This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Thailand, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Thailand.
Thailand is considering a decision to launch a nuclear power programme. Currently, Thailand is preparing the infrastructure to support a potential nuclear power project in the future.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
On 12 September 2014, Prime Minister General Prayut Chan-o-cha issued 11 policies with different perspectives to the legislature. The electricity policies were stated in policy number 6, which focuses on transparency, environmental concerns, cooperation among neighbouring countries and long term economic competitiveness by encouraging public and private sector investments in power generating capacity, including fossil fuel power plants and renewable energy. Policy number 8 focuses on the exploration of technologies and sciences regarding R&D and innovation, investments and infrastructure development. Topics under consideration include clean energy, rail transport system, electric vehicles and waste and water management.
Therefore, the Subcommittee on Load Forecast and Power Development Plan Formulation considered revising the Thailand Power Development Plan 2012–2030 (PDP2010, Rev. 3) in order to conform to the aforementioned policies, including infrastructure development and changes in domestic economic considerations within the ASEAN Economic Community.
The Thailand Power Development Plan 2015–2036 (PDP2015) was formulated according to the framework and the assumptions approved by the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) on 15 August 2014. Thus, the time frame of the Thailand Power Development Plan 2015–2036 (PDP2015), the Energy Efficiency Development Plan (EEDP), and the Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP) were harmonized with the National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP).
The Ministry of Energy (Thailand) intended to harmonize five integration master plans — 1) the PDP2015, 2) the EEDP, 3) the AEDP, 4) the Natural Gas Supply Plan, and 5) the Petroleum Management Plan — in order to systemize the country’s energy management.
Source: Thailand Power Development Plan 2015–2036 (PDP2015).
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Estimated Available Energy Sources 2017|
|Total amount in specific units*||16.26||87.53||1320.18||n.a.||3500||1764|
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||173.5||513.04||1358.13||n.a.|
* Solid: million tonnes; liquid: million barrels; gas: billion m3; uranium: metric tonnes; hydro, renewable: TW
n.a.: Data not applicable.
Sources: Fossil Fuels: Energy Statistics of Thailand by Energy Policy and Planning Office; Renewables: Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand.
1.1.3. Energy statistics
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|Net import (Import–Export)|
|- Total||741.31||1 434.42||2093.42||2361.76||2670.97||4.23|
* Latest available data.
** Energy consumption = primary energy consumption + net import (Import–Export) of secondary energy.
*** Solid fuels include coal, lignite.
—: Data not available.
Source: Energy Policy and Planning Office.
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
The Ministry of Energy (Thailand) together with the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) formulated a national Power Development Plan for the period of 2015–2036, known as PDP2015, within the framework of the Ministry of Energy’s policies; it replaces the former PDP2010, Rev. 3. The PDP2015 was endorsed by the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) on 14 May 2015 and acknowledged by the Cabinet on 30 June 2015.
The themes of the PDP2015 emphasize improving power system reliability by reducing dependence on natural gas power generation, increasing a share of coal power generation via clean coal technology, importing power from neighbouring countries, and developing renewable energy sources. In addition, the plan aims at transmission and distribution system development in order to support renewable energy development and the greater ASEAN Economic Community. The strategies of PDP2015 focused on:
Security and adequacy of the power system, following the policies of the Ministry of Energy (MoEN) on environmental concerns;
Promotion of energy efficiency and renewable energy to be in line with the Energy Efficiency Development Plan (EEDP 2015–2036) and the Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2015–2036);
Promotion of a cogeneration system as an efficient means of electricity generation;
A reasonable electric tariff.
The plan was used as a guide for planning the construction of EGAT’s new power plants, power purchase from independent power producers (IPPs), small power producers (SPPs) and neighbouring countries, as well as transmission system development to accommodate new power capacities. According to the current PDP2015, the net additional capacity between 2015 and 2036 is projected to be 57 459 MW (this amount includes the additional capacity from new power plant projects and some power purchased from SPPs and very small power producers (VSPPs)). When adding the net additional to the existing capacity of 37 612 MW (as of December 2014), subtracting the capacity of the retired power plant from the system (24 736 MW), the total installed capacity becomes a planned 70 335 MW by 2036.
