This report provides information on the status and development of the nuclear power programme in Turkey, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Turkey.
At present, there is no nuclear power plant in operation in Turkey. However, Turkey is considering embarking on a nuclear power programme and is planning to install three nuclear power plants, including 12 nuclear reactor units. The first nuclear power plant (Akkuyu NPP), including four units of WWER-1200 type reactors will be constructed and operated in Mersin Province under the agreement signed with the Russian Federation in 2010. The second nuclear plant (Sinop NPP), including four units of ATMEA1 type reactor will be constructed and operated in Sinop Province under the agreement with Japan made in 2013. The site selection process for the third nuclear plant is ongoing. The construction of the first unit of Akkuyu NPP formally launched on 3 April 2018. It is planned that the first unit of Akkuyu NPP will be in operation by the end of 2023. The other units will be put into commercial operation at one year intervals until the end of 2026. All units of Sinop and the third NPP will be in operation by 2030.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
Turkish energy policy focuses on assuring the supply of energy in a reliable, sufficient, timely manner. Energy is to be obtained in economic and clean terms, and in such a way as to support and orient targeted growth and social developments. Prepared by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, the National Energy and Mining Policy of Turkey has been developed in line with three considerations: security of supply, indigenous production and the foreseeable market.
The main aims of security of supply are to achieve diversification of energy resources and markets; sustainability and reliability of resource transfer; and a reduction in the cost of imported energy products. Security of supply is also closely related to a strong economy and national security. The issue of security of supply is discussed under five headings: diversification of energy resources and supplier countries; natural gas and oil storage facilities; capacity to provide natural gas to the system; energy delivery infrastructure; and energy efficiency.
Indigenous energy production using national resources is important in achieving energy independence. In this regard, indigenization is critically important for Turkey to add a new dimension to its policies and strategies to reduce the country’s years long dependence on imports. Many public and private sector institutions and organizations, in particular the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR), are expending tremendous effort to increase the use of national energy resources. In order to decrease Turkey’s dependence on imported energy, there are plans to increase the use of renewable energy resources, domestic coal and nuclear energy, and to tap into domestic oil and natural gas reserves.
Turkey intends to improve its electricity market and build up a proper natural gas market, restructure institutions in the energy sector and rehabilitate the infrastructure of the energy supply. The National Energy and Mining Policy reveals several strategies and objectives in order to create a more foreseeable, transparent and investor friendly energy market. In recent years, a series of major energy projects have been signed and these projects will undoubtedly contribute to Turkey’s goal of having a greater role as an energy trading hub. With the National Energy and Mining Policy, Turkey takes a firm stand on the subject and keeps working to repeat the achievements of recent years.
Policy issues related to energy are within the responsibility of the MENR. Energy planning studies, taking into account short, medium and long term policies and measures, are carried out by the MENR within the framework of the above listed objectives.
Although almost all conventional resources exist in Turkey, these resources are not sufficient to meet the substantial growth in energy demand, except for lignite and hydro. Around 74% of energy demand is met through imports. Energy planning studies indicate that Turkey’s energy demand will continue to increase in parallel with economic development, industrialization and urbanization. In this context, Turkey has intensified efforts at further diversification in primary energy sources, imports (diversifying in both type and origin), technologies and infrastructures, while accelerating the production and utilization of remaining domestic resources potential and efficiency gains along the energy supply–demand chain.
Turkey became a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2004, based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”. The law regarding the accession of Turkey to the UNFCCC was adopted by the Turkish Grand National Assembly in October 2003, and entered into force on 24 May 2004. Studies are underway for the first National Communication to be submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Kyoto Protocol was ratified by the Turkish Parliament on 5 February 2009. Improvement of energy efficiency, greater utilization of renewable sources, deployment of clean coal technologies and the introduction of nuclear power are among the main strategies involved in addressing the challenges within the energy–environment linkage.
In order to meet the increasing energy demand without disruption, Turkey continues to develop policies to meet a considerable part of its energy demand by increasing power generation from domestic resources, and enabling energy markets to gain depth. By virtue of its geographical location, Turkey connects energy supplying and energy demanding countries. As a consequence, the policy developed by Turkey becomes extremely important on both the national and international level. Owing to these policies, Turkey aims to play a key role in the global energy in the coming years.
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Units||Mt||Mt||Bm3||metric tonnes||metric tonnes||TWh/y||TWh/y||TWh/y||TWh/y|
|Total||12 615||45.2||6.7||9 129||380 000||160||12*||153||380|
Hydro and other renewable (geothermal, solar and wind) values given as their maximum available potentials.
* Geothermal potential is equal to 0.0072 TWe.
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.
1.1.3. Energy statistics
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|- Other renewables||0.02||0.04||0.06||0.11||0.28||0.35|
|- Other renewables||0.02||0.04||0.06||0.11||0.28||0.35|
|Net import (Import–Export)|
* Lastest available data
** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import–Export) of secondary energy.
*** Solid fuels includes coal, lignite.
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
In parallel with economic growth and social development, electricity demand has shown a significant increase over the past decades, reaching 279 TWh by the end of 2017.
Turkey has coal (mostly lignite) and hydro resources for electricity generation. The share of domestic resources in electricity generation was 49.65% in 2017. Turkey attaches utmost importance to the utilization of the remaining potential, with due regard, to cope with the risks stemming from import dependency. Integration of nuclear power plants into the Turkish electricity grid is also being considered as an essential tool to enhance supply security, while strengthening the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation efforts.
The Electricity Market Law (Law No. 6446) was enacted in 2013 in order to conduct market operating activities in a more effective way. In addition, a new corporation, the Energy Markets Operating Corporation (EPIAS), was introduced under the new law. A formal electricity wholesale market was created in 2015. Since April 2015, EPIAS is the new operator of the wholesale market for electricity which includes the day-ahead market (DAM) and a continuous intraday market since July 2015.
The Turkish transmission network has cross-border lines to the electricity grids of all its neighbouring countries. However, Turkey is synchronously connected only to Greece and Bulgaria.
The goals of the National Energy and Mining Policy regarding electricity generation can be summarized as follows:
To increase domestic energy production;
To increase the share of renewable energy in total energy production by at least 30%;
To increase the share of nuclear power plants in electricity generation by at least 10%.
FIG. 1. Electricity generation distribution, depending on energy sources (Turkish Electricity Transmission Company, 2016).
1.2.2. Structure of electric power section
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources is the main body of the Turkish energy sector and is responsible for the preparation and implementation of energy policies, plans and programmes, in coordination with its dependent and related institutions and other public and private entities. The Ministry is responsible for monitoring and taking measures regarding the security of the electricity supply.
The Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) is the regulator of the electricity, natural gas, downstream petroleum and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) products markets. EMRA is responsible for granting licences for activities in the gas and electricity markets for generation (including electricity generated from renewable sources), transmission, distribution, wholesale, retail, import and export.
The Electricity Generation Company (EÜAS) is the state owned generation company responsible for the operation of existing power plants owned by the public and for new capacity additions, as well as acting as the last resort, should the market fail to provide sufficient capacity to cover demand.
The Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS) is the transmission system operator and is responsible for planning, installing and operating the transmission grid, for providing system security such that transmission constraints will be minimized, and for preparing generation capacity projection and the 20 Year Long Term Electricity Generation Development Plan.
The Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company (TETAS) is the wholesale company established to offset the stranded cost element of the electricity market reform, and is responsible for electricity wholesales and purchases.
Distribution Companies: Twenty-one distribution companies with their own geographical region are all legally unbundled and privatized through transfer of operating rights (TOOR) contracts. The ownership of the distribution network asset remains with the state (with TEDAS as holding company)
FIG. 2. The general structure of the existing electricity sector in Turkey.
1.2.3. Main indicators
TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND CAPACITY
||Average annual growth rate (%)|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GW(e))|
|Electricity production (TWh)|
|Total electricity consumption (TWh)||24.62||56.81||128.28||160.79||210.43||265.72||278.30||4.96|
* Lastest available data.
** Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
Source: TEIAS (Turkish Electricity Transmission Company).
