PREAMBLE AND SUMMARY
This report provides information on the status and development of the nuclear power programme in Türkiye, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Türkiye.
At present, there is no nuclear power plant (NPP) in operation in Türkiye. However, Türkiye is considering embarking on a nuclear power programme and is planning to install three NPPs, which will include 12 nuclear power reactor units. The first nuclear power plant (Akkuyu NPP) is expected to comprise four units of pressurized water reactor (PWR) type (WWER-1200 model) reactors; it will be constructed and operated in Mersin Province under the agreement signed with the Russian Federation in 2010. The construction of the first, second and third units of Akkuyu NPP formally launched on 3 April 2018, 8 April 2020 and 10 March 2021, respectively. In addition, construction license of fourth unit was obtained on 28 October 2021. It is planned that the first unit of Akkuyu NPP will be in operation by the end of 2023. The other units will be put into commercial operation at one year interval until the end of 2026. It is targeted that other two NPPs will be in operation by 2035.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
Overarching Turkish energy policy focuses on assuring the supply of energy in a reliable, sufficient, timely manner. Energy and electricity production are to be obtained in economical and clean terms, and in such a way as to support and orient targeted growth and social development. Prepared by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR), the National Energy and Mining Policy of Türkiye has developed plans in line with three considerations: security of supply, indigenous production and potential projections of the foreseeable market.
The main aims of security of supply are to achieve diversification of energy resources and markets, sustainability and reliability of resource transfer, and a reduction in the cost of imported energy products. Security of supply is also closely related to a strong economy and national security. The issue of security of supply is discussed under five headings: diversification of energy resources and supplier countries, natural gas and oil storage facilities, capacity to provide natural gas to the system, energy delivery infrastructure and energy efficiency.
Indigenous energy production using national resources is important in achieving energy independence. In this regard, indigenization is critically important for Türkiye to add a new dimension to its policies and strategies to reduce the countrys dependence on imports. Many public and private sector institutions and organizations, in particular the MENR, are expending efforts to increase the use of national energy resources. In order to decrease Türkiyes dependence on imported energy, there are plans to increase the use of renewable energy resources, domestic coal and nuclear energy, and to tap into domestic oil and natural gas reserves.
Türkiye intends to improve its electricity and natural gas market, restructure institutions in the energy sector and rehabilitate the infrastructure of the energy supply. The National Energy and Mining Policy reveals several strategies and objectives in order to create a more foreseeable, transparent and investor friendly energy market. In recent years, a series of major energy projects have been signed and these projects will contribute to Türkiyes goal of having a greater role as an energy trading hub.
Policy issues related to energy are within the responsibility of the MENR. Energy planning studies, taking into account short, medium and long term policies and measures, are carried out by the MENR within the framework of the above listed objectives.
Although conventional resources exist in Türkiye, these resources are not sufficient to meet the projected growth in energy demand, except for lignite and hydropower. To date, 68.9% of energy demand is met through imports. Energy planning studies indicate that Türkiyes energy demand will continue to increase in parallel with economic development, industrialization and urbanization. In this context, Türkiye has intensified efforts at further diversification in primary energy sources, imports (diversifying in both type and origin), technologies and infrastructures, while accelerating the production and utilization of remaining domestic resources potential and efficiency gains along the energy supplydemand chain.
Türkiye became a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2004, based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. The law regarding the accession of Türkiye to the UNFCCC was adopted by the Turkish Grand National Assembly in October 2003 and entered into force on 24 May 2004. The Kyoto Protocol was ratified by the Turkish Parliament on 5 February 2009. Improvement of energy efficiency, greater utilization of renewable sources, deployment of clean coal technologies and the introduction of nuclear power are among the main strategies involved in addressing the challenges within the energyenvironment linkage.
In order to meet the increasing energy demand without disruption, Türkiye continues to develop policies to meet a considerable part of its energy demand by increasing power generation from domestic resources, enabling energy markets to gain depth.
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
Available energy sources are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES*
|Units||Mt||Mt||Bm3||metric tonnes||metric tonnes||TWh/y||MWe||MW||
Hydropowers and other renewable energy sources (geothermal, solar and wind) values given as their maximum available potentials.
* Geothermal potential is equal to 0.0072 TW(e). Fossil fuels include lignite and hard coal sources.
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources.
1.1.3. Energy Consumption Statistics
Historical energy data are shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
|Final Energy consumption [PJ]||2000||2005||2010||2015||2020||Compound
rate 20002020 (%)
|Total||2 469||2 784||3 337||3 992||4 595||3.15|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||506||502||684||593||597||0.83|
|Oil||1 092||1 091||1 187||1 466||1 690||2.21|
|Natural gas||204||416||542||885||1 108||8.84|
|Bioenergy and Waste||270||223||186||122||109||-4.44|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Total energy derived from primary and secondary generation sources. Figures do not reflect potential heat output that may result from electricity co-generation.
: data not available.
Source(s): National Energy Balance Table
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
In parallel with economic growth and social development, electricity demand has shown a significant increase over the past decades, reaching 329.6 TWh by the end of 2021.
Türkiye has coal (mostly lignite), natural gas, renewable and hydropower resources for domestic electricity generation (Fig. 1). The share of domestic resources for electricity generation was 51.3% in 2021. Türkiye attaches utmost importance to the utilization of the remaining potential, with due regard, to cope with the risks stemming from import dependency. Integration of nuclear power plants into the Turkish electricity grid is also being considered as an essential tool to enhance supply security, while strengthening greenhouse gas emission mitigation efforts.
