radiological protection matters in Spain. ENRESA(5) was created in 1984 as the state owned company responsible for the management of radioactive waste and the dismantling of nuclear facilities in Spain. In 1986, JEN was eventually replaced by the Centre for Energy Related, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT). These entities continue their operation, playing an important role in this area, as will be described in the following sections.
Regarding the development of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the first generation NPPs started in the 1960s, with the construction of José Cabrera, Santa María de Garoña and Vandellós I. The second generation NPPs began in the early 1970s, with Almaraz I and II, Lemóniz I and II, Ascó I and II and Cofrentes. In the early 1980s, the construction of the NPPs Valdecaballeros I and II, Vandellós II and Trillo I started, and the preparatory studies for Trillo II were initiated. However, some of the projects and construction of Lemóniz, Valdecaballeros and Trillo II were halted during the 1980s.
At present, Spain has seven power reactors in operation in five sites: Almaraz I and II, Ascó I and II, Cofrentes, Trillo and Vandellós II. Three other power reactors have already been shut down: José Cabrera, Vandellós I and Santa María de Garoña.
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
The following chart shows the current institutional framework of nuclear energy in Spain:
FIG. 1. Organizational structure of nuclear power in Spain.
The main entities and organizations with powers and responsibilities regarding nuclear power are the CSN and the Government through MITECO.
The CSN is the sole nuclear safety and radiation protection authority in Spain. The CSN is governed by public law and by its charter. It is independent from the central Government and has its own legal personality and its own assets. It is accountable to the Congress of Deputies and the Senate. The CSN’s mission is to protect employees, the population at large and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It accomplishes this by ensuring that nuclear and radioactive facilities are operated safely and by establishing the preventive and corrective measures to apply in all radiological emergencies, no matter their source.
MITECO is organized in two Secretariats of State: the Secretariat of State for Energy and the Secretariat of State for the Environment. Regarding nuclear energy, MITECO holds regulatory and licensing powers, and its responsibilities include undertaking regulatory initiatives, adapting Spanish regulations to legislation of the European Union, planning the energy infrastructure and granting nuclear facilities licensing and authorization. In addition, MITECO has specific responsibilities regarding radioactive waste, such as training at ENRESA (the public company responsible for radioactive waste management) and monitoring and control of the General Radioactive Waste Plan. Finally, MITECO is responsible of complying with the international compromises in terms of nuclear non-proliferation, security of nuclear facilities and civil liability for nuclear damage.
In addition, certain projects regarding nuclear power require an environmental impact statement, which is issued by the Secretariat of State for the Environment of MITECO as the environmental body.
Apart from the regulatory bodies, Fig. 1 shows ENRESA, ENUSA and ENSA, state owned companies that develop activities related to the nuclear sector:
ENRESA is in charge of the management of radioactive waste, including spent fuel, as well as the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear installations. Its tutelage corresponds to MITECO through the Secretariat of State for Energy.
ENUSA carries out nuclear fuel cycle front end activities, which include the management of enriched uranium, the manufacture and supply of nuclear fuel and other activities related to the management and optimization of the nuclear fuel.
ENSA is a public company that provides large components used for the construction of nuclear facilities.
As shareholders of these companies, the State Society of Industrial Participation (SEPI) and the Centre for Energy Related, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT), are also presented in Fig. 1, together with the share of the companies that they own. The Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities are the bodies in charge of SEPI and CIEMAT, respectively.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|JOSE CABRERA-1||PWR||141||Permanent Shutdown||UFG||WH||1964-06-24||1968-06-30||1968-07-14||1969-08-13||2006-04-30|
|SANTA MARIA DE GARONA||BWR||446||Permanent Shutdown||NUCLENOR||GE||1966-09-01||1970-11-05||1971-03-02||1971-05-11||2017-08-02|
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
Source: IAEA, Power Reactor Information System — PRIS .
In 2017, the net nuclear electricity capacity of the seven operative reactors (7.1 GW(e)) represented a share of 7% of the total net capacity. The net electricity generated was 55 609 GWh, representing 21.2% of total production. In order to provide an overview of the performance of operating NPPs, the table below shows the main parameters of each plant in 2017. The shutdown units and their decommissioning process are described in Section 2.2.3.
TABLE 6. PERFORMANCE OF OPERATIVE NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
| ||Rating (MW)||Self consum.||Gross electricity generation (GWh)||Reactor shutdowns||Solid waste (m3) ||Performance factors*|
|Almaráz I||1 049.4||3.65%||8 048.06||1||0||1||58.35||25.58||87.55%||90.01%||88.76%||1.31%|
|Almaráz II||1 044.5||3.85%||8 937.90||0||0||1||58.35||25.85||97.69%||98.82%||98.54%||0.00%|
|Ascó I||1 032.5||4.26%||7 844.39||0||1||1||69.74||21.34||86.73%||87.78%||86.58%||3.32%|
|Ascó II||1 027.2||4.12%||8 041.73||0||0||1||45.10||12.98||89.37%||90.37%||89.58%||0.31%|
|Cofrentes||1 092.0||3.96%||7 340.07||0||1||1||253.5||119.18||76.73%||80.26%||78.20%||11.11%|
|Vandellós II||1 087.1||3.94%||9 365.91||0||0||0||51.7||44.22||98.35%||100.00%||99.60%||0.09%|
|Trillo||1 066.0||6.42%||8 530.71||0||0||1||33.44||42.24||91.35%||92.09%||91.85%||0.07%|
|OVERALL||7 398.7||4.31%||58 108.77||1||2||6||570.18||291.39||89.68%||91.33%||90.44%||2.32%|
* LF = load factor, TAF = time availability factor, UCF = unit capability factor, UCLF = unplanned capability loss factor.
Source: Nuclear Energy Committee (CEN, former UNESA) .
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
The power level of NPPs in Spain has been continuously upgraded since the beginning of nuclear power operation in Spain. Currently, the total net increment is equivalent to the operation of a medium sized power plant. Specifically, Ascó I and II, Almaraz I and II, Cofrentes and Vandellós II were refurbished and up-rated in the past decade.
Regarding the licensing regime, the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities (Royal Decree No. 1836 of 3 December 1999)  establishes the authorization procedure, including licence renewal. According to this regulation, MITECO is responsible for granting the authorizations needed for the siting, construction, operation, modification, transport, dismantling and decommissioning of facilities. Such authorizations require a mandatory report on nuclear safety and radiation protection matters, issued by the CSN. This report is binding in the case of refusal and regarding the conditions it sets for granting the authorization. The licensing process is further described in Section 3.1.2.
At present, the nuclear units in operation are 30 to 34 years old (in terms of commercial operation). A periodic safety review of every NPP is performed every 10 years for an overall assessment of the installation during the period considered. Based on that assessment, a licence renewal is typically granted for a period of 10 years. The current licences for the plants in operation are valid from 2010 for Vandellós II and Almaraz I and II, 2011 for Cofrentes and Ascó I and II, and 2014 for Trillo.
After the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the European Union agreed to undertake a join action to ensure the integrity of all European plants. Hence, all plants were required to perform stress/resistance tests in order to assess their capacity to face events beyond those for which they were designed. The tests should be performed considering extreme natural phenomena that could jeopardize the facilities and lead to a severe accident.
Spanish NPPs carried out several verifications and revisions in order to ensure that all measures to address events were operative, regardless of whether or not the measures were considered in the design. In addition, the CSN issued complementary technical instructions to all operators of the Spanish NPP fleet in order to undertake the resistance tests agreed in the European Union. Furthermore, aiming to further strengthen the capacity of response of the NPPs to exceptional situations, the CSN issued to each operating plant instructions that require them to identify the additional measures necessary to mitigate the consequences of events that could lead to fire or explosions that would entail losses of large areas of the plants.