1.2.2. Structure of electrical power sector
Thailand adopted the enhanced single buyer model (ESB) in which EGAT is the sole buyer of electricity, as shown in Fig. 1. In the generation system, EGAT is in charge of a dominant electricity supply and currently owns approximately 37.25% (as of February 2018) of the total power plant capacity in the country, while the remainder is owned by private power companies in three categories: IPPs, SPPs and VSPPs, including some portion of imported electricity from neighbouring countries. In addition to electricity generation and acquisition, EGAT is responsible for the country’s transmission system as well as its national and regional control centres. There are two distributing utilities in the Thai electricity system: the Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) and the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). The MEA is responsible for the distribution, sale and provision of electrical energy services in the Bangkok Metropolis, Nonthaburi and Samut Prakran provinces and the PEA serves the rest of the areas around the country.
FIG. 1. Enhanced single buyer model.
1.2.3. Main indicators
TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|Capacity of electrical plants (MW(e))|
|- Thermal–EGAT||1977||5755||12 964||11 569.40||12 060||12 573||–0.18|
|- IPP||3456||12 152||14 767||14 949||9.00|
|- SPP (Cogeneration)||1433||2182||3919||5769||8.54|
|- Renewable and other||0.53||29||1217||1764||61.14|
|- Total||3246||7992||21 073.53||31 008.40||38 845||42 433||4.20|
|Electricity production (GWh)|
|- Thermal–EGAT||12 347||37 614||61 213.76||65 906.59||66 239||56,230||–0.50|
|- IPP||18 212.92||74 448.13||70 533||63 669||7.64|
|- SPP||10 175.54||13 897.30||23 906||34 367||7.42|
|- Renewable and other||527||2266||4355||5760||15.11|
|- Purchased||753||717||2966.25||7253.78||14 247||24 329||13.18|
|- Total||14 754||43 190||98 986.91||169 097||183 377||188 935||3.88|
|Total electricity consumption (GWh)||13 601||38 203||88 021||149 320||174 833.71||185 124.05||4.47|
(1) Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
* Latest available data.
EGAT — Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand; IPP — independent power producer; SPP — small power producer.
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||22.29||38.84||58.84||66.11||n.a.|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)||678.56||1418||2337.51||2659.88||2796.86|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||29.97||28.41||29.24||30.81||33.52|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)*||59.07||59.67||56.12||60.16||n.a.|
(1) Net import/Total energy consumption.
* Latest available data.
n.a.: Data not applicable.
Sources: EGAT, Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO).
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Thailand first considered a nuclear power plant (NPP) in 1966. The option to build a 600 MW boiling water reactor (BWR) at AowPai within Chonburi Province was explored. However, after the discovery of natural gas off the Gulf of Thailand in 1978, the project was postponed indefinitely.
In 2007, consideration of nuclear power was reintroduced in the PDP2007 and in the superseding PDP2010. The PDP2010 planned for the construction of 5000 MW of nuclear power, including five plants of 1000 MW each.
In 2007, the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) appointed the Nuclear Power Infrastructure Preparation Committee (NPIPC) and the Nuclear Power Programme Development Office (NPPDO) to prepare nuclear power infrastructure establishment plans (NPIEP) and a nuclear utility plan. From 2008 to 2011, Thailand worked on the pre-project phase and conducted a feasibility study, including selection of preferred sites. Self-evaluation on 19 issues of national nuclear infrastructure was also performed, and in December 2010, the IAEA conducted the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) mission in Thailand. The results from the self-evaluation and INIR mission suggested that Thailand was ready to make a commitment to nuclear power. However, there are several major gaps that should be addressed to continue overall progress in developing an appropriate national nuclear power infrastructure. In the short term, the Government should make a concrete commitment to safe, secure and peaceful implementation of nuclear power. The national nuclear legislation and regulations need to be enhanced to comply with international legal instruments. Also, the details of a human resource development plan (HRDP) are required for supporting the nuclear power project.
In early 2011, a ‘readiness report’ was submitted for the Government to make the decision to ‘Go Nuclear’. However, after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP in March 2011, the Government announced that the decision to continue with the project would be postponed for 3 years, and later changed to 6 years. The current PDP2015 includes 2 units of nuclear power plant, 1000 MW each; the first nuclear power plant would be expected to be in operation in 2035, and the second one in 2036.
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
EGAT, under the Ministry of Energy, will be the operator of the NPPs. The Office of Atoms for Peace under the Ministry of Science and Technology was also chartered as the regulatory body for all activities involving radioactive sources and nuclear energy.
FIG. 2. Chart of nuclear organizations.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
In PDP2015, 2000 MW of nuclear power is planned, accounting for 5% of the total installed capacity by the end of 2035, as shown in Fig. 3:
FIG. 3. Projection of energy generation.