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||30.12||39.51||49.99||52.91||62.25||62.04||68.70||71.46|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kW.h/capita) (Gross)||550||1006||1891||2231||2770||2854||3325||3499|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||11.5||19.4||41.2||56.7||58.3||55.9||73||67|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)**||46.1||54.4||68.0||74.5||73.5||72.41||76||74|
(*) Lastest available data
(**) Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
—: data not available.
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Turkey has had plans to establish nuclear power generation capabilities since 1970. In order to meet the increasing domestic demand for energy and reduce its dependence on energy imports, various initiatives were undertaken in the past to build Turkey’s first nuclear power plant (NPP).
Regarding the nuclear history of Turkey, studies to build an NPP in Turkey started in 1965. Later, between 1967 and 1970, a feasibility study was undertaken by a foreign consulting company to build a 300–400 MW NPP. This plant would have been in operation in 1977. However, the project did not come to fruition because of problems related to site selection and other issues.
In 1973, the Turkish Electricity Authority (TEK) decided to build an 80 MW(e) prototype plant. However, in 1974, the project was cancelled because it could delay the construction of a greater capacity NPP. Instead of this prototype plant, TEK decided to build a 600 MW(e) NPP in southern Turkey.
Site selection studies were made in 1974 and 1975, and the Gulnar–Akkuyu location was found suitable for the construction of the first NPP. In 1976, the Atomic Energy Commission granted a site licence for Akkuyu. In 1977, a bid was prepared, and the ASEA-ATOM and STAL-LAVAL companies were awarded the contract. Contract negotiations continued until 1980. However, in September 1980, due to the Swedish government’s decision to withdraw a loan guarantee, the project was cancelled.
A third attempt was made in 1980. Three companies were awarded the contract to build four nuclear power plants: 1 CANDU unit by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), 1 pressurized water reactor (PWR) unit by KWU in Akkuyu, and 2 boiling water reactor (BWR) units by General Electric (GE) in Sinop). Due to Turkey’s request to apply the build–operate–transfer (BOT) model, KWU resigned from the bid. Although AECL accepted the BOT model, it insisted upon a governmental guarantee of the BOT credit. The Turkish government refused to give such a guarantee, and consequently the project was cancelled.
In 1993, the Supreme Council for Science and Technology identified nuclear electricity generation as the project of third highest priority for the country. In view of this decision, the Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Company (TEAS) included a nuclear power plant project in its 1993 investment programme. In 1995, TEAS selected the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) as the consultant for the preparation of the bid specifications. The bid process started in 1996. Three consortiums (AECL, NPI and Westinghouse) offered proposals in 1997.
In July 2000, after a series of delays, the government decided to postpone the project.
Following this delay, the Law on Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and Energy Sale (Law No. 5710) was ratified; it entered into force on 21 November 2007.
The Regulation Regarding the Principles, Procedures, and Incentives for the Contracts and the Contest that will be made within the context of Law on the Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the Sale of the Energy Generated was published in the Official Gazette on 19 March 2008. The purpose of the regulation is to regulate the procedures and principles regarding the construction and operation of NPPs for electrical energy production, and to regulate energy sales.
In accordance with this, the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) issued a set of criteria that establish general principles to ideally be met by investors.
A competition for construction and operation of NPPs and energy sale was held on 24 September 2008 by the Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company (TETAS), for the construction of NPP units on the Akkuyu site.
Only one consortium bid for the competition. After evaluating the technical documents provided by the consortium, TAEK announced, on 19 December 2008, that the proposed NPP met TAEK’s criteria.
The last envelope provided by the consortium on 24 September 2008, including the energy sale unit price, was opened by TETAS on 19 January 2009. After assessment, the competition performed on 24 September 2008 was canceled by TETAS on 20 November 2009.
FIG. 3. Location of nuclear power plant sites.
Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant
Direct negotiations with the Russian Federation to build an NPP on the Akkuyu site in Turkey started in February 2010, and concluded with an intergovernmental agreement (IGA) based on a build–own–operate (BOO) model. The agreement was signed on 12 May 2010. It aims to build nuclear capacity in Turkey through mutual cooperation, ranging from NPP construction and operation in Akkuyu–Mersin, to decommissioning.
For the implementation phase of the project, the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant Electricity Generation Joint Stock Company (Akkuyu Project Company, APC), was established on 13 December 2010. On 7 February 2011, TAEK recognized APC as the owner, according to the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations. Akkuyu NPP Electricity Generation JSC was renamed and registered as Akkuyu Nuclear JSC (Akkuyu Project Company, APC) in September 2014.
In 2011, the Akkuyu site, with the existing site licence, was given to APC. Then, APC started site investigations in Akkuyu to update site characteristics and parameters, according to the national procedures laid out in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations. In May 2012, APC submitted an updated site report (USR) to TAEK. A review and assessment were conducted by TAEK, its Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety and the IAEA and positive decision for the USR was given in December 2013. Then, a site parameters report (SPR) was submitted to TAEK in November 2014. The updated SPR (Rev. 2), which addresses the site licence’s validity, was submitted to TAEK in December 2015. The report was updated according to TAEK’s evaluation findings. The SPR (Rev. 4), which was presented by Akkuyu Nuclear JSC and which includes the results of detailed site investigations performed at the NPP site and the precise values of the project parameters, was approved by TAEK on 9 February 2017.
On 3 March 2017, Akkuyu Nuclear JSC applied to TAEK for a construction licence for Akkuyu NPP Unit 1 and TAEK awarded a limited work permit to APC on 20 October 2017. Under this permit, APC was able to start construction of that part of the building and infrastructure unrelated to nuclear safety, such as the port, road and personnel buildings. After reviewing the licence application documents, TAEK issued the construction licence on 2 April 2018. With this licence, APC can start construction of nuclear safety related buildings and infrastructures such as a reactor or turbine buildings. On 3 April 2018, construction of the 1st unit of Akkuyu NPP formally launched with the pouring of concrete for the sub-base foundation of the nuclear island.
APC applied to the Ministry of the Environment and Urbanism (MoEU) for an environmental impact assessment (EIA) on 2 December 2011 and submitted the EIA to MoEU on 6 December 2013. An affirmative decision was given on 1 December 2014.
APC obtained an electricity generation licence (EGL) for 49 years from EMRA on 15 June 2017. In addition, APC and TETAS signed a power purchase agreement (PPA) on 30 December 2017.
Fundamental aspects of the IGA to build and operate a nuclear power plant on the Akkuyu site in Turkey include:
The Russian party established a joint stock project company in Turkey initially with a 100% share.
The Turkish party allocated Akkuyu site to the project company free of charge until the decommissioning of the NPP. Other additional land shall also be allocated free of charge if required.
The Russian party’s share will never be below 51% at any time (and the Government of the Russian Federation will be the guarantor of the project).
APC will be the owner of the NPP.
The general contractor will be JSC Atomstroyexport (ASE).
The Russian party shall provide funding to ASE for the construction of NPPs.
15 year PPA will be awarded to APC for:
70% of the electricity generated by Units 1 and 2;
30% of the electricity generated by Units 3 and 4
Generated electricity shall be bought by TETAS in accordance with a PPA for 15 years at US $0.1235/kWh (fixed price, no escalation) on weighted average.
In case of less production than the volume stipulated in the PPA, APC shall fulfill its obligations by providing the lacking volume of electricity.
Nuclear fuel shall be sourced from suppliers based on long term agreements entered into between APC and the suppliers.
Subject to separate agreements that may be agreed by the parties, spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin may be reprocessed in the Russian Federation.
APC is responsible for the decommissioning and the waste management of the NPP. Within this framework, APC will make the necessary payments to relevant funds.
For the PPA period:
US $0.0015/kWh shall be paid for spent fuel and radioactive waste management;
US $0.0015/kWh shall be paid for decommissioning.
Turkish companies and citizens will be included in the project to the extent possible.
The project will be subject to all applicable laws, regulations and codes in Turkey. All necessary licences, permits and approvals from related governmental organizations shall be obtained by APC.