2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning process
At present, there are three shutdown NPPs: Vandellós I, José Cabrera and Santa María de Garoña. As shown in Table 5, Vandellós I ceased operation in 1990, José Cabrera in 2006 and Santa María de Garoña in 2013. As mentioned in Section 2.1.2, ENRESA is in charge of the dismantling and decommissioning of the Spanish NPPs. The licence transfer from the operator to ENRESA was declared by ministerial order, along with the authorization for the dismantling.
Table 6 presents the details of the decommissioning process of Vandellós I and José Cabrera. Santa María de Garoña is not included because the dismantling activities have not begun yet.
TABLE 7. STATUS OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit||Shutdown reason||Decommission strategy||Current decommissioning phase||Current fuel management phase||Decommissioning licensee||Licence terminated year|
|Vandellós I||After an operation incident||Deferred dismantling, including partial dismantling and placing remaining radiological areas into safe enclosure||Passive safe enclosure period||Shipment to a reprocessing plant||ENRESA||—|
|José Cabrera||Other||Immediate dismantling and removal of all radioactive materials||Final dismantling||Dry storage period||ENRESA||—|
—: data not available.
Source: IAEA, Power Reactor Information System — PRIS RDS2 .
Vandellós I was a 480 MW(e) gas graphite reactor that operated between 1972 and 1989. The plant was shut down by ministerial order on 31 July 1990. The operation licence ownership was transferred from HIFRENSA to ENRESA in 1998 by ministerial order, which also authorized the dismantling activities. Between 1998 and 2003 ENRESA carried out activities for the partial dismantling of the plant. In 2003, the vessel of the reactor was sealed to start a passive safe storage period. This phase of latency was authorized by a resolution from the former Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade on 17 January 2005. During the latency period (around 25 years) the radiological activity of the internal structures of the reactor box will decay to approximately 5% of the initial value. On completion of the latency period, by 2028, the last phase of dismantling will begin, which includes the removal of the reactor sail and its internal components, and the complete release of the site.
José Cabrera operated between 1969 and 2006. Ministerial Order ITC/1652/2006, of 20 April 2006, declared the definitive cease of its operation. Ministerial Order ITC/204/2010, of 1 February 2010, authorized the transfer of the operating licence from Gas Natural SDG to ENRESA and authorized the dismantling activities. Such activities continue at present and are expected to be finished by 2019. An individual storage facility (ISF) has been in operation since 2008 on the site. In 2009, the spent fuel housed in the NPP pool (377 fuel assemblies) was loaded into 12 dry storage casks and taken to the ISF.
Santa María de Garoña operated between 1971 and 2012. Ministerial Order IET/1302/2013, of 5 July 2013, ordered operations to cease at the plant. Based on Article 28 of the Regulation of Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities, the plant operator applied to renew the operation licence. On 8 February 2017, the CSN issued a favourable report on the renewal of the licence. However, the renewal was denied by Ministerial Order ETU/754/2017, of 1 August 2017. The ministerial order stated that the NPP was no longer necessary to guarantee the power supply at the environmental and economic conditions deemed appropriate by the Government.
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
2.3.2. Project management
2.3.3. Project funding
2.3.4. Electric grid development
2.3.6. Public awareness
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
The main Spanish engineering companies are Empresarios Agrupados, Initec, Inypsa and Sener, which have played an important role in the Spanish nuclear sector. They have collaborated in launching first generation NPPs and on successive projects, thus increasing progressively the nuclear installed capacity. In addition, other companies, such as Iberdrola Ingeniería y Construcción S.A.U or Técnicas Reunidas S.A. have made achievements in the nuclear sector. Their importance lies not only in their contribution to the Spanish nuclear sector, but also in their increasing international presence, which has become one of their main traits.
The construction projects of the first NPPs in Spain were turnkey projects. In subsequent projects, local engineering companies have been involved, yet the scope of each project has been different. Hence, the engineering companies have focused on different activities such as design, licensing, procurement operations and collaboration in startup and tests.
There are currently no NPPs under construction. Therefore, these companies have focused their action on other activities, such as operational support, shutdown and decommissioning, research and development and radioactive waste engineering.
NSSS manufacturers and component suppliers
The main Spanish NSSS manufacturer is Equipos Nucleares S.A. (ENSA). ENSA is a state owned company, owned by the State Society for Industrial Participation, as described in Section 2.1.2.
The mission of ENSA is to meet the demands of the Spanish nuclear power programme, providing some of the large components used for the construction of nuclear facilities. ENSA designs, produces and inspects primary circuit equipment and components for NPPs. Its manufacturing plant is located in Maliaño (Cantabria).
ENSA manufactures primary circuit equipment (reactor vessels, steam generators, etc.), as well as heat exchangers, racks and casks for storage and transportation of spent fuel assemblies, among others. In addition, ENSA has a division that provides services such as maintenance and repair of facilities, fuel managing, decontamination and dismantling.
Since its creation in 1973, ENSA has provided primary circuit equipment and components to the second and third generation Spanish NPPs. At present, it provides the dual-purpose casks for spent fuel storage and transport that are used in the ISF of Trillo NPP, as well as the casks that will be used in the ISFs of other NPPs, such as Ascó, Almaraz and Santa María de Garoña.
On the international level, ENSA exports components to several countries, including Argentina, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, India, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom and the United States of America. ENSA has also manufactured the heat exchangers for the research and development (R&D) Jules Horowitz reactor (JHR), and will manufacture the fabrication of some components of the nuclear fusion reactor ITER.
Other component suppliers
NPPs built in Spain contain a large range of domestically made equipment and components. A list of national manufacturers of different components is here provided:
Turbine: Enwesa Operaciones S.A., Tamoin S.L.U., Válvulas y Conexiones Ibéricas S.L.U.
Pumps: Chepro, Amara S.A., Areva Madrid.
Air compressors: Amara S.A., Tamoin S.L.U., Alfa Laval Iberia S.A.
Valves: Ringo Válvulas S.L., Chepro, Enwesa Operaciones S.A.
Electric equipment: Gamesa Electric, Elecor S.A.U.
Instrumentation and control: Indra Sistemas, TSI-Ténicas y Servicios de Ingeniería S.L.
A full directory of the companies of the nuclear sector can be found at: https://www.sne.es/images/stories/recursos/enuclear/2017/Directorio2017_Empresas_Instituciones.pdf
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
Owners and operators
There are several modalities of ownership and operation in the Spanish NPPs: by a sole company, under co-ownership or by economic interest groupings (AIE). Table 8 presents the different owners, along with their share, as well as the different operators of Spanish NPPs.
TABLE 8. OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF SPANISH NPPS
|Cofrentes||Iberdrola Generación Nuclear S.A.||Iberdrola Generación Nuclear S.A.|
|Iberdrola Generación S.A. (52.7%); Endesa Generación S.A. (36%); Gas Natural SDG, S.A.* (11.3%)||Centrales Nucleares Almaraz-Trillo A.I.E.|
|Trillo||Iberdrola Generación S.A. (48%); Gas Natural SDG, S.A (34.5%); EDP España S.A. (15.5%); Nuclenor, S.A. (2%)|
|Ascó I||Endesa Generación S.A.||Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellós A.I.E.|
|Ascó II||Endesa Generación S.A. (85%); Iberdrola Generación S.A. (15%)|
|Vandellós II||Endesa Generación S.A. (72%); Iberdrola Generación S.A. (28%)|
* Due to the acquisition of Unión Fenosa Generación S.A., by Gas Natural SDG, S.A., the ownership was transferred. The transfer was authorized by order of the former Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade in 2010.
Table 8 only includes the current operative NPPs. Regarding the shutdown NPPs (further described in Section 2.6), the operators and licensees were:
Vandellós I: HIFRENSA (Hispano-Francesa de Energía Nuclear S.A., a consortium of several Spanish and French companies).
José Cabrera: Unión Fenosa S.A.; in 2009, the ownership was transferred from Unión Fenosa, S.A to Gas Natural SDG, S.A. due to the acquisition of the company.