The Electricity Market Law (Law No. 6446) was enacted in 2013 in order to conduct market operating activities in a more effective way. In addition, a new corporation, the Energy Markets Operating Corporation (EPIAS), was introduced under this new law, creating a formal electricity wholesale market as well. Since April 2015, EPIAS is the new operator of the wholesale market for electricity which includes the day-ahead market and a continuous intraday market since July 2015.
The Turkish transmission network has cross-border lines to the electricity grids of all its neighbouring countries. However, Türkiye is synchronously connected only to Greece and Bulgaria.
FIG. 1. Electricity generation distribution, depending on energy sources (as of the end of 2021).
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
The MENR is the main body of the Turkish energy sector and is responsible for the preparation and implementation of energy policies, plans and programmes, in coordination with its dependent and related institutions and other public and private entities. The Ministry is responsible for monitoring and taking measures regarding the security of the electricity supply.
The Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) is the regulator of the electricity, natural gas, downstream petroleum and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) products markets. EMRA is responsible for granting licenses for activities in the gas and electricity markets for generation (including electricity generated from renewable sources), transmission, distribution, wholesale, retail, import and export.
The Electricity Generation Company (EUAS) is the state owned generation company responsible for the operation of existing power plants owned by the public.
The Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS) is the transmission system operator and is responsible for planning, installing and operating the transmission grid, for providing system security such that transmission constraints will be minimized.
Within the context of the Decree Law No. 703 published in the Official Gazette No. 30473 (bis) of 9 July 2018, Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Co. (TETAS) and EUAS unified under the structure of EUAS and duties, authorities and responsibilities of former TETAS are now being performed by EUAS.
Distribution companies: Twenty-one distribution companies with their own geographical region are all legally unbundled and privatized through transfer of operating rights contracts. The ownership of the distribution network asset remains with the state (with TETAS as the holding company)
1.2.3. Main indicators
Electricity production, consumption and capacity are shown in Table 3, and energy related ratios are shown in Table 4.
TABLE 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
|Electricity production (GWh)||2000||2005||2010||2015||2020||Compound
rate 20002020 (%)
|Total||124 922||161 956||211 208||261 783||306 703||4.59|
|Coal, Lignate and Peat||38 187||43 192||55 047||76 166||105 812||5.23|
|Oil||9 311||5 483||2 180||2 224||323||-15.47|
|Natural gas||46 216||73 445||98 144||99 218||70 931||2.17|
|Bioenergy and Waste||174||44||346||1 263||4 460||17.61|
|Hydro||30 879||39 561||51 796||67 146||78 094||4.75|
|Wind||33||59||2 916||11 652||24 828||39.26|
|Geothermal||76||94||668||3 425||10 028||27.65|
*Latest available data, please note that compound annual growth rate may not be representative of actual average growth.
**Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
: data not available.
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)||30.14||39.94||49.86||51.51||61.04||59.91||68.66||71.47||75.28||73.31||72.68||73.69|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita) (gross)||554||1012||1903||2231||2770||2854||3375||3499||3672||3709||3648||3661|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||11.5||19.7||40.60||57.47||59.33||57.55||72.77||66.71||72.31||66.07||58.31||59.85|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||||||||||||||||||-||-||-||-|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)**||45.71||52.1||66.7||72.67||72.03||70.20||76.04||74.03||5.67||72.38||68.92||70.05|
*Latest available data.
Source: RDS-1 and RDS-2
: data not available.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Since 1970, Türkiye has had plans in place to establish nuclear power generation capabilities. In order to meet the increasing domestic demand for energy and reduce its dependence on energy imports, various initiatives were undertaken in the past to build Türkiyes NPP.
Regarding the nuclear history of Türkiye, studies to build an NPP in Türkiye started in 1965. Later, between 1967 and 1970, a feasibility study was undertaken by a foreign consulting company to build a 300400 MW NPP. This plant would have been in operation in 1977. However, the project did not come to fruition because of problems related to site selection, among other reasons.
In 1973, the Turkish Electricity Authority (TEK) decided to build an 80 MW(e) prototype plant. However, in 1974, the project was cancelled because it could have delayed the construction of a greater capacity NPP. Instead of this prototype plant, TEK decided to build a 600 MW(e) NPP in southern coast of Türkiye.
Site selection studies were made in 1974 and 1975, and the GulnarAkkuyu location was found suitable for the construction of the first NPP. In 1976, the Atomic Energy Commission granted a site license for Akkuyu. In 1977, a bid was prepared, and the ASEA-ATOM and STAL-LAVAL companies were awarded the contract. Contract negotiations continued until 1980. However, in September 1980, the withdrawal of a loan guarantee led to the projects cancellation.
A third attempt was made in 1980. Three companies were awarded the contract to build four nuclear power plants: one Canada deuteriumuranium (CANDU) reactor unit by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), one pressurized water reactor unit by Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) in Akkuyu, and two boiling water reactor units by General Electric in Sinop. Due to Türkiyes request to apply the buildoperatetransfer (BOT) model, KWU resigned from the bid. Although AECL accepted the BOT model, it insisted upon a governmental guarantee of the BOT credit. The Turkish government refused to give such a guarantee, and consequently the project was cancelled.