Sinop Nuclear Power Plant
Electricity Generation Joint Stock Company (EUAS) is a state owned company and the largest electricity generation company in Turkey. EUAS operates the existing hydraulic and thermal power plants, including their maintenance, repair and rehabilitation. EUAS has been given the role of state operating organization for NPPs that are owned and operated by the state (as whole owner or shareholder).
EUAS applied to TAEK as an owner on 2 August 2012. EUAS was recognized by TAEK as an owner on 22 August 2012. After being recognized as an owner by TAEK, EUAS initiated the preparation of the site report for the Sinop NPP in order to obtain a site licence in accordance with TAEK regulations.
In the meantime, another study of the installation of NPPs in Sinop Province was begun. A joint declaration was signed between state owned utility EUAS and Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in Istanbul, on 10 March 2010, for the construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of the Sinop NPP. However, during the negotiations, an agreement was not reached with the Republic of Korea.
Following that, negotiations with the Government of Japan and Japanese companies started on 26 November 2010, for the Sinop NPP. After the Fukushima Daiichi accident, negotiations with Japan were suspended.
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) negotiated with candidate vendor countries (such as Canada, China, Japan, Republic of Korea). An agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of Japan on Cooperation for Development of Nuclear Power Plants and the Nuclear Power Industry in the Republic of Turkey was signed on 3 May 2013. This agreement entered into force on 31 of July 2015 after completion of diplomatic procedures.
In the context of the Sinop project, feasibility studies are ongoing for verification of site suitability and development of the financial scheme. It is expected that the feasibility studies will be completed by the first half of 2018. After the feasibility studies have been completed, the Sinop Project Company (SPC) will be established.
EUAS International Incorporated Cell Company (EUAS ICC) was established on Jersey Island in 2016 as an international private nuclear company of EUAS.
According to the Sinop IGA, EUAS ICC will be a shareholder of the SPC together with a Japan consortium which consists of Mitsubushi, Itochu and ENGIE.
A law on the establishment of a Turkish–Japanese Science and Technology University was ratified by the Turkish Parliament in 2016.
Having applied for an EIA, EUAS ICC organized a public participation meeting on 6 February 2018.
Third Nuclear Power Plant
For the third NPP, a memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed by EUAS, Westinghouse EC and SNPTC (Chinese State Power Technology Company) for the implementation of feasibility studies of the third NPP on 13 June 2017. Currently, site selection studies are ongoing for the third NPP project.
2.1.2. Current organizational chart
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) is the main body of the Turkish energy sector. It is responsible for the preparation and implementation of energy policies, plans and programmes, in coordination with its dependent and related institutions and with other public and private entities.
The Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EPDK) was established by Laws No. 4628 and 4646. The |Law on the Electricity Market, published in the Official Gazette on 3 March 2001, was enacted to unbundle electricity market activities, enable progress into a liberalized electricity market and provide fair and transparent market regulation.
The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) is responsible for:
Determining the basis of the national policy and the related plans and programmes regarding the peaceful utilization of atomic energy;
Executing and supporting research, analysis and studies that encourage the nation’s scientific, technological and economic development related to the utilization of atomic energy;
Establishing research and training centres, laboratories, test facilities and pilot plants without electricity producing purposes wherever there is need in the country;
Educating the personnel in the nuclear field and arranging cooperation with universities and related organizations;
Providing approval, permission and licences related to site selection, construction and operation of nuclear facilities;
Enlightening the public on nuclear matters;
Preparing and implementing decrees and regulations to determine the basis for nuclear and radiological safety and security.
TAEK conducts experimental and theoretical studies at its research centers, and collaborates in projects with universities and other related organizations. The research infrastructure at the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre of TAEK is especially devoted to research and development activities addressing issues for nuclear reactor and fuel technology.
The Ministry of the Environment and Urbanism has jurisdiction for making environmental assessment reports for power plants, including nuclear power plants.
The Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company (TETAS) is responsible for electricity wholesale sales and purchases.
The Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS) is the transmission system operator and is responsible for planning, installing and operating the transmission grid.
FIG. 4. Organizations taking part in the Turkish nuclear energy programme.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
There are no nuclear power plants in operation or being decommissioned. The first unit of the Akkuyu NPP is under construction.
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
Integration of nuclear energy into the Turkish energy supply will be one of the major means of decreasing the risks emerging from dependence on imported fuels by satisfying the increasing electric energy demand. MENR targets that the share of NPPs in electric energy generation will reach at least 5% by the end of 2023. To achieve this target, it is planned that two nuclear power plants will be in operation and one will be under construction by the end of 2023.
According to an agreement with the Russian Federation, four units with WWER-1200 type reactors, each with 1200 MW power, will be constructed on the Akkuyu site. The total installed capacity of Akkuyu NPP will be 4800 MW(e) and the lifetime of each unit is 60 years. It is expected that the first unit of the Akkuyu NPP will be put into operation in 2023 and other units at one year intervals until the end of 2026.
According to an agreement with Japan, four units with ATMEA-1 type reactors, each with 1120 MW power, will be constructed in Sinop Province. The total installed capacity of the Sinop NPP will be 4480 MW(e) and the lifetime of each unit is 60 years. The first two units of Sinop NPP are expected to be in operation in 2025 and 2026 and the other two units in 2029 and 2030.
Site selection studies for the third nuclear power plant are ongoing.
TABLE 5. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Station/Project name||Type||Capacity||Expected construction start year||Expected commercial year|
|Akkuyu NPP — 1||WWER-1200||1200 MW(e)||2018||2023|
|Akkuyu NPP — 2||WWER-1200||1200 MW(e)||2019||2024|
|Akkuyu NPP — 3||WWER-1200||1200 MW(e)||2020||2025|
|Akkuyu NPP — 4||WWER-1200||1200 MW(e)||2021||2026|
|Sinop NPP — 1||ATMEA-1||1120 MW(e)||2020||2025|
|Sinop NPP — 2||ATMEA-1||1120 MW(e)||2021||2026|
|Sinop NPP — 3||ATMEA-1||1120 MW(e)||2024||2029|
|Sinop NPP — 4||ATMEA-1||1120 MW(e)||2025||2030|
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
The Akkuyu NPP construction project is the world’s first nuclear power plant project implemented on the BOO (build–own–operate) principle. Under the long term contract, APC assumes obligations for designing, constructing, maintaining, operating and decommissioning the plant.
Under the terms of the agreement with the Russian Federation, the general contractor for the construction of Akkuyu NPP is Atomstroyexport JSC (ASE), which is a leading Russian engineering company of State Corporation ‘Rosatom’ in construction of nuclear power facilities abroad.
Russian companies will be involved in architectural engineering as well as the supply of reactors and main components. Provisions are included in the agreement to maximize local participation and utilization of the workforce. APC envisages high participation of local companies in constructing the plant and providing workforces, construction materials and equipment.
MENR also initiated a study in order to perform a realistic assessment of local supplier capabilities for either nuclear or non-nuclear safety related activities. As a result of this study, a capacity improvement plan is to be established and implemented with Turkish companies willing to participate in the construction activities of other NPP projects, as well as Akkuyu NPP projects.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
Rosatom affiliates established APC as a JSC in Turkey on 13 December 2010. According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, Russian companies will initially own 100% of APC and retain the majority stake during the lifetime of the project (51–100%). Turkish and third country investors can join the project and acquire up to 49% of APC at any stage of its implementation.
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for operation of the plant. The operation and maintenance contractor will be Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC which owns a major share of APC.
TABLE 6. SHAREHOLDERS OF APC (AKKUYU NPP ELECTRICITY GENERATION JSC)
|Shareholders||Share percentage of APC|
|Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC||92.8478 |
|Inter RAO UES JSC||3.4719 |
|Atomstroyexport JSC||3.4719 |
|Atomtechenergo JSC||0.1042 |
|Atomenergoremont OJSC||0.1042 |
For the Sinop NPP project, EUAS ICC will be a shareholder of the project company to be established after the feasibility study.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for decommissioning the Akkuyu NPP. In addition, APC will make the necessary payments to the national decommissioning fund stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
In the Sinop project, SPC is responsible for decommissioning of the plant. In addition, APC will make the necessary payment to the national decommissioning fund stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE, INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
A reactor materials unit, for the refining of uranium concentrate for conversion to UO2 and for the manufacturing of sintered pellets, has been in operation at the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre (ÇNAEM) of TAEK since 1986. This unit is subject to IAEA safeguards. At present, research and development activities are focused on pellet manufacturing and characterization.