Santa María de Garoña: Nuclenor, company owned 50% by Iberdrola S.A. and 50% by Endesa S.A.
As mentioned in Section 2.2.3, after the definitive shutdown of a unit, the licence is transferred to ENRESA for its dismantling. Such was the case for Vandellós I and José Cabrera. Santa María de Garoña has not initiated the dismantling activities yet, and thus the transfer of ownership to ENRESA has not been declared.
Operation service suppliers and supporting organizations
Several companies provide operational services in the nuclear sector, including: TECNATOM (comprised of the principal electricity companies), Idom, LAINSA, ENWESA (comprised of ENSA (75%) and Westinghouse Technology Services (25%)) and NUSIM.
TECNATOM provides training services to NPP operating personnel and has pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) simulators. TECNATOM has also carried out several in-service inspection and maintenance activities, giving support to the Spanish NPPs, and it is expanding its international presence to Eastern Europe, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. LAINSA, ENWESA and NUSIM focus on maintenance of and operational support to NPPs, quality assurance, radiological protection and various activities.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
Article 38 bis of Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964 on nuclear energy  establishes that the management of radioactive waste, including spent fuel, and the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities is an essential public service. Hence, this public service corresponds exclusively to the State, which has commissioned it to ENRESA.
At present, the radioactive waste management and decommissioning procedures are regulated by the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities (Royal Decree No. 1836 of 3 December 1999 ) and by Royal Decree No. 102 of 21 February 2014  on the safe and responsible management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. These regulations establish the actual framework for dismantling and decommissioning activities. Such activities require, on one hand, a dismantling licence, granted by MITECO, and on the other hand, the transfer of ownership from the prior operator to ENRESA.
In addition, according to the above mentioned regulation, the holder of the operating licence must condition the radioactive waste generated during NPP operation, and unload the fuel from the reactor and the pools during the pre-dismantling phase, prior to the granting of the dismantling licence.
Once the pre-dismantling activities have been performed, the licence for dismantling is granted, along with the authorization for the transfer of ownership to ENRESA, which becomes responsible for dismantling and decommissioning the NPP. On completion of the dismantling activities, and following verification of compliance with what is established in the site restoration plan and other required technical conditions, MITECO grants the declaration of decommissioning.
To date, as described in Section 2.2.3, three nuclear units have been shut down: Vandellós I (in 1990), José Cabrera (in 2006), and Santa María de Garoña (in 2013). However, only two of them have started their dismantling activities(6): Vandellós I in 1998 and José Cabrera in 2010.
Vandellós I operated between 1972 and 1989. The dismantling licence was granted by ministerial order in 1998, along with the transfer of ownership from the operator to ENRESA. As described in Section 2.2.3, ENRESA carried out the dismantling activities between 1998 and 2003. Vandellós I is in a latency period of 25 years (the latency authorization was granted by ministerial order in 2005). During this period, the non-released parts of the site remain under the responsibility and surveillance of ENRESA. On completion of the latency period around 2028, ENRESA will start the last dismantling phase, including removal of the reactor box and its internals and the complete release of the site.
José Cabrera operated between 1969 and 2006. In May 2006, José Cabrera was shut down by Ministerial Order ITC/1652/2006, of 20 April 2006, from the former Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade, which declared the definitive shutdown of the plant. The licence for dismantling and the transfer of licence ownership to ENRESA were granted by Ministerial Order ITC/204/2010, of 1 February 2010. The dismantling is expected to finish in 2019. An ISF has been in operation since 2008. In 2009, the spent fuel housed in the NPP pool (377 fuel assemblies) was loaded into 12 dry storage casks that were taken to its ISF. The ISF also houses another four casks containing special waste, such as reactor internals.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
Fuel cycle front end activities
The front end of the nuclear fuel cycle includes all the processes and activities related to the production of nuclear energy. In Spain, as mentioned in Section 2.1, the state owned company ENUSA is the organization in charge of all the nuclear fuel cycle front end activities, which includes the management of enriched uranium, the manufacture and supply of nuclear fuel and other activities related to the management and optimization of nuclear fuel.
This section presents a description of the operation of the different fuel cycle front end activities, to include mining and milling, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment and the manufacturing of fuel assemblies.
Mining and milling
There are no mining installations currently in operation in Spain. Due to the low uranium market price, ENUSA’s mining activities in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca) stopped at the end of 2000. The former uranium mining and milling facilities are at different stages of decommissioning and environmental restoration of the sites is ongoing.
The Quercus manufacturing plant of uranium concentrates located in Saelices El Chico (Salamanca) was definitively shut down in 2003 by Ministerial Order ECO/2275/2003, of 14 July 2003, and will start dismantling shortly. ENUSA applied for the dismantling and closure licence on 14 September 2015. The request is currently being assessed by the CSN. Nevertheless, regarding the supply of uranium concentrates, ENUSA owns 10% of COMINAK, a company from Niger, owned by several foreign companies engaged in uranium mining and uranium concentrates supply activities.
Uranium conversion and enrichment
There are no uranium conversion and enrichment facilities in Spain. ENUSA is in charge of uranium enrichment and conversion services required for the supply of enriched uranium to the Spanish nuclear reactors, acting as a procurement manager. ENUSA has signed several contracts with companies abroad with this purpose.
ENUSA operates a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant located in Juzbado (Salamanca) that produces fuel elements for most PWRs and BWRs in Spain (all the Spanish plants, except for Trillo NPP) and for some reactors abroad. In 2017, the Juzbado nuclear fuel fabrication facility manufactured 737 fuel assemblies containing 292.8 tU. Of this total, 371 fuel assemblies containing 156.9 tU, representing 54% of the total production, were exported to Belgium, France and Germany. Acquisitions of uranium concentrates were from the Russian Federation (36.2%), Niger (33.6%), Namibia (17.5%) and Australia (12.7%).
Back End Activities
The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle includes the activities related to the management, storage, reprocessing and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste. In Spain, radioactive waste is classified into low and intermediate level waste, high level waste and special waste:
Low and intermediate level waste (LILW): half-life under 30 years and very low content in long lived radionuclides. This group includes very low level waste (VLLW).
High level waste (HLW): semi-disintegration period exceeding 30 years and high content in long lived radionuclides. This group includes spent fuel (SF).
Special waste(7) (SW): intermediate level waste that, due to its radiological features, cannot be managed as LILW.
In Spain, radioactive waste management, including spent fuel, and the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities constitute an essential public service  to be provided by the State — entrusted to ENRESA. Hence, the back end activities (except for reprocessing, not performed in Spain) are carried out by ENRESA, specifically according to Royal Decree No. 102 of 21 February 2014 :
Treating and conditioning radioactive waste, without prejudice to the responsibilities that correspond to the generators of these materials or to the holders of the licences;
Locating sites, designing, constructing and operating storage and disposal facilities;
Establishing systems that guarantee the safe management of radioactive waste in its facilities for storage and disposal;
Establishing systems for the collection, transfer and transportation of radioactive waste;
Managing the different operations related to the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities;
Adopting security measures in the transport of radioactive waste, in accordance with the provisions of specific regulations on the transport of dangerous goods and with what the authorities and competent bodies determine;
Acting, in the event of nuclear or radiological emergencies, in the manner and circumstances required by the competent authorities;
Establishing training plans and research and development plans within the framework of the State Plan for Scientific and Technical Research and Innovation, which cover the needs of the General Radioactive Waste Plan;
Carrying out the appropriate technical and economic studies, considering the deferred costs and outlining the proper economic policy;
Managing the fund for financing the General Radioactive Waste Plan activities;
Preparing and managing the national inventory of radioactive waste.
Nevertheless, the State is the owner of radioactive waste once it is definitively disposed of.