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
During the pre-project activity phase between 2007 and 2010, the Ministry of Energy and related organizations closely collaborated to finish all activities according to the IAEA Milestones Approach, consisting of:
Setting up a Nuclear Power Programme Development Office (NPPDO);
Surveying potential sites;
Completing the feasibility study;
Public information and participation.
The Nuclear Power Infrastructure Establishment Plan (NPIEP) was put forth in 2007. The plan covered activities such as setting up the NPPDO, preparing infrastructure work, conducting a survey of potential sites, conducting the feasibility study and providing public information and participation.
Based on the IAEA’s INIR of December 2010, Thailand is ready to make a knowledgeable commitment to nuclear power. In the future, if the Government makes the decision to opt for nuclear energy, the following phases will take place.
Programme Implementation Phase:
Fully establishing a regulatory system for an NPP;
Enacting legislation and international protocol;
Preparing the call for bids;
Selecting a suitable site;
Selecting technology/qualified suppliers.
Bidding process completed;
Design and engineering;
Construction and installation;
Test runs and installation;
NPP commissioning licence.
Operation and maintenance;
Planning for expansion;
Industrial and technological development plan.
TABLE 5. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/Project name||Type||Capacity (MW)||Expected construction start year||Expected commercial year|
|EGAT nuclear power plant 1||LWR||1000||2029||2035|
|EGAT nuclear power plant 2||LWR||1000||2030||2036|
2.3.2. Project management
The Ministry of Energy and EGAT are the main organizations responsible for the preparation and construction of the NPPs.
2.3.3. Project funding
2.3.4. Electric grid development
EGAT develops, owns and operates the national transmission system. The current grid system, covering the entire country, operates mainly at 500 kV, 230 kV and 115 kV voltages. The power system operation is divided into five geographical areas: metropolitan, central, northeastern, southern and northern regions. From the National Control Centre based at EGAT’s headquarters and five other regional control centres, EGAT plans, operates and controls the least costly dispatch of generated power from its power plants as well as from private power plants to load centres via its high voltage transmission lines. The grid system is presently linked to Laos by 115 kV and 230 kV lines and to Malaysia by 115 kV, 132 kV and the new 300 kV high voltage, direct current (HVDC) lines. In support of the pre-feasibility study in 2010 for the nuclear power plant project, a transmission system impact study was conducted for the selected site for the time when the nuclear power plant will be built. The study analyses were done to ascertain the impact of new nuclear power plant units on the performance and reliability of the existing transmission grid system and the requirements for reinforcement.
EGAT conducted a site survey. A consulting firm was engaged to collect data and survey and rank the candidate sites. Originally, 17 sites were selected as potential sites. The surveys were conducted on engineering, economic and environmental aspects. However, the site for the first nuclear power plant has not yet been finalized due to public opinion in the area.
2.3.6. Public awareness
Public acceptance in the local community is a key factor for the successful development of a nuclear power project. EGAT has actively implemented a number of activities to disseminate information on the energy situation in Thailand and “why nuclear power is a viable option for electricity generation”. The activities aimed to reach not only the local community, but also students, teachers, the media, religious leaders and others. EGAT also collaborated with the office of non-formal and informal education in developing the textbook and teacher’s guide, Electricity Usage in Daily Life, which includes various types of electricity generation. A train the teacher programme was conducted nationwide for sustainable learning. It is expected that this programme will help generate public acceptance of nuclear power.