Waste management is currently limited mainly to radioactive waste arising from the industrial and medical applications of nuclear technologies, and there is a facility for interim storage of these wastes. This storage facility was built in the ÇNAEM and has been operating there since 1989. Compaction, cementation and precipitation processes are carried out at this facility.
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for NPP fuel supply and waste management.
Nuclear fuel will be sourced from suppliers based on long term agreements entered into between APC and the suppliers. At the current stage of the Akkuyu NPP project, APC is planning that the first core and further reloads for the Akkuyu NPP will be supplied from TVEL, a Rosatom fuel supply company, based on a long term contract.
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC is responsible for safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste and decommissioning of the plant. In addition, APC will make the necessary payment to the national spent fuel and radioactive waste management fund stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
Subject to a separate agreement that may be agreed to by the parties, spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin may be reprocessed in the Russian Federation.
Currently, there is no specific entity in charge of infrastructure development regarding radioactive waste and spent fuel management in Turkey. However, after some work carried out by MENR and TAEK to determine a national policy for management of all kinds of radioactive waste, it was decided that national policy, including establishment of this entity for management of radioactive waste, would be included in the draft Act on Nuclear Energy. The draft act, which was developed by TAEK and MENR, includes arrangements for radioactive waste management policy such as determining the responsibilities of the Government, operator and other organizations; funding of waste management, including monitoring after closure of disposal facilities; financial responsibilities of waste producers; and transferring of waste management liabilities. The rules and regulations for the details of spent fuel management such as liabilities and financial aspects will be set in the secondary legislation. The national programme, which will cover the details of the radioactive waste management policy and strategy, will be prepared within two years of the enactment of the draft act.
For near surface disposal of very low and low level radioactive waste in Çölovasi/Afyon, Aslan Avci Casting Industry and trade Company applied for recognition as owner on 22 January 2018.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
The nuclear policy of the country includes R&D activities concerning the application of nuclear technology in various sectors such as energy, environment, human health, industry and agriculture etc.
The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established as the nuclear regulatory body by Law No. 2690. TAEK regulates all nuclear and radiation activities and facilities in Turkey. Law No. 2690 gives TAEK authority and responsibility for ensuring nuclear safety and nuclear security by licensing and inspecting such activities and facilities. TAEK also coordinates and supports research and development activities in the nuclear field.
TAEK operates three nuclear research and training centers to perform research, training and development activities:
Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre;
Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Centre;
Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Centre.
Although Turkey has no nuclear power plants, there are two research reactors. The governmental research centre Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre (ÇNAEM), which is one of the three institutions affiliated with TAEK, cooperates with universities and other scientific and research institutes for the development and application of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. ÇNAEM commissioned a 1 MW research reactor (TR 1) in 1962 for both research and production of isotopes for industrial and medical purposes. It was operational from 1962 to 1977, and has since been dismantled. A pool type 5 MW reactor (TR 2) was later built in the same building and operated at 5 MW between 1984 and 1994 for irradiation purposes. It operated at low power levels between 1995 and 2009 due to the fact that updates of seismic evaluation studies of the reactor building were required. In 2013, the project to strengthen the reactor building was completed.
The second research reactor in Turkey, ITU TRIGA MARK II, reached its first criticality on 11 March 1979. It is a pool type, light water cooled and graphite reflected reactor. The ITU TRIGA MARK II reactor is capable of steady state operation at power levels up to 250 kW or pulsing mode operation where powers as high as 1200 MW are achieved for about 10 msec.
The General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) is responsible for systematic investigation and research into all kinds of resources, including thorium and uranium.
Research and development activities in nuclear technology are performed by a limited number of universities in Turkey. Hacettepe, Istanbul Technical, Ankara, Ege and Akdeniz universities are among the notable ones.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear technologies
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
TAEK closely follows worldwide trends and progress in the field of nuclear reactor technologies and fuel cycles.
Turkey is an associate member of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, which is the world’s leading laboratory for particle physics. All activities related to CERN in Turkey are coordinated and sponsored by TAEK. Turkey is a founding member of the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME), and TAEK is the funding and representing authority for SESAME. Turkey’s main objectives are to establish a qualified workforce by actively participating in the experimental programmes of CERN and SESAME, and to follow worldwide scientific progress.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
There are more than 180 universities in Turkey (state and private) with higher education organizations operating under the Turkish Higher Education Council. Almost all universities have engineering faculties. Moreover, some universities in Turkey have undergraduate and graduate programmes in the field of nuclear engineering and science.
Nuclear engineering education first started in Turkey under the Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in 1961. In 2003, the NEI was restructured as the Energy Institute (EI), with a graduate programme on nuclear energy. ITU-EI has been operating a TRIGA type training and research nuclear reactor with a power of 250 kW since the 1970s, mainly for educational purposes, academic research and training.
Hacettepe University (in Ankara) has had a nuclear engineering programme in English at the undergraduate and graduate level since 1982. Over 35 years, 459 nuclear engineers graduated from this programme. Of these, 15% work in the nuclear sector abroad (mainly in the USA) and 25% work at governmental organizations associated with the nuclear power programme in Turkey. The remaining graduates work in different sectors or are in a graduate programme at home or abroad.
In 2015, an undergraduate programme in nuclear engineering was established at Sinop University. The curriculum is provided only in Turkish, and the department focuses primarily on nuclear physics; enrolment is low, however.
There are three universities in Turkey with nuclear science institutes. The Ege University Nuclear Sciences Institute in Izmir focuses on nuclear applications in industry and environmental radiation detection/measurement. The Hacettepe University Nuclear Sciences Institute focuses on radiation physics and its applications. The Ankara University Nuclear Sciences Institute focuses on medical applications, health physics, radiation protection and monitoring. Students who graduate from the Nuclear Sciences Institute receive the title of health physicist.
TABLE 7. TURKISH UNIVERSITIES WITH NUCLEAR EDUCATION PROGRAMMES (DEGREES; B: BACHELOR, M: MASTER OF SCIENCE, D: DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY)
|Hacettepe University||B, M, D|
|Istanbul Technical University ||M, D||1961, 2003|
|Ege University||M, D|
|Hacettepe University||M, D||2003|
|Ankara University||M, D||2006|
Currently, there are no vocational schools that provide an education in nuclear technology or nuclear applications. The Ankara Chamber of Industry (ACI) and Hacettepe University have therefore made serious attempts on this issue and there is now a new radiation technician programme at Akdeniz University.
The Nuclear Energy Project Implementation Department (NEPID) was established under MENR in 2011. NEPID serves as the Nuclear Energy Programme Implementation Organization (NEPIO) in Turkey according to IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1, Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (2007). The responsibilities of MENR-NEPID in Turkey’s nuclear power programme are to facilitate the implementation of NPP projects and to develop the national nuclear infrastructure by ensuring coordination among national authorities, private sector and academia.
MENR-NEPID has initiated a study to develop a HRKD strategy, including a long term road map modelled on the IAEA’s Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) mission. In the context of this study, an IAEA workshop on workforce planning and human resources development (HRD) was held in Ankara in July of 2013. At this workshop, IAEA experts explained how to use the Nuclear Power Human Resources (NPHR) model developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the USA and allocated to the IAEA for use as a model by Member States. This modelling tool can be used to calculate the needs and supply of the workforce for nuclear power plant projects for different time periods involving different organizations and different project models.
The NPHR model was opened for Turkey’s use at the workshop. In August 2013, a working group was established by the Hacettepe University Nuclear Engineering Department (HUNEM), TAEK and MENR-NEPID. HUNEM was the focal point to lead and maintain the model, MENR-NEPID and TAEK also provided input data and information related to NPP projects and their roles in the nuclear power programme.
The model was used to determine the workforce requirements of key organizations between 2017 and 2035: MENR-NEPID, TAEK, project companies, nuclear power plant operation and construction, universities and research centers. The model was developed for construction, including licensing, commissioning and operation, of three NPP projects.