General Radioactive Waste Plan
The Government is responsible for establishing the policy regarding radioactive waste management, including spent nuclear fuel, and the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, through the approval of the General Radioactive Waste Plan (GRWP) . The GRWP is the basic reference document that deals with all the strategies and actions to be undertaken in Spain in the different fields of radioactive waste management and the dismantling of nuclear facilities, along with the corresponding economic-financial study.
According to law, ENRESA is responsible for drawing up reviews of the GRWP and submitting them to MITECO. The GRWP is then submitted for its approval to the Government, with previous reports by the CSN and after hearing the autonomous communities in relation to land planning and environment. The approval of the plan also requires, according to current legislation, a strategic environmental statement to be granted by the Secretariat of State for the Environment of MITECO.
The first GRWP was approved in 1987. The sixth GRWP has in force since its approval on 23 June 2006 by the Spanish Government. The basic reference scenario established is:
A service lifetime of 40 years for operating NPPs;
Open fuel cycle; that is, the option of reprocessing the spent fuel is not contemplated.
Total dismantling (Level 3) of the light water NPPs.
The seventh GRWP is pending elaboration and will be based on the Comprehensive Energy and Climate Plan that the Government is developing, when it is approved.
Storage of spent fuel and management of high level waste
Since the 1983 National Energy Plan, irradiated fuel is considered HLW in Spain. The consecutive General Radioactive Waste Plan established the open cycle as the reference scenario, where reprocessing is not an option; the only exception is some spent fuel from José Cabrera and Santa María de Garoña and all the spent fuel from Vandellós I, which was sent abroad for reprocessing. Therefore, all the spent fuel generated by the Spanish reactors is stored on site in the plant pools.
In view of the foreseen saturation of the capacity of these pools, the original storage racks were progressively replaced with other more compact units throughout the 1990s. In most cases, this has allowed the need for spent fuel storage capacity additional to that provided by the pools to be deferred significantly over time.
More recently, additional storage capacity was needed in most of the NPPs. An ISF was therefore built and commissioned on the site of several NPPs (Trillo, in 2002, and Ascó in 2013) while others (Santa María de Garoña, Almaraz and Cofrentes) are currently in the process of licensing their ISFs. José Cabrera NPP, currently decommissioning, built and commissioned its ISF in 2008, before starting its dismantling process. For all of them, the spent fuel, after the period required for refrigeration, is transferred to those ISFs.
The basic strategy set out in the sixth GRWP for the provision of additional capacity for the short and medium term storage of spent fuel is the construction of a centralized storage facility (CSF) with an operating life of 60 years. The CSF will house spent fuel, HLW and special waste using a dry storage system, until the availability of a solution for its final disposal.
The CSF storage strategy was proposed to the Government in 2004, unanimously, by the Parliamentary Committee on Industry, which comprised representatives from all parliamentary groups. In 2006, the same Parliamentary Committee approved a non-law proposition on the set-up of an Interministerial Committee responsible for establishing the criteria to be met by the site to host the CSF. The site selection process(8) finished with the Agreement of the Council of Ministers of 30 December 2011, approving the designation of the Municipality of Villar de Cañas (province of Cuenca) as the selected site.
Once the site was designated, the licensing process started. The process requires a preliminary licence, the construction licence and the operating licence, in accordance with specific nuclear legislation. These licences are granted by MITECO, and require a favourable report from the CSN. In addition, the preliminary licence requires an environmental impact statement, according to environmental legislation, to be issued by the Secretariat of State for the Environment of MITECO.
In January 2014, ENRESA requested preliminary and construction licences, according to the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities . In July 2015 the CSN issued a favourable report for the preliminary licence. However, as the environmental impact assessment of the project is in progress at present, the preliminary licence has not been granted yet. The CSN report associated with the construction licence is still pending.
According to the current progress of the project, the CSF could be operational as early as 2024. Once the CSF is available, spent fuel from all the Spanish light water reactors will be gradually moved to the CSF. However, an interim storage facility is expected to be available in late 2021, to host the first casks, while the main facility is being constructed.
Reprocessing of High Level Radioactive Waste
As previously mentioned, Spain does not perform reprocessing activities. In the past, Spain opted for the reprocessing of the spent fuel from Vandellós I, José Cabrera and Santa María de Garoña NPPs. This practice was interrupted in 1982, except for Vandellós I, which shut down in 1989; its fuel had to be entirely reprocessed for technical reasons.
The fuel elements from José Cabrera and Santa María de Garoña NPPs were sent abroad for reprocessing. The contracts agreed that neither the recovered fissile material nor the radioactive waste resulting from reprocessing was to be sent back to Spain. However, for Vandellós I NPP, as committed to in the reprocessing contracts, a small quantity of HLW and special waste will be brought back to Spain to be managed in the CSF, when available.
Disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste
In Spain, LILW and VLLW are managed separately from spent fuel and HLW (except for special waste, which is managed as spent fuel and HLW).
LILW and VLLW are conditioned and definitively disposed of in El Cabril disposal facility, which is operated by ENRESA. El Cabril has been in operation since 1992 for LILW. On 21 July 2008, the former Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism granted a licence for the VLLW disposal facility situated on the same site, consisting of four cells with a total capacity of 130 000 m3. At present, two of the four cells authorized have been constructed and operative since 2008 and 2016, respectively.
According to the latest estimation of ENRESA, the total volume of LILW and VLLW to be managed, conditioned and definitively disposed at El Cabril will be 201.705 m3, 55% of it VLLW.
Regarding the disposal of spent fuel and HLW, Directive 2011/70/Euratom(9) acknowledges that the idea generally accepted by technicians is that deep geological disposal is the most sustainable and safe option. Hence, in line with the directive and with broad international consensus, the preferred option for spent fuel and HLW in Spain is deep geological disposal. It is estimated that the definitive disposal facility could start operation in 2068. It will house spent fuel, HLW and special waste. However, until a solution for disposal is available, the strategy in Spain is to construct a CSF, as described above.
ENRESA estimates that the total amount of material to be disposed of in Spain is 6 672 tU of spent fuel, 734 m3 of special waste derived from the dismantling of the reactors and 12 m3 of HLW derived from the reprocessing of the fuel of Vandellós I NPP(10).
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
The Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities draws up a Research and Development National Plan every four years. The plan defines the general features of the Spanish R&D and innovation policy, defining the funding mechanisms. At present, R&D in Spain is guided by the Spanish Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for 2013–2020 . Within the framework of the strategy, the National Plan for Scientific and Technical Research and Innovation for 2017–2020  was launched in 2017.
The plan sets up the main challenges of R&D in Spain, among them, safe, efficient and clean energy. One of the main goals of this challenge is to strengthen the research on nuclear energy in order to ensure nuclear safety, radiological protection and safe radioactive waste management. According to the plan, nuclear R&D activities should contribute to the power generation without emitting greenhouse gases.
The main Spanish organizations involved in nuclear R&D are, as institutions, CIEMAT, ENRESA, and CSN and, as platforms of R&D, CEIDEN and PEPRI.
CIEMAT is the Centre for Energy Related, Environmental and Technological Research. It is an institution attached to the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, created in 1986 on the basis of the former Nuclear Energy Board (JEN). CIEMAT centres its activities in R&D on energy, the environment and technology, and among them, on nuclear research. Within this field, CIEMAT focus on both fusion and fission energy. Its activities on fission energy research address nuclear safety, nuclear innovation and radioactive waste management. Regarding fusion energy, CIEMAT has three main areas of research: fusion physics, fusion engineering and fusion technologies. Fusion research is developed in the National Fusion Laboratory.
ENRESA, in addition to managing radioactive waste and dismantling nuclear facilities, carries out R&D activities related to those tasks, focusing its efforts in areas where industrial solutions are not fully implemented and where there is potential for improvement and optimization. In order to implement its R&D activities, ENRESA defines multiannual R&D programmes. The current framework is established by the seventh R&D plan . The plan sets up four research areas:
Area 1: Waste technology and know-how.