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
EGAT will undertake construction of NPPs. They will be turnkey projects based on open bidding.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
EGAT will be the operator.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
EGAT, the utility, will be the main organization to conduct the decommissioning of the NPPs. The Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP), as the regulatory body, will approve the decommissioning plan, and regulate and inspect the activities carried out by EGAT until the plants are released from regulatory control.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
Thailand does not have significant uranium deposits, so the uranium fuel will be imported. Currently, all radioactive waste from industrial, medical and research facilities is managed by the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT). However, this waste includes only low level and intermediate level waste. The interim storage for high level waste and spent nuclear fuels from NPPs will be managed by EGAT. The long term strategy for spent nuclear fuel has not been determined. The present intention is to store it on-site until appropriate technologies are available.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
TINT and universities teaching nuclear sciences, technology and engineering or physics will conduct the R&D related to nuclear power plants. OAP will also conduct research important to nuclear safety and regulatory functions.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
The following is a list of national, regional and interregional activities related to the nuclear power programme under the IAEA’s technical cooperation programme that are effective and active in terms of project implementation:
THA/0/011: Strengthening Nuclear Science and Technology Education;
THA/0/012: Acquiring Regulatory Expertise in Preparation for the First Nuclear Power Plant and for a Research Reactor;
THA/0/013: Supporting the National Nuclear Engineering Education Centre;
THA/2/014: Technical Support for Upgrading/Establishing Infrastructure for Introduction of Nuclear Power;
THA4015: Upgrading/Establishing the Infrastructure Required for the Introduction of Nuclear Power;
RAS/0/047: Supporting Web-based Nuclear Education and Training through Regional Networking;
RAS/0/056: Providing Legislative Assistance;
RAS/4/029: Strengthening Nuclear Power Infrastructure and Planning;
RAS/7/016: Establishing a Benchmark for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Nuclear Power Activities on the Marine Environment in the Asia–Pacific region;
RAS/9/042: Sustainability of Regional Radiation Protection Infrastructure;
RAS/9/050: Education and Training in Support of Radiation Protection Infrastructure;
RAS/9/054: Strengthening National Regulatory Infrastructures;
RAS/9/056: Strengthening Capabilities for Protection of the Public and the Environment from Radiation Practices;
RAS/9/057: Strengthening National and Regional Capabilities for Response to Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies;
RAS/9/059: Strengthening Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the Asia and the Pacific Region;
RAS/9/060: Developing Human Resources in Nuclear Security;
Cooperation between EGAT and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC);
Cooperation between EGAT and China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co., Ltd (CGNPC);
Cooperation between EGAT and GDF SUEZ/Engie;
Cooperation between EGAT and Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO).
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
OAP and EGAT developed their respective human resources development plans (HRDPs) to prepare personnel for the nuclear power programme.
OAP’s approaches are to improve the competency of current staff and recruit new staff in areas where expertise is needed. OAP regulates a research reactor, so there some staff is familiar with nuclear technology. Yet, the need to expand and acquire more knowledge to accommodate nuclear power is recognized. Scholarships were granted to both staff and new recruits to study overseas in nuclear related fields to this effect. There are also international and bilateral collaborations with the IAEA and other countries with nuclear capabilities to provide training courses that are necessary for nuclear power regulatory activities.
EGAT developed a detailed HRDP. The human resources will be primarily sourced from EGAT. The company has training plans to improve the competency of staff in nuclear engineering and technology. The plan also includes recruitment of more nuclear specialists. After the bidding process, EGAT could get more training for staff and recruits through international consultants and/or engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) vendors.
With no clear direction on the future of nuclear energy, not many universities have established a specific programme for nuclear sciences and nuclear engineering. The most prominent existing programme is in Chulalongkorn University’s Nuclear Engineering Department. The programme offers nuclear engineering degrees at the graduate level and new curriculum at the undergraduate level was introduced in June 2017.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER COMMUNICATION
Public awareness and understanding activities are conducted mainly by OAP, EGAT, TINT and universities for consumption by the general public, media, teachers and students. A number of activities were arranged in recent years to involve stakeholders in nuclear activities in Thailand such as visiting the nuclear research reactor and related facilities. Representatives from local areas, opinion leaders, and government officials visited nuclear power plants in operating countries. Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi there is a growing trend insofar as the public has lost confidence in the safety of nuclear power, and regaining confidence in the technology has become a major challenge. A public information programme was conducted to provide the facts of the accident and to address public concerns.
Additionally, the Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO) as the promotional government agency, has educated the public to recognize the energy security and diversification policy, including environmental concerns.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Currently, the use of nuclear materials, radioisotopes, radioactive materials and nuclear applications has increased throughout Thailand, especially in the medical, industry and educational fields. However, all radiation uses need to be regulated and controlled under the Nuclear Energy for Peace Acts. Moreover, monitoring and preparedness for a nuclear or radiological emergency have to be established to regulate the radiological storage, use and transportation. Ensuring radiation safety is a first priority and essential to enhancing reliability for the public.
In the past, OAP had a nuclear and radiation emergency group under the Bureau of Radiation Safety Regulation. Presently, OAP has an emergency preparedness and response group for the effective command and enhancement of the team’s capacity to respond to a nuclear or radiation emergency.