An HRKD plan was drafted in the light of results obtained from the model. In May of 2015, an IAEA expert mission was held in Ankara to review drafted HRD plans for Turkey’s nuclear power programme. The IAEA expert team and model developer provided comments on the draft plan during the mission.
After the expert mission, MENR-NEPID established another working group consisting of faculty members working at HUNEM, ITU-EI and the Akdeniz University Nuclear Science Application and Research Centre. This group developed a national strategy report on localization, HRD and technology transfer in the nuclear field. This report also included results of the model. One of the important recommendations in this report was to establish a nuclear HRKD network in the country.
In 2016, MENR-NEPID prepared a draft road map for nuclear HRKD between 2018 and 2023 by utilizing statements from the national strategy report. The Higher Council of Science and Technology, presided over by the Prime Minister, is expected to approve the road map in 2018. This road map includes a plan to establish a structure to coordinate HRD in the nuclear field.
In the scope of the HRKD studies, the following activities were also carried out:
Turkey joined the IAEA project Human Resources and Knowledge Development Networks Initiative along with Japan, Malaysia and South Africa in 2016 in order to establish a national network on HRKD in the country.
The law to establish the Turkish–Japanese Science and Technology University was ratified by the Turkish Parliament in 2016. This university will include a nuclear engineering programme.
MENR initiated a study to get in touch with Turkish nuclear experts living abroad, especially those working in France, Germany, Japan, the UK and the USA.
Gedik University (a private university in Istanbul) decided to start a welding education programme for nuclear industry.
The Higher Education Council approved the opening of a nuclear engineering department at Cumhuriyet University in the city of Sivas.
Hacettepe University opened a two year vocational programme in nuclear energy technologies, including Russian language courses, in 2017. Students who graduate from this programme may wind up working on the construction of Akkuyu NPP.
Four Turkish experts from Hacettepe University, Istanbul Technical University and MENR were sent to the Nuclear Energy Management School in Japan from 18 July to 3 August 2017 with the joint financial support of the IAEA and the Japan Information and Culture Center (JICC).
Twelve Turkish experts from MENR, TAEK, EUAS ICC, Hacettepe University Vocational High School and the Turkish Standard Institute were sent to the Nuclear Power Generation Safety Bases course in Japan from 4 to 15 December 2017. In addition, another 12 Turkish experts from MENR, TAEK, Anadolu Agency, Sinop Nuclear Ltd. Co., AJSC and EUAS ICC were sent to a course on public acceptance in Japan from 18 to 22 December 2017. The courses were held at Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center in Tsuruga, Japan. All expenses were covered by the JICC.
The following studies are also going on:
The Ankara Chamber of Industry (ACI) is conducting a study on the establishment of a pilot nuclear training center in Ankara for training of construction and manufacturing workers in nuclear industry with the financial support of the Ministry of Development (MoD). The ACI signed a cooperation agreement with the International Institute of Nuclear Energy (I2EN) in France and the Central Institute for Continuing Education and Training (CICE&T) in Russia to develop a training curriculum for trainees and trainers of the center.
MENR is conducting a study on the establishment of education programmes at technical high schools near NPP sites.
The Ministry of National Education (MoNE) will send Turkish scholarship students abroad in 2018 and 2019. These students are required to work in MENR-NEPID, TAEK and EUAS after their return for a period twice as long as their time abroad. In the context of this programme, 11 students for MENR-NEPID, 79 students for TAEK and 31 students for EUAS will receive graduate education at foreign universities on the list of global top 500 universities in Belgium, Canada, China, England, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Sweden, and the USA. The education fields include nuclear finance; nuclear law; public relations; nuclear fuel cycle; design, manufacturing and maintenance of nuclear mechanical instrument and control, electrical equipment system components; spent fuel and radioactive waste management; nuclear safety, security and safeguards; site selection and evaluation; nuclear plant construction; nuclear material science; health physics; radiochemistry; radiobiology; radiation protection; and particle acceleration.
TAEK trains personnel in the nuclear field at its affiliated research and training centres, also arranging for cooperation with universities and related organizations on this matter. The IAEA is one of the main supporting organizations for developing national manpower through training and fellowship programmes.
Turkish students will be awarded scholarships to receive a nuclear engineering education in the Russian Federation, with the goal of employing them at the planned NPP in Akkuyu, Mersin, when it begins operation.
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC is responsible for the education and training of Akkuyu NPP staff. A full scope simulation center will therefore be established on the Akkuyu site in order to train Turkish operators.
According to the action plan, 600 Turkish citizens will be trained in the Russian Federation. The training plan consists of one year of Russian Language and four years of nuclear science or engineering education at MEPhI University in the Russian Federation, and 7–24 months of on the job training at a Russian reference NPP. Between 2011 and 2018, 252 Turkish students went to the Russian Federation. Of these, 35 have graduated from this training programme and returned to Turkey.
Moreover, according to the IGA, AJSC will establish a training centre near the plant site that will include a full scope control room simulator for initial and continuing training of future Turkish operating staff until 2020.
According to the IGA with Japan, the Turkish–French–Japanese Consortium has to prepare an HRD plan in the scope of the feasibility study. After MENR approves this plan, the Sinop Project Company will implement it during the project.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
APC established two public information centres for Akkuyu NPP, in the town of Buyukeceli and in the city of Mersin in 2012.
The Public Information Centre (PIC) in Mersin is a multifunctional communication platform. Tour programmes are designed for residents of Mersin and nearby provinces and other regions. Among the visitors are children, schoolchildren, students, government representatives, the media, tourists, and many others.
Visitors to the PIC can be told about the history and development of the nuclear industry, achievements in physics, energy development prospects, as well as the socioeconomic development of Turkey associated with the construction of nuclear industry enterprises and related infrastructure.
At the PIC, the principle operation of the power plant is presented graphically, models of the industrial site of the future NPP and its reactor are displayed, while visitors are acquainted with how the protective barriers at the NPP are arranged.
The Center implements educational programmes; holds lectures, seminars and roundtables; and organizes joint programmes with government agencies, local authorities of the Turkish Republic and social and political organizations. Russian language courses are organized at the centre for those wishing to attend.
FIG. 5. Public information center in the city of Mersin (APC, http://www.akkunpp.com).
MENR is planning to hire consultant services related to the preparation of public communication strategies and public information documents on nuclear energy.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
The Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) is the coordinating authority assigned for all kinds of disasters and emergencies at all levels, including large scale nuclear and radiological emergencies.
AFAD has its own Disaster and Emergency Management Centre (DEMC) like all the stakeholders which have a role in emergency response according to the related regulation. AFAD (DEMC) is operated 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. AFAD (DEMC) is the body responsible for response, coordination and collaboration at the national level. The Prime Ministry — Disaster and Emergency Management Centre (PM-DEMC) is activated within AFAD-DEMC on an ad-hoc basis on the orders of the President when effective response, coordination and collaboration on the national level are required for management of emergencies. All the responsible authorities take part in PM-DEMC, related to a particular emergency.
The Disaster and Emergency High Council (the Council) was established under the Presidency of the Undersecretary of the Prime Minister. The Council is responsible for approving plans, programmes and reports prepared in relation to disasters and emergencies. The Council may invite concerned ministers, organizations and institutions, representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and experts on the matter to its meetings. The main duties and objectives of the Council are to specify the measures to be taken; to facilitate and supervise their implementation; to provide coordination among organizations, institutions and NGOs; and to evaluate the situation after the event.
Turkey is party to relevant international conventions related to early notification and assistance in the case of emergencies. TAEK is recognized as the ‘warning point’ and the ‘competent authority’ for communication with the IAEA regarding information exchange on nuclear or radiological incidents and emergencies.
Turkey has bilateral agreements with Bulgaria, Romania, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on early notification in case of nuclear emergencies. Turkey plans to have similar arrangements with other neighboring countries.
TAEK responded to all the radiation emergencies which took place in the past. The new preparedness and response infrastructure was established with the foundation of an AFAD presidency. TAEK will provide technical consultancy in case of major radiation emergencies within PM-DEMC in this new framework. TAEK is also one of the support solution partners of the chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) service group which has been established within the framework of the National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP).