Area 2: Technology for treatment, conditioning and dismantling processes.
Area 3: Confinement systems and materials.
Area 4: Safety assessment and modelling.
As for the CSN, it carries out R&D activities in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. This work is fundamental as scientific and technical support for the CSN, since it uses the scientific evidence resulting from R&D projects to define rules and regulations, monitor nuclear and radioactive facilities and ensure that staff stays abreast of cutting-edge technology contributions to these disciplines.
The strategic priorities and leading lines of research are defined through R&D plans with a four year horizon. For its development, the CSN promotes several projects, executed under its supervision by domestic and international organizations of great prestige. The current plan is the R&D Plan of the CSN, 2016–2020 . This plan includes a number of projects undertaken in collaboration with different national and international organizations, such us universities, public centres and private companies. The plan focus on two areas: nuclear safety and radiation protection.
CEIDEN is the Technology Platform on Fission Nuclear Energy. It was set up in 2007 by the former Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade, in collaboration with the CSN, companies from the electric industry, and other agents involved in the nuclear sector. The platform is currently composed of more than 100 members. The aim of the platform is to coordinate the different national programmes and plans on R&D, as well as to foster the participation of Spanish companies or institutions in international R&D programmes.
The programmes in which CEIDEN is involved are:
Dry storage and transport of spent fuel.
Study and use of materials coming from José Cabrera NPP: concrete and internals.
Capacities of the spanish nuclear industry.
Ceiden Training +.
KEEP: Knowledge exchange, elicitation and preservation.
Lab for calibration of neutronic patterns.
International programmes: Jules Horowitz Reactor Programme and ESNII Spain.
Finally, PEPRI is the National Platform of R&D on Radiologic Protection. It was launched in 2014 by the Spanish Society of Radiologic Protection. The objective of PEPRI is to foster R&D activities regarding protection against ionizing radiation. It also aims to coordinate the participation of Spain in international R&D programmes on radiologic protection, and especially in Horizon 2020, the framework programme for R&D in the European Union.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies
At present, Spain is not engaged in the development of advanced nuclear technologies.
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
Spain, as a member of Euratom, develops R&D activities within this framework. The Euratom Programme , as part of Horizon 2020 (the European Union Framework Programme for Research and Innovation), aims to reinforce outcomes under the three priorities of Horizon 2020: excellent science, industrial leadership and social challenges.
The Euratom Programme aims to pursue nuclear research and training activities, with an emphasis on continuously improving nuclear safety, security and radiation protection, notably to contribute to the long term decarburization of the energy system in a safe, efficient and secure way. The actions of the Euratom Programme focus on two areas: (i) nuclear fission and radiation protection and (ii) fusion research aiming at developing magnetic confinement fusion as an energy source.
Also under Horizon 2020, the European Joint Programme Cofund (EJP-Cofund) is a cofunding action designed to support coordinated national research and innovation programmes. In the nuclear field, Spain is currently preparing, along with other partners, participation in the European Joint Research Programme in the management and disposal of radioactive waste, which will involve MITECO; the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities; and ENRESA, among others.
Regarding nuclear fusion, the Euratom Programme provides a large contribution to ITER, the international project that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion on Earth as a sustainable energy source. In addition, EUROfusion , launched in 2014, carries out research funded jointly by Euratom and the Member States, including Spain. EUROfusion manages a comprehensive programme of research projects that contribute to the realization of the Road Map to Fusion Electricity.
Also within the European scope, Spain participates in the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) . SET-Plan establishes the road map to develop energy technologies that are feasible, clean, efficient and low carbon, by means of coordinated R&D. Within its framework, in 2007 the European Technology Platform on Sustainable Nuclear Energy (SNETP)  was launched, with the objective of retaining its leading technological and industrial position in the field of civil nuclear technology. This platform aims to fully support R&D programmes and the role of nuclear energy in Europe’s energy mix, its contributions to the security and competitiveness of its energy supply, as well as the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. SNETP gathers more than 100 members from industry, research, academia, technical safety organizations, non-governmental organizations and national representatives. Some of the Spanish members include CIEMAT, CSIC, Deloitte, ENSA, Endesa, Iberdrola, Empresarios Agrupados and Tecnatom.
In addition, as key instruments of SET-Plan, the European Industrial Initiatives are industry led programmes that aim to boost research and innovation and to accelerate deployment of the technologies. Particularly, the European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII) , launched in 2010, aims to contribute to the development of a new generation of nuclear energy reactors designed to respond to Europe’s growing energy needs. At present, five Spanish organizations are members of ESNII: Iberdrola, Tecnatom, CIEMAT, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and Empresarios Agrupados.
On the international level, Spain participates in programmes and committees of both the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Under the auspice of NEA, Spain participates in the following experimental projects, among others: NEA Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation Project Phase 2 (ATLAS-2), NEA Behaviour of Iodine Project Phase 3 (BIP-3), NEA Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF) Project, NEA Cabri International Project (CIP), and NEA PRISME-2 Project.
Finally, within the framework of the IAEA, Spain is one of 42 members of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), whose objective is to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
Nuclear engineering and master programmes are active in three Spanish universities and in CIEMAT. The Spanish National Accreditation Agency (ANECA) certifies the quality of Spanish nuclear education. The Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM) has received the ANECA Quality Award for its Masters in Nuclear Science and Technology. Furthermore, the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) includes a Masters of Nuclear Engineering in the training project InnoEnergy (European Masters in Nuclear Energy (MSc EMINE)).
Apart from universities, research institutes are also active in education and training. For example, a one year Masters in Nuclear Technology and Applications was established by CIEMAT. Nuclear research is also conducted in other research institutes involved with education programmes and the tutoring of doctoral theses, whose collaboration with other national and international institutions (e.g. universities such as Nevada or Penn State) have enhanced an increasing mobility and have attracted new students who will compensate for the rising need of human resources in the field.
It is also worth mentioning the important role played by the Nuclear Industry Forum and the Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE) regarding education and training: seminars, summer school programmes and the provision of grants and prizes for students.
Finally, in order to ensure that NPPs and other industrial facilities have optimally qualified operations, maintenance, engineering and technical support personnel whose performance serves to improve safety, availability and economic efficiency, TECNATOM provides overall training services in the following fields: process technology, operation and maintenance, non-destructive testing of materials, human factors and management skills. Similarly, the engineering company Empresarios Agrupados and CIEMAT are also setting up new training programmes.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
Stakeholder communication is present in the activities performed by the different organizations related to nuclear energy.
The most important mission of the CSN is to guarantee that people and the environment are protected against radiation. This objective includes working with maximum transparency to ensure that the public is duly informed. The obligations for the Council regarding information and communication are channelled along three routes: information for state institutions, in the areas with nearby nuclear installations, and for the public.
With respect to communication, one of the most important means is its web site (http://www.csn.es), which provides interest groups and the public with documents offering detailed information on the work done in the field. This information includes the minutes of the plenary meetings, inspection reports and other useful information, such as publications, current regulations, answers to parliamentary questions, operating status of NPPs, events reported by the licensees and the environmental values collected. Furthermore, since 2007, it is possible to access the Integrated Plant Supervision System (SISC), which has become a fundamental tool with respect to the transparency of communication with the public on the assessment of NPP performance and the planning of its regulatory efforts.
In addition, Law No. 33 of 7 November 2007, which amended Law No. 15 of 22 April 1980, which created the CSN, was very ambitious in terms of public information. The aim was to increase the transparency of the CSN and to promote confidence among the public regarding the activities of the Council. The law also contemplates the existence of an Advisory Committee for Public Information and Participation, made up of representatives of various social organizations and institutions, the mission of which is to make recommendations to improve transparency and propose measures to stimulate access to information and the participation of the public in areas for which the Council is responsible.