In 1993, the Supreme Council for Science and Technology identified nuclear electricity generation as the project of third highest priority for the country. In view of this decision, the Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Company (TEAS) included a nuclear power plant project in its 1993 investment programme. In 1995, TEAS selected the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) as the consultant for the preparation of the bid specifications. The bid process started in 1996. Three consortia (AECL, Nuclear Power International and Westinghouse) offered proposals in 1997.
In July 2000, after a series of delays, the government decided to postpone the project.
Following this delay, the Law on Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the Sale of Energy Generated (Law No. 5710) was ratified; it entered into force on 21 November 2007.
The Regulation Regarding the Principles, Procedures, and Incentives for the Contracts and the Contest that will be made within the context of the Law on the Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the Sale of the Energy Generated was published in the Official Gazette on 19 March 2008. The purpose of the regulation is to regulate the procedures and principles regarding the construction and operation of NPPs for electrical energy production, and to regulate energy sales.
In accordance with this, the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) issued a set of criteria that establish general principles to ideally be met by investors.
A competition for construction and operation of NPPs and energy sale was held on 24 September 2008 by the TETAS for the construction of NPP units on the Akkuyu site.
Only one consortium bid for the competition. After evaluating the technical documents provided by the consortium, TAEK announced, on 19 December 2008, that the proposed NPP met TAEKs criteria.
The last envelope provided by the consortium on 24 September 2008, including the energy sale unit price, was opened by TETAS on 19 January 2009. After assessment, the competition performed on 24 September 2008 was canceled by TETAS on 20 November 2009.
220.127.116.11. Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant
Direct negotiations with the Russian Federation to build an NPP on the Akkuyu site in Türkiye started in February 2010 and concluded with an intergovernmental agreement (IGA) based on a buildownoperate (BOO) model. The agreement was signed on 12 May 2010. It aims to build nuclear capacity in Türkiye through mutual cooperation, ranging from NPP construction and operation in AkkuyuMersin, to decommissioning.
For the implementation phase of the project, the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant Electricity Generation Joint Stock Company was established on 13 December 2010. On 7 February 2011, TAEK recognized Akkuyu NPP Electricity Generation JSC as the owner, according to the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations. Akkuyu NPP Electricity Generation JSC was renamed and registered as Akkuyu Nuclear JSC (Akkuyu Project Company or APC) in September 2014.
In 2011, the Akkuyu site, with the existing site licence, was given to APC. Then, APC started site investigations in Akkuyu to update site characteristics and parameters, according to the national procedures laid out in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations. In May 2012, APC submitted an Updated Site Report (USR) to TAEK. A review and assessment were conducted by TAEK, its Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety and the IAEA, and a positive decision for the USR was given in December 2013. Then, a site parameters report (SPR) was submitted to TAEK in November 2014. The updated SPR (Rev. 2), which addresses the site licences validity, was submitted to TAEK in December 2015. The report was updated according to TAEKs evaluation findings. The SPR (Rev. 4), which was presented by Akkuyu Nuclear JSC and which includes the results of detailed site investigations performed at the NPP site and the precise values of the project parameters, was approved by TAEK on 9 February 2017.
On 3 March 2017, Akkuyu Nuclear JSC (APC) applied to TAEK for a construction licence for Akkuyu NPP Unit 1 and was awarded a limited work permit on 20 October 2017. Under this permit, APC began construction of that part of the building and infrastructure unrelated to nuclear safety, such as the port, road and personnel buildings. After reviewing the licence application documents, TAEK issued the construction licence on 2 April 2018. With this licence, APC started on construction of nuclear safety related buildings and infrastructures, such as a reactor or turbine buildings. On 3 April 2018, construction of the first unit of Akkuyu NPP formally launched with the pouring of concrete for the sub-base foundation of the nuclear island.
Akkuyu NPPs 2nd and 3rd units were awarded construction licenses by Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NDK) on 26 August 2019 and 13 November 2020 respectively. Application for a construction license for the 4th unit was submitted to NDK on 12 May 2020. The construction of 2nd and 3rd units of Akkuyu NPP formally launched with the pouring of first concrete for the sub-base foundation of the nuclear island on 8 April 2020 and 10 March 2021, respectively.
APC applied to the Ministry of the Environment and Urbanism (MoEU) for an environmental impact assessment (EIA) on 2 December 2011 and submitted the EIA to MoEU on 6 December 2013. An affirmative decision was given on 1 December 2014.
APC obtained an electricity generation licence for 49 years from EMRA on 15 June 2017. In addition, APC and TETAS signed a power purchase agreement (PPA) on 30 December 2017.
On 2 December 2019, the connection agreement between APC and TEIAS was signed. Within the framework of the agreement, the power generated by Akkuyu NPP will be transmitted from the Akkuyu NPP switchgear via 400 kV power lines to six transformer substations that are part of Türkiyes unified energy system. The total length of the high voltage lines that will be built as part of the Akkuyu NPP power distribution scheme will exceed 1000 km. The execution of the transmission grid connection agreement is an essential requirement of the Turkish Electricity Market Law and a number of other regulatory and legal acts of the Republic of Türkiye. All the power lines to be connected to Akkuyu NPP will be built and maintained by the TEIAS. Fundamental aspects of the IGA to build and operate a nuclear power plant on the Akkuyu site in Türkiye include the following:
The Russian party established a joint stock project company in Türkiye initially with a 100% share.
The Turkish party allocated Akkuyu site to the project company free of charge until the decommissioning of the NPP.
The Russian partys share will never be below 51% at any time (and the Government of the Russian Federation will be the guarantor of the project).