TAEK is the leading organization within DEMC for radiation and nuclear emergencies and is activated in the case of radiological emergencies. TAEK-DEMC is responsible for radiation monitoring and coordinating and implementing emergency response activities. TAEK provides advice for relevant authorities on protective measures that should be taken as a consequence of any radiological emergency.
Based upon the Regulation on Disaster and Emergency Response Services and National Disaster Response Plan, the National Radiation Emergency Plan (NREP) was prepared by TAEK in collaboration with AFAD (Fig. 6). The NDRP was issued in 2014. The NDRP is the highest level overarching plan that covers all the hazards. Twenty-eight service groups are designated in the NDRP. Each service group is dedicated to a specific service which may be required in case of emergencies. During the preparation of the NREP, the most recent approach of the IAEA on emergency preparedness and response was adopted and international practices were taken into account. The roles of ministries, institutions and service groups set forth in the legislation are elaborated in the NREP. The NREP is pending ratification by the Disaster and Emergency High Council and is expected to be put into force soon.
FIG. 6. The national emergency planning framework.
Licensees are responsible for developing the on-site emergency plan, which defines the required actions for mitigation of the accident consequences while respective governmental organizations (provincial governorships to be supported by AFAD and TAEK) will prepare the provincial radiation emergency plan which defines the necessary protective actions and other response actions to protect the public off-site.
The on-site emergency plan will provide a clear and straightforward interface with the off-site decision makers. The necessary procedures will be identified, developed and agreed with the responsible official prior to the commissioning of the Akkuyu NPP.
After the on-site emergency plan is developed, it shall be submitted to TAEK for review and approval prior to the fuel being loaded into the first reactor unit at the site. TAEK will evaluate the on-site plan and its consistency with the off-site plan according to the related decree and regulations. A full scale exercise for each NPP should be conducted before the fuel loading and pre-operational test permit are granted by TAEK.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(ies)
TAEK, as the regulatory body of Turkey, undertakes all the regulatory activities concerning nuclear and radiation safety together with the coordination and support of research and development activities in the nuclear field.
TAEK was established by Law No. 2690 as a government body reporting to the Prime Minister. TAEK has been affiliated with MENR since 2002.
Law No. 2690 defines the duties and responsibilities of the TAEK as follows:
To determine the basis of the national policy and related plans and programmes in connection with the peaceful utilization of atomic energy for the national interest and to submit them to the Prime Minister for approval; to engage in all kinds of R&D, studies and activities for the utilization of atomic energy in national scientific, technical and economic development and to coordinate and support such activities in this field.
To determine the general principles to be complied with in all kinds of prospecting, exploiting, purification, distribution, import, export, trade, transport, use, transfer and storage of nuclear raw material, special fissionable material and other strategic materials used in nuclear fields and to advise and cooperate thereon.
To establish research and training centres, units, laboratories, test centres and pilot plants without energy production purposes located in the necessary places of the country or have them established, and to operate them or have them operated; to carry out activities aiming at the localization of nuclear technology; to propose the establishment of processing, purification and any other facilities related to the fuel cycle.
To establish and operate radioisotope production, quality control, scaling and distribution facilities.
To set out the principles and provisions for protection against the hazards of ionizing radiation in the activities performed using radiation equipment, radioactive materials, special fissionable materials and such ionizing radiation sources and to determine the limits of liability.
To grant licences as a basis for authorization to public or private bodies or persons who possess, utilize, import or export, transport, store and trade the radioactive materials and radiation equipment and to inspect them regarding radiation protection; to enforce the insurance liability for these activities; to suspend or revoke the licence permanently or temporarily if licensees are in contravention of the provisions of the radiation regulations; to decide on the closure of an authorized organization if it deems it necessary and to commence legal actions within the frame of general legal principles.
To prepare the decrees and regulations defining the general principles for the utilization, export, import, transport and insurance liability of radioisotopes.
To grant approval, permission and licences for nuclear power and research reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities related to site selection, construction, operation and environmental protection; to perform necessary inspections and controls; to restrict the operating authority in case of noncompliance with the permission or licence; to revoke or suspend the permission or licence and to recommend closure of those installations to the Prime Minister.
To prepare the necessary technical guides, decrees and regulations for those purposes.
To take the necessary measures or have them taken for the safe management, transport, permanent or temporary storage of radioactive waste generated by nuclear facilities and radioisotope laboratories.
To establish relations and to cooperate with the national institutions and bodies in the field of atomic energy; to participate in the scientific studies of foreign and international institutions and bodies working in the field of nuclear energy and to contact and cooperate with such institutions; to programme and distribute the aid and assistances supplied from domestic or foreign sources for all kinds of nuclear studies.
To train the personnel who will work in the nuclear field or to assist their training when necessary and to cooperate with related organizations and higher educational institutions; to comment on the distribution of domestic fellowships in the nuclear field; to distribute foreign fellowships; to conduct training courses and help them to be conducted in the country; to send students and personnel abroad; to plan and oversee their education and studies.
To collect, disseminate and introduce the information and the results of the studies from inside and outside the country related to the application of atomic energy; to announce the necessary information to the public; to inform the public on nuclear matters.
To carry out studies related to national and international law in the nuclear field and to propose the required arrangements.
To prepare and implement decrees and regulations on the protection of nuclear materials and facilities, to inspect them, to give comments on regulations related to this subject prepared by other organizations.
TAEK has a president and three vice presidents, who are appointed by the Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey. The administrative organs of TAEK include the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Advisory Council, specialized technical and administrative departments and research centres. The organizational structure of TAEK is defined by Law No. 2690. The recent organizational structure of TAEK was approved in 2012.
As a public organization, TAEK complies with the Law on Public Financial Administration and Control (No. 5018 of 2003), which provides a general quality management system (QMS) to public organizations.
The president of TAEK chairs the AEC, which consists of the vice presidents of TAEK; one member each from the Ministry of National Defence, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and MENR; and four faculty members in the field of nuclear energy. The responsibilities of AEC are:
To set the working principles and programmes of TAEK, to approve the draft budget for submittal to the Prime Minister;
To draft laws, decrees and regulations related to the nuclear field, and to submit them to the Prime Minister;
To supervise and assess the activities of TAEK, and to submit the annual work programme and annual work report of TAEK to the Prime Minister.
AEC also acts as a decision making body for licences and some of the permits for nuclear installations.
The Advisory Council consists of faculty members in the nuclear field and experts from other related institutions and bodies. The members of the Advisory Council are nominated by the AEC and appointed with the approval of the Prime Minister. The Advisory Council gives advice on matters forwarded by the AEC.
TAEK’s main organization consists of four technical and one administrative department:
Department of Nuclear Safety (DNS), (regulatory activities in nuclear safety and security);
Department of Radiological Health and Safety (regulatory activities in radiation, transport and waste safety);
Department of Technology (technological development in the nuclear field);
Department of Research, Development and Coordination (coordination of all kinds of activities in the nuclear field);
Department of Administrative and Financial Affairs (administrative and financial activities of TAEK).
The main responsibilities of DNS include licensing of nuclear installations (review and assessment of documentation related to nuclear safety), preparation of regulations and inspection of nuclear installations.
Nuclear power plant licensing activities are carried out by DNS, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) and the Vice President for Nuclear Power and Safety. During the licensing process, the safety analysis reports submitted by the applicant are reviewed and assessed by DNS and ACNS. DNS prepares an evaluation report taking into consideration the advice of ACNS. The evaluation report is submitted to the Vice President for Nuclear Power and Safety. The Vice President prepares a report indicating the results of the evaluations and sends it to the President of TAEK. The President of TAEK takes the DNS safety analysis reports together with the report prepared by the Vice President to the first meeting of the AEC for a licensing decision.
ACNS is established and its main responsibilities are defined in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations of 1983. The members of ACNS are faculty members and experts working in relevant fields. ACNS performs an independent review of the documents submitted with licence applications.
TAEK also operates three nuclear research and training centres to conduct research, training and development activities.