MITECO also provides information through its web pages (http://www.minetad.gob.es for energy issues and http://www.mapama.gob.es/en/ for environmental issues). It establishes that corresponding documentation must be transferred to the autonomous communities with responsibilities for land planning and the environment whose territory houses the facility prior to granting licences for nuclear installations. Within the arrangements for the request for a preliminary licence for an NPP, a specific public information process is envisaged. According to the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities, MITECO shall send a copy of the request to the respective regional Government office for the latter to open a period of public information. This period is initiated by the publication in the official state gazette and in that of the corresponding autonomous community of an announcement setting out the objective and the main characteristics of the facility. This announcement shall establish that those persons and entities that consider themselves to be affected by the project may, within 30 days, present whatever written allegations they deem to be appropriate. As for nuclear regulatory matters, MITECO publishes on its web page e bills and other general regulation provisions as part of the legislative process.
The Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities contemplates the operation of local information committees, which are forums for information and public participation whose objective is to inform and educate the local population on nuclear safety and radiation protection, for which an annual meeting is held and presided over by the MITECO.
As for environmental matters, Spain ratified the Aarhus Convention in 2004, which was materialized in national legislation through Law No. 27 of 18 July 2006, which regulates the right of access to information, public participation and access to justice in relation to environmental issues.
Finally, Parliament approved Law No. 19 of 9 December 2013, on transparency, access to public information and good governance. The aim of the law is to strengthen and improve the transparency of public activity, to regulate and guarantee the right of access to information related to public activity and to set up the duties derived from good governance, which public managers must fulfil. In order to comply with Law No. 19 of 2013, the Spanish government created a transparency portal (http://transparencia.gob.es) in 2014. The portal publishes all the information related to the National State Administration that Law No. 19 of 2013 requires, as well as all the information that people usually request.
Derived from Law No. 19 of 2013, ENRESA and the CSN have also set up specific transparency portals(11) for their own activity. The aim is to foster transparency and provide structured and easily accessed information.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Nuclear and radiological emergencies in Spain are regulated by the national public protection system and the requirements set out for using nuclear power and ionizing radiation. Public protection serves as the basis for the general principles of organization, the responsibilities and the rights and duties of the citizens, the public administrations and the licensees of practices regarding the planning, preparedness and response to emergencies. There are also established emergency plans for actions outside the facilities when accidents occurring within have the potential to affect third parties.
From the nuclear regulation perspective, emergency plans are required in every radiological practice, with specific criteria set for the levels and techniques of intervention as well as the protective measures on which the plans are based. Some activities are not covered by nuclear or radiological regulations but also have emergency action plans if there is a radiation risk. Given the special nature of nuclear and radiation emergencies, the CSN assumes a series of functions in this matter that go beyond its competencies as a nuclear regulatory body.
To carry out these functions with an appropriate degree of effectiveness and efficiency, the CSN has an emergency organization that complements its normal working organization. The emergency organization has an operational structure under a single command, the chair, who manages and takes decisions, and in which its technical and logistics units participate according to an action plan set up specifically for these cases and that is activated depending on the severity of the accident that triggers the emergency.
Nuclear and radiation emergencies can give rise to situations with a serious risk of exposing the public to ionizing radiation. For this reason, Spanish legislation requires the licensees of these installations and the public authorities to have emergency plans to guarantee the protection of the public in the event of an accident.
The standards issued in Spain for nuclear radiation emergencies are:
Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN), for nuclear emergencies in NPPs in operation.
The Basic Directive on Civil Protection Planning against Radiological Risks, which applies to radiological emergencies originating in facilities and activities that use nuclear and radioactive materials, excluding NPPs.
The National Plan of Civil Protection against Radiological Risk, approved by Royal Decree No. 1054 of 20 November 2015, which establishes the organization and procedures of the resources of the State, as well as other public and private entities, that are necessary to ensure a quick and effective response of the public administration against different radiologic emergency situations that could affect the population.
Basic Directive on Civil Protection Planning against the Risk of Accidents in Road and Rail Transport of Hazardous Goods, applied to all types of dangerous goods transport, including class 7 materials — radioactive materials.
These rules and regulations set the criteria for planning, preparing for and responding to any nuclear or radiological emergency. The response to these emergencies is structured on two levels:
The on-site response level involves plans focused on reducing or mitigating the consequences of accidents at their origin. Their preparation and application is the responsibility of the licensee of the facility in which the accident occurred and is supervised by the CSN.
The off-site response level involves the plans aimed at avoiding or at least reducing as far as possible the adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the public and its property. This objective is the joint responsibility of the licensee and the public entities and organizations with competencies and functions regarding the protection of the public against nuclear and radiological risks.
For further information: https://www.csn.es/en/respuesta-a-emergencias
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
In Spain, the regulatory function in nuclear matters is undertaken by two authorities: the Government, through the Ministry for the Ecological Transition (MITECO), and the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN).
The Government is in charge of energy policy and of issuing binding regulatory standards. Specifically, MITECO is the Department of the General State Administration responsible for nuclear energy, as established in Royal Decree No. 903 of 13 October 2017(12), which develops the basic organic structure of MITECO. According to this decree, the main tasks and duties of MITECO regarding nuclear energy include:
Dictating norms and rules and proposing a radioactive waste management policy;
Granting licences for nuclear and radioactive installations, transporting radioactive materials and for the trade and commerce of nuclear materials;
Suspending permits, in some specific cases, and sanctioning legal transgressions;
Following up on the compliance of international commitments, such as non-proliferation, physical protection or civil liability;
Managing the administrative registers on nuclear items.
The CSN is the sole organization competent in nuclear safety and radiological protection matters in Spain. The Council is formed of five commissioners (one of whom is the President), designated by the Government through a proposal made by MITECO. They must be accepted by a 3/5 majority of Parliament. The CSN is currently regulated in Law No. 15 of 22 April 1980 , on the creation of the Nuclear Safety Council.
At present, the technical workforce of the Council consists of around 460 people. It has two permanent resident inspectors on every NPP site (three inspectors when there are two reactors on the same site). The main tasks of the Council are:
To issue the required safety reports, prior to authorization by MITECO;
To carry out all inspections with the capability to suspend activity in case of risk;
To propose to the Government regulations concerning nuclear safety and radiological protection;
To propose to MITECO sanctions in matters of nuclear safety and radiation protection;
To grant licences for operators of nuclear and radioactive installations;
To inform the public about subjects of its competence;
To report every year to Parliament about its activities.
3.1.2. Licensing process
Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964  on nuclear energy regulates the nuclear installation licensing procedure in Spain. The provisions of this law have been developed by Royal Decree No. 1836 of 3 December 1999 , approving the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities on the procedure for licensing nuclear and radioactive installations. Licensing nuclear installations requires the following authorizations, granted successively:
Preliminary or site licence, which constitutes an official recognition of the proposed objective and of the suitability of the selected site;
Construction licence, which allows construction of the installation to begin;
Operation licence, which allows the licensee to load nuclear fuel into the plant and to operate the installation in accordance with the conditions set out in the licence.
Plant dismantling and plant modification also require prior authorization. Figure 2 shows the nuclear installation licensing procedure. These authorizations are granted by MITECO, under a previous and mandatory report referring to nuclear safety and radiological protection issued by the CSN. This report is binding if negative in its findings or denying authorization, or as regards the conditions established when positive.
To obtain these authorizations, the documents determined in the current regulations must be submitted to the licensing authorities and the suitable tests, analyses and validations must be performed. Nuclear installations require authorizations granted by other administrative bodies, belonging to local administrations, according to the rules of these bodies, although these cannot be denied or conditioned for safety related reasons. Before granting the preliminary or the dismantling licence, a 30 day period is established for public hearings. During this period, anyone can present allegations. This public information process is developed jointly with the information process required for an environmental impact assessment, which must be approved by MITECO, through the Secretariat of State for the Environment.