The main objectives are:
1) To establish the Centre of Emergency Preparedness and Response under the division of inspection of the OAP; the main responsibility is to establish the centre’s structure and emergency plan and to support the National Disaster Prevention and Mitigation plan as follows:
a) To plan for, control and prevent hazards from nuclear and radioactive materials which have an impact on the public and the environment;
b) To develop the methodology, pattern and scheme of prevention and mitigation from chemical, hazardous and radioactive materials;
c) To respond to the nuclear and radioactive materials in the decontamination area and to evaluate the impact to the environment;
d) To support, advise and provide consultancy for nuclear and radiological emergency management;
e) To provide the necessary information and knowledge for the prevention, mitigation and management of a nuclear or radiological emergency;
f) To manage mitigation and support nuclear safety regulation;
g) To be a coordinator and supporter for any nuclear or radiological emergency situation.
2) To conduct a working competency and encourage cooperation among the preparedness team and response team of other divisions to ensure an effective line of command.
3) To be a coordinator for the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the IAEA under the technical cooperation project Regional Cooperation Project Concept in South East Asia to Support Regional Environmental Radioactivity Database and Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response, which aims to network across southeast Asian countries in the context of ASEANTOM regarding early warning and early notification. In fact, OAP is preparing to be the emergency monitoring data centre of the region.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
The Nuclear Energy for Peace Act 2016 established the Thai Nuclear Energy Commission for Peace (Thai NEC). The NEC is the regulatory authority of Thailand responsible for licensing and regulating radiation and nuclear facilities and activities. OAP also acts as the secretariat of the NEC and the secretary general of OAP is the secretary of the commission. OAP staff performs regulatory functions such as regulation, licensing, assessment and inspection.
3.1.2. Licensing process
The licensing process for a nuclear facility according to the Nuclear Energy for Peace Act 2016 consists of obtaining site, construction, operating and decommissioning licences. During the licensing process, the regulatory body shall conduct regulatory reviews, assessments and inspections to ensure that the applicant or licensee complies with licensing and design bases, including safety analyses, regulations and safety criteria.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS ON NUCLEAR POWER
The Nuclear Energy for Peace Act 2016 entered into force on 1 February 2017. The objectives of the act are to protect people and the environment from harmful radiation; to regulate radiation and nuclear activities on safety, security and safeguards; and to comply with necessary international legal instruments. Subsequent regulations under the act are being drafted and are expected to take effect in 2017. The drafted regulations for nuclear facilities will address the following topics:
Ministerial Regulation on Rules, Procedures and Conditions for Site Licences;
Commission Regulation on Content of Site Evaluation Report;
Ministerial Regulation on Construction Licences;
Ministerial Regulation on Commissioning of a Nuclear Facility;
Ministerial Regulation on Reactor Operator Licences;
Ministerial Regulation on Operating Licences;
Ministerial Regulation on Content of Safety Analysis Report;
Ministerial Regulation on Periodic Safety Review;
Ministerial Regulation on Nuclear Material Possession and Uses;
Ministerial Regulation on Nuclear Security;
Ministerial Regulation on Nuclear Safeguards;
Ministerial Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management;
Ministerial Regulation on Spent Fuel Management;
Commission Regulation on Activities Related to Nuclear Fuel Cycle to Be Notified to the Office;
Ministerial Regulation on Decommissioning Licence;
Commission Regulation on Criteria for Release from Regulatory Control.
Other ordinances, guidance and procedures will also be issued by the OAP.
FIG 4. Hierarchy of Thai legislation.
Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP), Progress Report, 2012.
Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP), Atomic Energy Acts and Ministerial Regulation, 2007.
Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO), Power Development Plan 2007 (PDP2007).
Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO), Power Development Plan 2010 (PDP2010), Rev. 3, approved 19 June 2012.
Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO), Power Development Plan 2015 (PDP2015).
Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO), Energy Statistics of Thailand, 2015.
Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT).
APPENDIX 1. INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
Thailand is party to and/or has signed the following:
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) (signed and ratified in 1972);
Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (signed and ratified in 1974);
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (signed in 1987, ratified in 1989);
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (signed in 1987, ratified in 1989);
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty;
The Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (signed and ratified in 1995);
The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (signed in 2005).
To formalize nuclear safety measures, Thailand would join or sign the following conventions in the near future:
Convention on Nuclear Safety;
Convention on Physical Protection;
Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management;
Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage;
Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention;
Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and Convention of 31 January 1963 Supplementary to the Paris Convention.
APPENDIX 2. MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
Ministry of Energy: www.energy.go.th
Ministry of Science and Technology: www.most.go.th
Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mfa.go.th/main/en
Chulalongkorn University: www.chula.ac.th
Name of report coordinator:
Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP)
tel.: +66 25 79 05 47
fax: +66 25 61 30 13