APC will be the owner of the NPP.
The general contractor will be JSC Atomstroyexport (ASE).
The Russian party shall provide funding to ASE for the construction of the NPPs.
The 15-year PPA will be awarded to APC for:
70% of the electricity generated by Units 1 and 2;
30% of the electricity generated by Units 3 and 4.
Generated electricity shall be bought by TETAS through a PPA for 15 years at USD $0.1235/kWh (fixed price, no escalation) on weighted average.
In case of less production than the volume stipulated in the PPA, APC shall fulfill its obligations by providing the missing electricity.
Nuclear fuel shall be sourced from suppliers based on long term agreements entered into between APC and the suppliers.
Subject to separate agreements that may be agreed by the parties, spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin may be reprocessed in the Russian Federation.
APC is responsible for decommissioning and waste management for the NPP. Within this framework, APC will make the necessary payments to relevant funds.
For the PPA period:
USD $0.0015/kWh shall be paid for spent fuel and radioactive waste management;
USD $0.0015/kWh shall be paid for decommissioning.
With regard to electricity sold outside the framework of the PPA, APC will make necessary payments to relevant funds stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
Turkish companies and citizens will be included in the project to the extent possible.
The project will be subject to all applicable laws, regulations and codes in Türkiye. All necessary licences, permits and approvals from related governmental organizations shall be obtained by APC.
18.104.22.168. Sinop Nuclear Power Plant
Electricity Generation Joint Stock Company (EUAS) is a state owned company and the largest electricity generation company in Türkiye. EUAS operates the existing hydraulic and thermal power plants, including their maintenance, repair and rehabilitation. EUAS has been given the role of the state operating organization for NPPs that are owned and operated by the state (as a whole owner or shareholder).
EUAS was recognized by TAEK as the Owner of Sinop NPP project on 22 August 2012.
An agreement between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Government of Japan on Cooperation for Development of Nuclear Power Plants and the Nuclear Power Industry in the Republic of Türkiye was signed on 3 May 2013. This agreement entered into force on 31 July 2015 after completion of diplomatic procedures.
EUAS International Incorporated Cell Company (EUAS International ICC) was established in 2015 as an oversea company of EUAS in order to manage and develop NPP projects on behalf of EUAS.
In the context of the Sinop NPP project, feasibility studies and development of a feasibility report for site suitability evaluation and financial model development were completed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, the leading partner of the Japanese-led consortium to build the Sinop NPP project, and submitted to MENR in June 2018. After the review of the feasibility report by MENR and based on the results of it, it was decided not to continue with Japan on the Sinop NPP project due to outcomes of the feasibility report. Türkiye is seeking other possibilities to continue the project.
Besides that, the Sinop NPP project EIA process was completed by EUAS International ICC with a positive EIA decision of MoEU on 11 September 2020.
Additionally, EUAS International ICC pursued and completed site characterization studies to license the Sinop NPP site without the Japanese Consortium and prepared the Sinop NPP Site Report for official submission to the NDK to obtain the Site License.
In 2022, it was restructured as EUAS International Joint Stock Company (EUAS International JSC).
22.214.171.124. Third nuclear power plant
Currently, Türkiye is in talks with China to conduct a site selection study to build four large-scale nuclear reactors in the Thrace region of northwestern Türkiye.
126.96.36.199. Small Modular Reactor
A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between EUAS International JSC and Rolls-Royce to set forth the framework to conduct a staged feasibility project for UK SMR technology. In the first phase, a pre-feasibility study was conducted to gain an overall understanding of the baseline UK SMR technology and the associated business plan. The next phase, as prospected in the MoU, is to perform a detailed feasibility assessment of the UK SMR.
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
The organizational structure of Türkiyes nuclear power plant projects is shown in Fig. 2. The MENR is the main body of the Turkish energy sector. It is responsible for the preparation and implementation of energy policies, plans and programmes, in coordination with its dependent and related institutions and with other public and private entities.
The EMRA was established by Laws No. 4628 and 4646. The Law on the Electricity Market, published in the Official Gazette on 3 March 2001, was enacted to unbundle electricity market activities, enable progress into a liberalized electricity market and provide fair and transparent market regulation.
Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was the regulatory body of Türkiye. An independent nuclear regulatory authority, the NDK, as well as a national nuclear technical support organization, Nuclear Technical Support Incorporated Company (NÜTED), were established in 2019, based on the Statutory Decree Law No. 702 enacted in 2018. Regulatory powers, responsibilities, activities and the related personnel of TAEK were transferred to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NDK). TAEK merged with the Boren Research Institute and Rare Earth Elements Research Institute which is affiliated with the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources while keeping its responsibilities to form the Turkish Energy, Nuclear, and Mineral Research Agency (TENMAK). Meanwhile TAEK has given the responsibilities of nuclear research and training and also the responsibility to act as the national radioactive waste disposal organization to TENMAK.
TENMAK conducts experimental and theoretical studies and collaborates in projects with universities and other related organizations. The research infrastructure at the former Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center of TAEK (ÇNAEM) is especially devoted to research and development activities addressing issues for nuclear reactor and fuel technology. The premises of ÇNAEM was transferred to TENMAK. Nuclear and radiation technology applications, acceleratory research and application have been carried out by the Ankara Campus of NÜKEN in TENMAK.
The MoEU has jurisdiction for making environmental assessment reports for power plants, including nuclear power plants.
The EUAS is responsible for electricity wholesale sales and purchases.