The licences required for physical protection of nuclear installations are regulated by Royal Decree No. 1308 of 26 September 2011. These licences require reports from the CSN and the Ministry of Home Affairs.
FIG. 2. Licensing process of nuclear facilities.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS ON NUCLEAR POWER
In Spain, the nuclear sector is governed by a large number of laws, royal decrees and ministerial orders. On a more detailed level, the CSN approves instructions, which are binding technical standards, as well as other non-binding documents.
Main laws on nuclear power
Establishing responsibilities for different areas
Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964  on nuclear energy (the Nuclear Energy Act). It defines the basic aspects of the nuclear sector, such as identification of administrative authorities and organizations, system of authorizations for nuclear and radioactive facilities and for the possession and use of radioactive materials, measures for safety and protection against ionizing radiation, nuclear third party liability for nuclear damages or a sanctions regime. The law was amended on several occasions.
Establishing a regulatory body
Law No. 15 of 22 April 1980 , creating the Nuclear Safety Council. It regulates the actuation of the CSN, along with its statute, approved by Royal Decree No. 1440 of 5 November 2010. Several laws have amended some of the initial provisions: Law No. 14 of 4 May 1999, governing public tariffs and prices for its services, and Law No. 33 of 7 November 2007, which gathered all the amendments from 1980, adapted Law No. 15 of 1980 to the increasing social sensibility related to the environment, and reinforced both the transparency and efficiency of the CSN.
The sixth additional provision of Law No. 54 of 27 November 1997 , on the electric sector, regulates the fund for the financing of radioactive waste and spent fuel management activities, including the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The fund is known as the Fund for the Financing of Activities Included in the General Radioactive Waste Plan. Law No. 54 of 1997 was repealed by Law No. 24 of 26 December 2013 , on the electric sector, except for some particular provisions, such as the mentioned sixth additional provision, which was amended by Law No. 11 of 2009 and Law No. 2 of 2011.
Civil nuclear liability
Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964 , on nuclear energy, currently regulates civil nuclear liability for nuclear damage. The regulation is set up in accordance with the principles on international conventions in this field, in which Spain is the contracting party (Paris and Brussels Supplementary Conventions). In 2004, these conventions were modified. In order to adapt these amendments to Spanish legislation, Law No. 12 of 27 May 2011, on civil liability for nuclear damage or damage caused by radioactive materials, will regulate civil nuclear liability when it enters into force, subject to the entry into force of the 2004 protocols that amend both conventions.
Implementing IAEA safeguards
The Spanish regime in relation to safeguards and non-proliferation is governed by the Euratom Regulation No. 302 of 2005. The Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement, signed jointly by Spain, Euratom and the IAEA, is adapted by means of Royal Decree No. 1206 of 19 September 2003, for the application of the commitments undertaken by the Spanish State in the Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement deriving from the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Rules for environmental protection
Law No. 21 of 9 December 2013, on environmental assessment, is the main current legislation regarding environmental protection. In addition, the public access to environmental information is regulated by Law No. 27 of 18 July 2006, regulating the rights of access to information, public participation and access to justice in the area of the environment.
Import and export controls of nuclear material and items
The commercial regime for imports and exports is determined by EU regulations and specific national legislation, such as Law No. 53 of 28 December 2007, on the control of overseas trading of defence and dual-use materials. The law was developed by Royal Decree No. 2061 of 2008.
Mining and milling
The Mines Act (Law No. 22 of 21 July 1973) regulates the general mining regime. Law No. 54 of 1980 amended Law No. 22 of 1973, introducing a new section(13), Section D, which includes coal, radioactive minerals, geothermal resources and bituminous rocks. Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964, on nuclear energy, also applies to radioactive minerals.
Law No. 15 of 27 December 2012, on fiscal measures for energy sustainability, introduced two new national taxes: a tax on the production of spent fuel and radioactive waste derived from the generation of nuclear energy, and a tax on spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in centralized installations. Law No. 16 of 29 October 2013, amended Law No. 15 of 2012, establishing specific measures in relation to environmental taxation and adopting other tax and financial measures.
Main regulations on nuclear power
Regulation for establishing an authorization system, responsibilities of the operator, inspection and enforcement, site selection and approval
Royal Decree No. 1836 of 3 December 1999 , approving the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities, develops Law No. 25 of 29 of April 1964, on nuclear energy, in the aspects related to the system of authorizations, the personnel certification, the responsibilities of the operators, and inspection and control activities.
Radiation protection, including protection of the public, employees and the environment
Royal Decree No. 783 of 6 July 2001, formulates the Regulation of Sanitary Protection against Ionized Radiation. It was amended by Royal Decree No. 1439 of 5 November 2010, in order to modify some provisions related to natural sources of ionizing radiation. Royal Decree No. 783 of 2001 is currently being reviewed in order to include the provisions established in Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013, laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation.
Royal Decree No. 1132 of 14 September 1990, establishes fundamental measures for the radiological protection of persons submitted to medical examinations and treatments.
Royal Decree No. 413 of 21 March 1997, on the operational protection of off-site workers exposed to ionizing radiation due to their intervention in the controlled zone.
Royal Decree No. 815 of 13 July 2001, on the justification of the use of ionizing radiation for the radiological protection of people subjected to medical exposure.
Royal Decree No. 1085 of 3 July 2009, approving the regulation on the installation and the use of medical diagnosis X ray devices.
Royal Decree No. 229 of 24 February 2006, on the control of high activity encapsulated radioactive sources and orphan sources.
Security of nuclear installations
Royal Decree No. 1308 of 26 September 2011, on physical protection of installations, radioactive materials and radioactive sources, amended by Royal Decree No. 1086 of 2015, incorporates into Spanish legislation the commitments accepted by Spain on physical protection matters, particularly the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (approved in July 2005), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ratified in January 2007), and the UN Security Council Resolution No. 1540 of 2004, on non-proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
Nuclear fuel cycle front end activities
Royal Decree No. 1464 of 17 September 1999, regulates the activities of the nuclear fuel cycle front end.
Radioactive waste and spent fuel management, including storage and disposal; decommissioning, including funding and institutional control
Royal Decree No. 102 of 21 February 2014, on the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, regulates the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste derived from civil activities, from its generation to its disposal, as well as some aspects related to the funding of such activities, complying with the community framework.
Royal Decree No. 243 of 27 February 2009, regulates the monitoring and control of movements of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel across member states, or with origins or destination outside the EU.
The planning and preparation for nuclear emergencies is regulated by the Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN), approved by Royal Decree No. 1546 of 2004.
Royal Decree No. 1057 of 20 November 2015, approves the National Plan on Civil Protection against Radiologic Risks.
Transport of radioactive material
Transport of radioactive materials is regulated in a great number of provisions, including the Law on Nuclear Energy, and the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities. Specific standards applicable to the transport of hazardous goods are:
Road transports: Royal Decree No. 97 of 5 May 2014, regulating road transport operations with hazardous goods in the Spanish territory. It includes all the provisions of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR).
Rail transports: Royal Decree No. 412 of 20 April 2001, regulating some aspects relating to the transport of hazardous good by rail, incorporates the provisions of the Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Goods by Rail (RID).
Air transports: Royal Decree No. 552 of 27 June 2014, setting up the Regulation of the Air and establishing common operative provisions for the services and provisions of aerial navigation.
Maritime transports: The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) published by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and the National Admission, Handling and Storage Regulation for hazardous goods at ports, approved by Royal Decree No. 145 of 20 January 1989.
All technical provisions for the transport of radioactive material contained in the aforementioned regulations are founded on IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-6 (Rev. 1), Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material.