FIG. 7. Organization chart of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority.
3.1.2. Licensing process
In Turkey, nuclear installations are licensed by TAEK regarding nuclear safety, security and radiation protection issues. The licensing procedure is initiated by the applicant, to be recognized as the ‘owner’. The licensing process for an NPP comprises three main stages in succession: site licence, construction licence and operating licence. There are several permits functioning as hold points during the licensing process. These include the limited work permit, commissioning permit, permit to bring fuel to the site, fuel loading and test operations permit for the operating licence. For each authorization, documents required for review and assessment by TAEK are defined in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations of 1983. There is no design approval authorization in Turkey. The decree also requires the owner to apply for authorization by TAEK for every modification that may have an impact on the safety of nuclear installation. The authorization process for the decommissioning stage is not defined in the decree. This issue will be addressed in the draft Nuclear Energy Law.
TAEK’s licensing approach is defined in the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants of 2012, which lays out the rules for establishing a licensing basis for NPPs. These rules state that the issues insufficiently addressed by existing Turkish regulations on nuclear safety shall be covered by requiring compliance with the regulations of the vendor or designer country and the IAEA’s safety standards, particularly its safety fundamentals and safety requirements. For remaining issues, third party country laws, regulations and standards are referenced. The directive also requires the applicant to submit to the regulatory body a reference plant of the proposed design to facilitate the licensing process. The directive was established in accordance with the principles laid out in the IAEA publication INSAG-26, Licensing the First Nuclear Power Plant.
This directive is being implemented for the Akkuyu project. A list of applicable regulations, guides and standards was determined by the owner according to Article 6 of the directive. AEC of TAEK approved the list on 2 November 2012. The revised list (Rev. 2) was approved on 14 November 2014. The List of Licensing Basis for Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant is mainly composed of Turkish regulations, IAEA Safety Fundamentals and Requirements and Russian Federation regulations. The list also contains standards and guides of Turkey and the Russian Federation. Novovoronezh-II NPP in the Russian Federation is approved as the reference plant for Akkuyu NPP by AEC of TAEK according to Article 7 of the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants of 2012.
In addition, NPPs should obtain an affirmative decision on an environmental impact assessment, according to the Regulation on Environmental Impact Assessment from the Ministry of the Environment and Urbanization as a prerequisite to the site licence, and an electricity production licence from the Energy Market Regulatory Authority.
The Department of Nuclear Safety (DNS) is the responsible unit for the licensing of nuclear installations (review and assessment of documentation related to nuclear safety), preparation and amendment of regulations and inspection of nuclear installations.
Nuclear power plant licensing activities are carried out by the Department of Nuclear Safety, ACNS and The Vice President for Nuclear Power and Safety.
During the licensing process, the safety analysis reports submitted by the applicant are reviewed and assessed by DNS and ACNS. DNS prepares an evaluation report taking into consideration the advice of ACNS. The evaluation report is submitted to the Vice President for Nuclear Power and Safety. The Vice President prepares a report indicating results of the evaluations and sends it to the President of the TAEK. The President of TAEK takes the DNS safety analysis reports together with the report prepared by the Vice President to the first meeting of the AEC for a licensing decision.
ACNS’s main responsibilities are defined in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations. The members of ACNS are faculty members and experts working in relevant fields. ACNS performs an independent review of the documents submitted with licence applications.
3.2. MAIN NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The Turkish regulatory structure is composed of laws, decrees, regulations, guides and codes and standards. The hierarchical pyramid of the Turkish regulatory structure is given in Fig. 8. Within this structure, the current legislative and regulatory framework of Turkey is consistent with international conventions and treaties, and IAEA safety standards in most aspects of nuclear safety and security.
Turkey’s legislative and regulatory framework ensures that nuclear materials and facilities are utilized and nuclear activities are performed with proper consideration for the health, safety, security and protection of people and the environment. As a non–nuclear weapon state party to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Turkey has established a system of accountancy for and control of nuclear materials based on the Agreement between Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Safeguards Agreement) and Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Additional Protocol). Turkey received Safeguards Advisory Service Mission (ISSAS) from the IAEA in June 2010 to review this system and revisions with respect to the Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol.
FIG. 8. Hierarchy of regulatory documents in Turkey.
Turkey is party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) and fully implements its provisions. The Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was ratified by the Turkish Parliament on 10 February 2015 and entered into force on 8 July 2015. Both regulations, on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control (NMAC) and on Physical Protection, were revised in 2012 to reflect the latest developments in the country and in the international framework.
The main Turkish legislative framework regulating nuclear installations consists of the Law on Turkish Atomic Energy Authority which regulates nuclear safety, security and radiation protection; the Environmental Law, which regulates the environmental impact of these facilities; the Penal Law, which defines nuclear and radiological crimes and penalties; and the Law on the Electricity Market, which regulates electricity production licences. These laws establish TAEK, the Ministry of the Environment and Urbanization (MoEU) and the Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) as regulatory bodies. There are several other regulatory bodies, such as the Ministry of Transportation and Ministry of Health, which indirectly regulate NPPs with regard to other issues.
The Decision on Turkey’s National Programme for the Adoption of the European Union Acquis Implementation, Coordination and Monitoring, enacted by the Council of Ministers’ decision dated 11 October 2008 and numbered 2008/14481, indicates that nuclear law shall be in line with EU standards and provide a high level of nuclear safety.
Regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, there are two decrees under Law No. 2690:
Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, 1983;
Decree on Radiation Safety, 1985.
Further details regarding safety principles are addressed in regulations. There are currently 18 regulations directly or indirectly addressing the safety of NPPs.
The Law on Turkish Atomic Energy Authority; the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations; the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants; and the regulations constitute the basis of the legal framework of the nuclear safety of nuclear installations in Turkey.
Rules and procedures related to the licensing of nuclear installations are laid out in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, which entered into force in 1983. The decree defines permits and licences to be obtained; requirements for applications for these permits and licences, including lists of documents to be submitted; review and assessment procedures; the authorizing entities within TAEK for each authorization; approval mechanisms for modifications during construction and operation. It also authorizes TAEK to inspect the installations throughout their lifetime and enforce penalties such as limiting, suspending and revoking the licences.
Another important regulatory document is the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants, which lays out the rules for establishing a licensing basis for nuclear power plants. The licensing approach of TAEK is defined in the directive.
Rules and procedures for accounting for and control of nuclear materials are described in the Regulation on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control of 2012, which satisfies the requirements of the Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. This regulation has been prepared in compliance with the Additional Protocol. The national aspects of the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material were implemented in the Regulation on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities of 2012. This regulation was prepared in compliance with INFCIRC 225/Rev. 4 and some provisions of INFCIRC 225/Rev. 5. This regulation is being updated for full compliance with INFCIRC 225/Rev. 5 and for resolving some issues regarding domestic procedures.
There are several regulations associated with nuclear safety. The suitability of NPP sites is addressed in the Regulation on Nuclear Power Plant Sites of 2009. Basic requirements on the design of an NPP are laid out in the Regulation on Design Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants of 2008, and those on construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of an NPP in the Regulation on Specific Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants of 2008. Nuclear and radiological emergencies are covered in the National Regulation on Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies of 2000, Regulation on Official Duties Related to the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Hazards of 2012, and Regulation on Disaster and Emergency Response Services of 2013. These regulations cover the roles and responsibilities of governmental authorities and general provisions related to emergency planning and response in case of a radiation emergency. For requirements on emergency preparedness and response, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 7, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, is addressed. The National Radiological Emergency Plan (NREP) has been prepared and is expected to be approved by the Disaster and Emergency High Council in 2018.
The Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management of 2013 and Regulation on Clearance in Nuclear Facilities and Release of Site from Regulatory Control of 2013 cover clearance and release of sites from regulatory control and radioactive waste management in nuclear installations.
The Regulation Regarding Equipment Procurement Process and Approval of Manufacturers for Nuclear Facilities of 2015 establishes the provisions for the procurement process for all equipment used in nuclear facilities, including the permits the owner must obtain to initiate the procurement process and issues regarding approval of manufacturers taking part in the procurement process for equipment important to safety, as well as regulatory inspections and sanctions to be implemented in the procurement process.