The TEIAS is the transmission system operator and is responsible for planning, installing and operating the transmission grid.
FIG. 2. Governmental and Organizational Infrastructure.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
There are no nuclear power plants in operation or being decommissioned. Three units of the Akkuyu NPP are under construction (see Table 5).
TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
Integration of nuclear energy into the Turkish energy supply will be one of the major means of decreasing the risks emerging from dependence on imported fuels by satisfying the increasing electric energy demand. MENR targets call for the share of NPPs in electricity generation to reach at least 15% by 2035.
According to an agreement with the Russian Federation, four units with WWER-1200 reactors, each with a capacity of 1200 MW, will be constructed on the Akkuyu site. The total installed capacity of Akkuyu NPP will be 4800 MW(e) and the lifetime of each unit is 60 years. It is expected that the first unit of the Akkuyu NPP will be put into operation in 2023 and other units at one-year intervals until the end of 2026 (see in Table 7).
It is planned to start the commercial operation of other two NPPs until the year of 2035.
TABLE 7. PLANNED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
Construction start year
Expected commercial year
Akkuyu NPP — 4
Sinop NPP — 1
Sinop NPP — 2
Sinop NPP — 3
Sinop NPP — 4
3rd NPP — 1
3rd NPP — 2
3rd NPP — 3
3rd NPP — 4
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
The Akkuyu NPP construction project is the worlds first nuclear power plant project implemented on the BOO (buildownoperate) principle. Under the long-term contract, APC assumes obligations for designing, constructing, maintaining, operating and decommissioning the plant.
On 23 July 2019, an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract between APC and a joint venture between the Russian Concern TITAN-2 JSC and the Turkish IC Içtas Construction JSC was signed. The EPC contract provides for the full cycle of works related to the construction of the main part of the NPP facilities, which allows applying a holistic approach in terms of design, engineering, supply of equipment, quality control and safety of construction works, and project implementation schedule.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
According to the IGA, Russian companies will initially own 100% of APC and retain the majority stake during the lifetime of the project (51%). Turkish and third country investors can join the project and acquire up to 49% of the APC at any stage of its implementation. Current shareholders of APC are given in table below.
SHAREHOLDERS OF APC
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for decommissioning the Akkuyu NPP. In addition, APC will make the necessary payments to the national decommissioning fund account stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
Nuclear Regulatory Law No.7381 (Law) sets forth policy regarding decommissioning and site release. The nuclear facilitys site shall be removed from regulatory control with the condition of unrestricted use. The decommissioning strategy calls for immediate dismantling
NPP owners shall contribute to the special decommissioning account and special radioactive waste management account separately per unit of electricity generated, and other waste producers shall contribute per type and activity of waste and type of practice.
The contribution amount is determined by the Accounts Management Board annually.
The special decommissioning account is to be used for the expenses of decommissioning of nuclear, radioactive waste and radiation facilities, and disposal of radioactive waste arising from decommissioning of these facilities.
The special radioactive waste management account is to be used for the expenses of siting, design, licensing, construction, operation, maintenance, closure and removal from regulatory control of disposal facilities, and related R&D. In the case of early decommissioning, if the money saved in the account is insufficient for decommissioning of the facility, then the cost is compensated by the assurance provided by an authorized person.
The facilitys operation license cannot be issued unless sufficient assurance provided by operator is confirmed by the Accounts Management Board, taking early decommissioning into account, and NDK is informed.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
A reactor materials unit, for the refining of uranium concentrate for conversion to UO2 and for the manufacturing of sintered pellets, had been in operation at the ÇNAEM since 1986 but is now in operation at NÜKEN Istanbul Campus and is subject to IAEA safeguards. At present, research and development activities are focused on pellet manufacturing and characterization.
Waste management is currently limited mainly to radioactive waste arising from the industrial and medical applications of nuclear technologies, and there is a facility for processing and storage of these wastes. This storage facility was built in the ÇNAEM and has been operating there under the new name as NÜKEN Istanbul campus since 1989. Compaction, cementation and precipitation processes are carried out at this facility.
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC will be responsible for NPP fuel supply and waste management.
Nuclear fuel will be sourced from suppliers based on long term agreements between APC and the suppliers. At the current stage of the Akkuyu NPP project, APC is planning that the first core and further reloads for the Akkuyu NPP will be supplied from TVEL, a Rosatom fuel supply company, based on a long-term contract for the design service life of 4 units of NPP.
According to the agreement with the Russian Federation, APC is responsible for safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste and decommissioning of the plant. In addition, APC will make the necessary payment to the national spent fuel and radioactive waste management fund stipulated by the applicable Turkish laws and regulations.
Subject to a separate agreement that may be agreed to by the parties, spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin may be reprocessed in the Russian Federation.
Nuclear Regulatory Law No.7381 introduces a national policy for management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. Additionally, Nuclear Regulatory Law No.7381 includes arrangements for national radioactive waste management policy; responsibilities of the Government, operator, Accounts Management Board, TENMAK and other organizations; funding of waste management; financial responsibilities of waste producers and national radioactive waste management plan.
According to the law, TENMAK is assigned as the national radioactive waste management organization. All kinds of radioactive wastes resulting from activities carried out in the sovereignty territory of the Republic of Türkiye shall be disposed of by TENMAK. The national programme, which covers the details of the radioactive waste management policy and strategy, was prepared by TENMAK and approved by the MENR on 4 December 2020.