 Law No. 54 of 27 November 1997, on the electric sector,
 Law No. 34 of 7 October 1998, on the hydrocarbon sector,
 Law No. 24 of 26 December 2013, on the electric sector,
 National Energy Efficiency Action Plan, 2017–2020,
 Renewable Energy Plan 2011–2020,
 Libro de la Energía en España 2000–2016,
 World Energy Resources, 2016 (World Energy Council),
 Uranium 2016: Resources, Production and Demand, IAEA–NEA,
 Plan for the Development of the Electric Power Transmission Network 2015–2020, http://www.minetad.gob.es/energia/planificacion/Planificacionelectricidadygas/desarrollo2015-2020/Documents/Planificación%202015_2020%20%202016_11_28%20VPublicación.pdf
 Informe del Sistema Eléctrico Español 2000–2016,
 Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964, on nuclear energy,
 Law No. 15 of 22 April 1980, creating the Nuclear Safety Council,
 IAEA, Power Reactor Information System — PRIS, https://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=ES
 Nuclear Energy Committee (CEN, former UNESA),
 Royal Decree No. 1836 of 1999, Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities,
 IAEA, Power Reactor Information System — PRIS-RDS2, Nuclear Power Reactors in the World,
 Royal Decree No. 102 of 21 February 2014, on the safe and responsible management of spent fuel and radioactive waste,
 Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan, http://www.minetad.gob.es/energia/nuclear/Residuos/Documents/SextoPGRR.pdf
 Spanish Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for 2013–2020, http://www.idi.mineco.gob.es/stfls/MICINN/Investigacion/FICHEROS/Estrategia_espanola_ciencia_tecnologia_Innovacion.pdf
 National Plan for Scientific and Technical Research and Innovation for 2017–2020, http://www.idi.mineco.gob.es/stfls/MICINN/Prensa/FICHEROS/2018/PlanEstatalIDI.pdf
 Seventh R&D Plan of Enresa,
 R&D Plan of the CSN, 2016–2020,
 Euratom Programme,
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
In 1985, Spain adhered to the treaties that constitute the European Communities and on 1 January 1986 Spain became a European Communities Member State. Since then, international and national legislation applicable in Spain is accomplished according to the rules of the European Union. In addition, Spain is a Member State of the IAEA and of the OECD/NEA, whose constitutive treaties, conventions and additional treaties have been ratified as described in the following table.
|Area||Treaty||Document||Signature||Spanish Signature||Effect Date||Effect Date for Spain|
|Safeguards||NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty)||INFCIRC/140||01.07.1968||05.03.1970||05.11.1987|
|Agreement between the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency on implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||INFCIRC/193||05.04.1973||21.02.1977||05.04.1989|
|Protocol additional to the Agreement between the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards ||GOV/1998/30||22.09.1998||22.09.1998||30.04.2004||30.04.2004|
|Physical protection||Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material ||INFCIRC/274/Rev. 1||03.03.1980||07.04.1986||08.02.1987||06.10.1991|
|Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material ||08.07.2005||09.11.2007||08.05.2016||08.05.2016|
|Civil liability||Paris Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage 1960, 1964, 1982 (OECD)||29.07.1960|
|Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (2004) (OECD)||12.02.2004||12.02.2004||Not yet||Not yet|
|Brussels Supplementary Convention to Paris Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (OECD)||31.01.1963|
|Protocol to Amend the Brussels Supplementary Convention (2004) (OECD)||12.02.2004||12.02.2004||Not yet||Not yet|
|Nuclear safety||Convention on Nuclear Safety||INFCIRC/449||20.09.1994||15.10.1994||24.10.1996||24.10.1996|
|Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management||INFCIRC/546||05.09.1997||30.06.1998||18.06.2001||18.06.2001|
|Nuclear tests||CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization)||10.09.1996||24.09.1996||No yet, waiting for the signature of some required states, such as India, Pakistan or USA||No yet, waiting for the signature of some required states, such as India, Pakistan or USA|
|Partial test ban (Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water)||05.08.1963||13.08.1963||10.10.1963||17.08.1964|
|Nuclear accidents||Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident ||INFCIRC/335||26.09.1986||26.09.1986||27.10.1986||14.10.1989|
|Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency ||INFCIRC/336||26.09.1986||26.09.1986||26.02.1987||14.10.1989|
|IAEA||Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency||INFCIRC/9 Rev. 2||01.07.1959||Approved by Board of Governors||29.07.1960||21.05.1984|
|Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the IAEA ||RSA||Not applicable||10.06.1980||Not applicable||10.06.1980|
|Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project||INFCIRC/703||21.11.2006||EURATOM||24.10.2007||24.10.2007|
|Nuclear terrorism||International Convention for the Suppression of International Terrorism||13.04.2005||14.09.2005||07.07.2007||07.07.2007|
|Outer Space Treaty…Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space…||27.01.1967||10.10.1967||27.11.1968|
|Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)||INFCIRC/254 I and II||27.05.1905||10.06.1905||Spain joined NSG in 1988|
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY AUTHORITY||Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica|
Paseo de la Castellana, 160
|Tel.: +34 902 44 60 06|
Fax: +34 91 457 80 66
|Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN)|
Justo Dorado Dellmans, 11
|Tel.: +34 91 346 01 00|
Fax: +34 91 346 05 88
|MAIN POWER UTILITIES||Trillo||Tel.: +34 949 81 79 00|
|Vandellós II||Tel.: +34 977 81 87 00|
|Almaraz||Tel.: +34 927 54 50 90|
|Ascó||Tel.: +34 977 41 50 00|
|Santa María de Garoña||Tel.: +34 947 34 94 00|
|Cofrentes||Tel.: +34 96 189 43 00|
|OTHER NUCLEAR ORGANIZATIONS||CIEMAT: Research and development centre|
Avenida Complutense, 22
|Tel.: +34 91 346 60 00|
Fax: +34 91 346 60 05
|CEN: Comité de Energía Nuclear. Foro de la Industria Nuclear Española|
Boix y Morer, 6 - 3º
|Tel.: +34 91 553 63 03|
Fax: +34 91 535 08 82
|TECNATOM S.A.: Service inspection and maintenance|
Avenida Montes de Oca, 1
28703 San Sebastián de los Reyes (MADRID)
|Tel.: +34 91 659 86 00|
Fax: +34 91 659 86 77
|EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS A.I.E. |
Magallanes, 3. 28015 Madrid
|Tel.: +34 91 309 80 00|
Fax: +34 91 591 26 55
|ENRESA S.A., S.M.E., M.P. |
Back end of the fuel cycle
Emilio Vargas, 7
|Tel.: +34 91 566 81 00|
Fax: +34 91 566 81 69
|ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas S.A., S.M.E.|
Front end of the fuel cycle
Santiago Rusiñol, 12
|Tel.: +34 91 347 42 00|
Fax: +34 91 347 42 15
|Equipos Nucleares S.A. (ENSA)|
Avda. Juan Carlos, I No. 8.
39600 Maliaño (Cantabria)
|Tel.: +34 942 20 01 01|
Fax: +34 942 20 01 48
|The EURATOM-CIEMAT |
Association for fusion (Spain)
Technology platform on fission nuclear energy
|Gas Natural SDG, S.A.||http://www.gasnatural.com|
|EDP España S.A.||https://espana.edp.com/|
|Red Eléctrica de España S.A.||http://www.ree.es|
|Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE)||http://www.sne.es|
|IDOM Consulting, Engineering, Architecture SAU|
Avenida Zarandoa, 23
48015 Bilbao, Spain
|Tel: +34 94 479 76 00|
Fax: +34 94 476 18 04
Name of report coordinator:
Irene Dovale Hernández
Ministry for the Ecological Transition (MITECO)
Directorate-General for Energy Policy and Mines
Deputy Directorate-General for Nuclear Energy
Paseo de la Castellana, 160
28071 Madrid (Spain)
(12) Royal Decree No. 903 of 2017 establishes the organic structure of the former Ministry of Energy, Tourism and the Digital Agenda. Since the ministerial restructuring of June 2018, the competencies on energy are held by the Ministry for the Ecological Transition (MITECO). However, the decree establishing its organic structure is still pending.