Act No. 5902 of 29 May 2009, established the Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD). AFAD is responsible for all kinds of disasters at all levels, including large scale nuclear and radiological emergencies. The National Radiation Emergency Plan has been developed by TAEK and put into force by the coordinating authority (AFAD). For requirements on emergency preparedness and response, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 7 is addressed.
Laws, Decrees, Regulations and Guides Concerning the Safety of Nuclear Installations
Law on Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, 1982.
Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, 1983.
Decree on Radiation Safety, 1985.
Regulation on Working Procedures of Atomic Energy Commission, 1983.
Regulation on the Establishment and Working Procedures of Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety, 1997.
Regulation on Radiation Safety, 2000.
National Regulation on Nuclear and Radiological National Emergency Preparedness, 2000.
Regulation on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005.
Regulation on Nuclear Safety Inspections and Enforcement, 2007.
Regulation on Issuing Document Base to Export Permission for Nuclear and Nuclear Dual Use Items, 2007.
Regulation on Specific Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants, 2008.
Regulation on Design Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants, 2008.
Regulation on Site of a Nuclear Power Plant, 2009.
Regulation on Protection of Outside Workers in Controlled Areas from the Risks of Ionizing Radiation, 2011.
Regulation on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities, 2012.
Regulation on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control,2012Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management, 2013.
Regulation on Clearance in Nuclear Facilities and Release of Site from Regulatory Control, 2013.
Regulation Regarding Equipment Procurement Process and Approval of Manufacturers for Nuclear Facilities, 2015.
Regulation on Management System in Nuclear Installations, 2017.
Regulation on Construction Inspection of Nuclear Power Plants, 2017.
Regulation on Operating Organization, Operating Personnel Qualification and Education and Licensing of Operators in Nuclear Power Plants, 2017.
Regulation on Official Duties Related to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Hazards, 2012.
Regulation on Disaster and Emergency Response Services, 2013.
Documents and Guides
A Guide on Format and Content of Site Report for Nuclear Power Plants, 2009.
A Guide on Specific Design Principles, 2012.
Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants, 2012.
A Guide on Owner and Authorization Application for Nuclear Installations (Nükleer Tesisler Için Kurucu ve Yetkilendirme Basvurulari Kilavuzu), 2016.
Guide on the Construction Activities in Nuclear Installations that are Authorized as per the Authorization Stages, 2016.
 Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy Paper.
 Intergovernmental Agreement with Russian Federation,
 A Full Report to the 7th Review Meeting of Convention on Nuclear Safety, August 2016, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority,
APPENDIX 1. INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
International Treaties, Conventions and Agreements Signed/Ratified by the Country
|1||Convention on Cooperation in the Atomic Energy Field Between the NATO Members and Its Amendment||22 June 1955||10 September 1956|
|2||Paris Convention (1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy)||29 July 1960||13 May 1961|
|3||Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water||5 August 1963||13 May 1965|
|4||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960||28 January 1964||13 June 1967|
|5||International Labour Conference Convention Number 115 Concerning the Protection of Workers Against Ionizing Radiation|
17 June 1962
25 July 1968
|6||Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||28 January 1969||28 November 1979|
|7||Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution||16 February 1976||12 June 1981|
|8||The International Convention on Railway Transportation||21 March 1985||1 June 1985|
|9||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as Amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964||16 November 1982||23 May 1986|
|10||Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||23 August 1983||7 August 1986|
|11||Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution from Land-based Sources||17 May 1980||18 March 1987|
|12||Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||28 September 1986||3 September 1990|
|13||Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||28 September 1986||3 September 1990|
|14||Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution||21 April 1992||6 March 1994|
|15||Convention on Nuclear Safety||24 September 1994||14 January 1995|
|16||Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty||3 November 1999||26 December 1999|
|17||Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna and the Paris Conventions||21 September 1988||19 November 2006|
|18||Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East||11 September 2002||23 March 2012|
|19||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as Amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol of 16 November 1982||12 February 2004||—|
|20||Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||8 July 2005 ||24 April 2015|
|21||International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism||14 September 2005||8 May 2012|
|22||Agreement Between the Republic of Turkey and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Concerning the Granting of the Status of Associate Member at CERN||12 May 2014||28 April 2015|
|23||Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management||—||Ratification process is ongoing|
Cooperation Agreements with the IAEA in the Area of Nuclear Power
|1||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the NPT||30 June 1981||20 October 1981|
|2||Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the NPT||6 July 2000||12 July 2001|
Bilateral Agreements with Other Countries or Organizations Signed/Ratified by the Country in the Field of Nuclear Power
|1||Agreement Between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||18 June 1985||29 June 1986|
|2||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Argentine Republic for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||3 May 1988||8 February 1992|
|3||Agreement Between the Government of Turkey and the Republic of Bulgaria on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||28 July 1997||11 September 1997|
|4||Agreement Between the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||14 January 1998||—|
|5||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||26 October 1998||12 April 1999|
|6||Agreement Between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||21 September 1999||18 May 2011|
|7||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||23 November 2000||2 May 2001|
|8||Agreement Between the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||26 July 2000||9 July 2006|
|9||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of Romania on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||3 March 2008||16 May 2008|
|10||Memorandum of Understanding for Technical Cooperation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters Between the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and the State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine||7 June 2005||22 October 2008|
|11||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Russian Federation for Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||6 August 2009||12 February 2011|
|12||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Russian Federation on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||6 August 2009||12 February 2011|
|13||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Russian Federation on Cooperation in Relation to the Construction and Operation of a Nuclear Power Plant at the Akkuyu Site in the Republic of Turkey||12 May 2010||6 October 2010|
|14||Agreement Between the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (the Republic of Turkey) and the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service (the Russian Federation) for Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Licensing and Supervision||8 June 2010||8 June 2010|
|15||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||17 February 2011||5 June 2015|
|16||Agreement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of Turkey for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||9 April 2012||2 September 2016|
|17||Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of Japan for Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||3 May 2013||22 April 2014|
|18||Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of Japan on Cooperation for the Development of Nuclear Power Plants and the Nuclear Power Industry in the Republic of Turkey and Memorandum of Cooperation Between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of Japan on Cooperation on the Development of Nuclear Power Plants and the Nuclear Power Industry in the Republic of Turkey||3 May 2013||23 May 2015|
|19||Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Republic of Belarus on Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||11 November 2016||—|
Other Relevant International Agreements
|1||ZANGGER Committee||Member||21 October 1999|
|2||Nuclear Suppliers Group||Member||20 April 2000|
APPENDIX 2. MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
NATIONAL ENERGY AUTHORITY
Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency
Kizilirmak Mah. Ufuk Üniversitesi Cad. No. 12 Çukurambar, Sögütözü
Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
Türkocagi Cad. No. 2 Çankaya
Ministry of the Environment and Urbanism
Vekaletler Cad. No. 1 Bakanliklar
Turkish Atomic Energy Authority
Mustafa Kemal Mahallesi, Dumlupinar Bulvari, No. 192
06510, Çankaya, Ankara
Energy Market Regulatory Authority
Isçi Bloklari Mah. Muhsin Yazicioglu Cad. No. 51/C Yüzüncüyil, Çankaya
Turkish Electricity Transmission Company
Inönü Bulvari No. 27 Bahçelievler
Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company
Eskisehir Yolu 7. Km No. 166 Çankaya
Turkish Electricity Generation Company
Nasuh Akar Mah. Türkocagi Cad. No. 2/F-1
Akkuyu NPP Electricity Generation Company
Güvenevler Mah. Farabi Sok. No. 27 Çankaya
Hacettepe University Nuclear Engineering Department
06532 Beytepe, Ankara
Nuclear Engineers Society
Technical University of Istanbul Institute for Energy
TR- 80626 Istanbul
Ege University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Hacettepe University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Ankara University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Name of report coordinator:
Energy and Natural Resources Expert, Nuclear Engineer, M.Sc.
Institution: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
Türkocagi Cad. No. 2 Çankaya AnkaraTurkey
Tel.: (+90) 312 212 6420Email: email@example.com