Site selection studies for a near surface disposal facility are ongoing by TENMAK.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
The nuclear policy of the country includes R&D activities concerning the application of nuclear technology in various sectors such as energy, environment, human health, industry and agriculture.
Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was the solely governmental entity undertaking two major missions: as the research and development organization, carrying out the coordination and support all activities in nuclear field and also as the regulatory body of Türkiye, conducting all regulatory activities concerning nuclear and radiation safety from 1982 to 2018. Just after the establishment of NDK by a decree (Decree No. 702 dated 2 July 2018), TENMAK was established as the mainly scientific and technological research organization in the fields of the energy, mining, ionizing radiation, particle accelerators and nuclear technology by Presidential Decree (CBK) Nos 4 and 57 as affiliated to the MENR. It consolidates the TAEK, the National Boron Research Institute and Rare Earth Elements Research Institute.
TENMAK conducts activities to serve the country and humanity in the fields of energy, mining, ionizing radiation, particle accelerators and nuclear technology, to increase the competitiveness of Türkiye, to meet the needs of innovation, to ensure the production of new products and improvement of existing ones, and to provide researchers with scientific media. It operates in cooperation with private law persons to carry out scientific and technological research, to coordinate and encourage these research activities, to contribute to research and development activities, to carry out scientific, technical and administrative studies, and to organize, to support, to establish and coordinate collaborations.
Main organization of TENMAK consists of five technical institutions as given below:
Nuclear Energy Research Institute (NUKEN Ankara and Istanbul Campuses),
Boron Research Institute (BOREN),
Rare Earth Elements Research Institute (NATEN),
Energy Research Institute (ENAREN),
Clean Energy Research Institute (TEMEN).
Besides the ongoing Akkuyu nuclear power plant project, there are mainly two research reactors in Türkiye. First research reactor in Türkiye (TR-1) was commissioned as 1 MW in 1962 for the purpose of research and also production of isotopes for industrial and medical purposes. It was operational from 1962 to 1977 and has since been dismantled. In 1981, a pool type 5 MW reactor (TR 2) was built in the same building and operated at 5 MW between 1984 and 1994 for irradiation purposes. It operated at low power levels between 1995 and 2009 due to updates of seismic evaluation studies of the reactor building that were required. In 2009, the reactor was shut down to exchange the reactor core from mixed HEU-LEU core to fully LEU core. In 2013, the project on strengthening of the reactor building was completed. An updated safety analysis report (SAR) and other related documents are prepared and submitted to nuclear regulatory authority to get an operation license. Its current status is extended shutdown.
The second research reactor in Türkiye, ITU TRIGA MARK II, reached its first criticality on 11 March 1979. It is a pool type, light water cooled and graphite reflected reactor. The ITU TRIGA MARK II reactor is capable of steady state operation at power levels up to 250 kW and also it has a pulsing mode operation where powers as high as 1200 MW are achieved for about 10 msec.
According to national legislation enacted in 2018, TENMAK also has responsibilities regarding national radioactive waste management activities and projects. TENMAK is in charge of
Preparing the National Radioactive Waste Management Plan,
Conducting and coordinating all kinds of activities related to radioactive waste management such as collection, treatment, processing, transportation, storage and disposal of radioactive wastes,
Carrying out the tasks related to the participation of the Authority in the Accounts Management Board,
Establishing, installing, operating and making operatable radioactive waste facilities and for this purpose to establish economic enterprises,
Carrying out research and development activities related to radioactive waste management; establishing, installing, operating and decommissioning research-oriented laboratories, technology transfer offices, research and development centers,
Carrying out training activities related to radioactive waste management.
NUKEN Istanbul Campus conducts only research and development activities regarding radioactive waste management.
NUKEN Istanbul Campus is conducting research on nuclear fuel cycle and radiation science. Research and development activities in NUKEN Istanbul focus on nuclear fuel and reactor materials, radiation detection, radioisotope production, environmental radiation measurements, radiation safety, and NUKEN Istanbul campus has a team for carrying out nuclear safety calculations and for conducting research for new reactor designs.
NUKENs research reactor facility TR-2 is located in Istanbul campus. This facility was established for carrying out fundamental research and development to improve nuclear technology in the country, research on production techniques of radioisotopes used in medicine and industry and training of personnel to work in the nuclear field.
NUKEN-Ankara Campus carries out R&D activities in the fields of energy, ionizing radiation, particle accelerators and nuclear technology and also coordinates and supports training activities.
There are three main facilities in NUKEN Ankara Campus: the Proton Accelerator Facility, to produce radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnosis purposes in nuclear medicine, to carry out quality control, to carry out R&D and education activities based on proton accelerator; the Gamma Irradiation Facility, to apply industrial irradiation processes; and the Electron Accelerator Facility, to realize many applications of radiation technology.
The cyclotron type accelerator and related four beamlines at the TENMAK Proton Accelerator Facility (PHT) make it possible to do irradiations with beam energies between 1530 MeV and beam currents up to 1.2 mA in four target rooms. One of the target rooms is the research and development irradiation vault (Fig. 3). Some radioisotopes and their radiopharmaceuticals are produced by irradiations performed at solid, gas and liquid target systems placed at the end points of the proton beam lines. In addition to radiopharmaceutical production, TENMAK PHT also provides irradiation services for research studies in accelerator related fields for scientists in Türkiye as a result of this R&D infrastructure. The effective use of the R&D beamline is of paramount importance for the development of accelerator related research capabilities in the country.
FIG. 3. The view of proton accelerator and irradiation vaults.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies
TENMAK, TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkiye) Institutes and Presidential Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Board have been conductinging research and development activities on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), which is accepted into the fourth generation advanced reactor class. The National Roadmap Report of MSR studies was published based on the study carried out by the New Generation (4th Generation) Nuclear Reactor Technologies Working Group . A membership application for the 4th Generation International Forum (GIF) is in process.
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
TENMAK closely follows worldwide trends and progress in the field of nuclear reactor technologies and fuel cycles. Within context, previously TAEK but now TENMAK has participated actively in the international cooperative activities related to nuclear energy and technology.
Türkiye is an associate member of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. All activities related to CERN in Türkiye are coordinated and sponsored by TENMAK. Türkiye is a founding member of the International Centre for Synchrotron Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME), and TENMAK is the representing authority for SESAME. Türkiyes main objectives are to establish a qualified workforce by actively participating in the experimental programmes of CERN and SESAME and to follow worldwide scientific progress.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
There are more than 209 universities in Türkiye (state and private), with higher education organizations operating under the Turkish Higher Education Council. Almost all universities have engineering faculties. Moreover, some universities in Türkiye have undergraduate and graduate programmes in the field of nuclear engineering and science (Table 8).
Nuclear engineering education in Türkiye started in 1961 at Istanbul Technical University (ITU) Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). Before 2003, ITU-NEI graduated 318 Master of Science and 58 Doctor of Philosophy students in the field of nuclear energy. In 2003, ITU-NEI was reorganized as the Energy Institute (EI) which has an energy science and technology graduate program that includes nuclear energy courses. In 2011, the Radiation Science and Technology Master of Science Program was established at ITU-EI. Efforts are currently underway at ITU Graduate School to restructure the Radiation Science and Technology Master of Science Program into a Nuclear Engineering Master of Science Program that has new nuclear energy-related courses and to establish a Nuclear Engineering Doctor of Philosophy Program. Since 1979, ITU-EI has been operating a 250 kW TRIGA type training and research nuclear reactor for academic research and educational purposes.
Hacettepe University (in Ankara) has provided a nuclear engineering programme in English at undergraduate and graduate levels since 1982. Approximately 600 nuclear engineers graduated from this programme since its inception; 15% of them are working abroad in the nuclear sector (mainly in the United States of America) and 25% of them are working at governmental organizations related with the nuclear power programme in Türkiye. The remaining graduates are working in different sectors or are in graduate education at home or abroad.
Sinop University (in Sinop) established the undergraduate programme on nuclear engineering in 2015 and the graduate programme in 2021. Currently, 93 students are enrolled in the undergraduate programme, and 51 nuclear engineers have graduated from the programme since 2019. Approximately, 28% of graduates are working at governmental organizations, 17% of graduates are working at private organizations. Majority of graduates (44%) are continuing their academic studies.
There are four universities in Türkiye which have nuclear sciences institutes. Ege University (in Izmir) Nuclear Sciences Institute focuses on nuclear applications in industry and environmental radiation detection/measurement, Hacettepe University Nuclear Sciences Institute focuses on radiation physics and its applications, Ankara University Nuclear Sciences Institute focuses on medical applications, health physics, radiation protection and monitoring. The students who graduate from the Nuclear Sciences Institutes get a title of Health Physicist.
TABLE 8. TURKISH UNIVERSITIES SUPPORTING NUCLEAR EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
*Degrees: B Bachelor; M Master of Science; D Doctor of Philosophy.
Currently there are no vocational schools providing educational activities in the fields of nuclear technology or nuclear applications. Ankara Chamber of Industry and Hacettepe University are making efforts in this area and there is a new radiation technician programme in Akdeniz University.
TENMAK trains personnel in the nuclear field, also arranging for cooperation with universities and related organizations in this matter. The IAEA is one of the main supporting organizations for developing national human resources through training and fellowship programmes. TENMAK has announced and conducted IAEAs training courses and workshops about developing human resources for the nuclear field .
The General Directorate of Nuclear Energy and International Projects under the MENR (MENR-NUP) serves as the nuclear energy programme implementation organization in Türkiye according to the IAEAs milestone publication. The responsibilities of the MENR-NUP in Türkiyes nuclear power programme are to facilitate the implementation of NPP projects and to develop the national nuclear infrastructure by ensuring coordination among national authorities, the private sector and academia.
An IAEA workshop on workforce planning and human resources development was held in Ankara in July 2013. In this workshop, IAEA experts explained the usage of Nuclear Power Human Resources model developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States of America and allocated to the IAEA for use by Member States. This modelling tool can be used to calculate needs and supply of workforce for nuclear power plant projects for different time periods involving different organizations and different project models.
A human resources and knowledge development (HRKD) plan were drafted in the light of results obtained from the model. In May 2015, an IAEA expert mission was held in Ankara in order to review the draft human resources development plan for Türkiyes nuclear power programme. The IAEA expert team and model developer provided comments on the draft plan during the mission.
After the expert mission, the MENR-NUP established another working group, drawing from faculty members at the Hacettepe University Nuclear Engineering Department (HUNEM), ITU-EI and Akdeniz University Nuclear Science Application and Research Center. This group developed a national strategy report on localization, human resources development and technology transfer in the nuclear field. One of the important recommendations in this report is to establish a nuclear HRKD network in the country.
In 2016, a short- and medium-term road map for nuclear HRKD between 2018 and 2023 was developed and submitted by MENR-NUP to the Higher Council of Science & Technology presided over by the Prime Minister. This road map includes a plan for establishment of a structure to coordinate human resources development in the nuclear field.
In the scope of the HRKD studies, the following activities were also carried out:
Türkiye joined the IAEA project named Human Resources and Knowledge Development Networks Initiative along with Japan, Malaysia and South Africa in 2016 in order to establish a national network on HRKD in the country.
The law establishing the TurkishJapanese Science and Technology University was ratified by the Turkish Parliament in 2016. This university will include a nuclear engineering programme.
The MENR has initiated a study to get in touch with Turkish nuclear experts living abroad, especially those working in France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
Twelve Turkish experts from the MENR, TAEK, EUAS ICC, Hacettepe University Vocational High School and the Turkish Standards Institution were sent to the Nuclear Power Generation Safety Bases course in Japan on 415 December 2017. In addition, another 12 Turkish experts from the MENR, TAEK, Anadolu Agency, Sinop Nuclear Ltd. Co., Akkuyu Nuclear JSC and EUAS ICC were sent to the Public Acceptance course in Japan on 1822 December 2017. The courses were carried out in Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center in Tsuruga, Japan.
The following studies are being conducted:
A protocol was signed between the MENR, Ministry of National Education, EPC contractor and owner and operator (O/O) of Akkuyu NPP to develop a collaboration between the technical high schools near the plant site and the nuclear training center at plant site established for construction works in June 2020. In the scope of this protocol, an Introduction to Nuclear Energy course and a course book were developed for high school students. In August 2021, 15 teachers were trained to teach this course. After graduation, students will receive on-the-job (OJT) training in the nuclear training center to be constructed at Akkuyu site. After the training, they participate in construction at an NPP.
Approximately 500 Turkish students were sent to foreign universities to receive postgraduate education in nuclear field using scholarships from the Ministry of National Education.
After their education, the students are obliged to work at MENR-GDNE, NDK, TENMAK and EUAS for twice the duration of their study abroad . In the context of this programme, 24 students for MENR-NUP, 196 students for TENMAK, 130 students for NDK and 147 students for EUAS will receive graduate education at foreign universities from a list of global top 500 universities in Belgium, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The education fields are related to nuclear finance; nuclear law; public relations; nuclear fuel cycle; design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical and electrical nuclear instrumentation and control equipment, systems and components; spent fuel and radioactive waste management; nuclear safety, security and safeguards; site selection and evaluation; nuclear plant construction; nuclear material science; health physics; radiochemistry; radiobiology; radiation protection; particle acceleration, etc.
A cooperation protocol was signed between MENR, ROSATOM, APC, Turkish universities (Hacettepe University and Istanbul Technical University) and Russian universities (Big Pedro St Petersburg Polytechnic University and Mephi University) on 17 March 2022. Under this protocol, joint graduate education programmes are established by Turkish and Russian universities on the basis of dual diploma in field of nuclear energy and engineering. Graduates are employed in several fields by key stakeholders in nuclear power programme of Türkiye such as NPP operation and maintenance.
According to the IGA with the Russian Federation, APC is responsible for education and training of operating staff without any financial burden on the Turkish government. Therefore, APC is developed a training plan for Turkish students, who will make up of 30% of technical staff. The plan includes one year of Russian language and five and a half years of nuclear engineering education at Mephi University in the Russian Federation as well as on the job training at Russian NPPs after graduation. Turkish students are awarded scholarships from the APC and obligated to work at Akkuyu NPP as engineers and operators. Currently, 26 Turkish students are studying in the Russian Federation under the scope of this plan. Two hundred and twenty students have graduated from this training programme and started working at APC.
Since 2019, 71students are attending a two year masters program in nuclear energy in the Russian Federation. Forty-six students have graduated and have started working at APC. For initial and continuing training of operating personnel, the operator will establish a nuclear training center at the Akkuyu NPP site including a full-scope control room simulator in 2022. Moreover, according to the IGA, APC will establish a training center near the plant site including a full scope control room simulator for initial and continuing training of future Turkish operating staff.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
APC established a Public Information Center (PIC) for Akkuyu NPP in the city of Mersin in 2012 (Fig. 4). The PIC is a multifunctional communication platform, which implements educational programmes both in the center and outside the center. Activities are designed for residents of Mersin, nearby provinces and other regions of Türkiye. The visitors are children, schoolchildren, students, teachers, government representatives, non-governmental organizations representatives, the media, tourists and many others.
Visitors to the PIC are told about the history and development of the nuclear industry, achievements in physics, energy development prospects, as well as the socioeconomic development of Türkiye associated with the construction of nuclear industry enterprises and related infrastructure.
At the PIC, the principal operations of the power plant are presented graphically, and models of the industrial site of the future NPP and its reactor are displayed, while visitors are acquainted with how the protective barriers at the NPP are arranged.
The PIC continued to conduct educational and informational activities until 12 March 2020. In accordance with the precautions and restrictions due to the pandemic of the COVID-19, it has suspended its full-time activities. Since June 2021, informational activities for employees at the Akkuyu NPP occur on a monthly basis. Since September 2021, educational sessions occur for NGOs, and since December 2021 visits for school children, teachers and all other groups have occurred.
FIG. 4. Public information center in the city of Mersin.
In order to increase the public acceptance of nuclear energy and the Akkuyu NPP project in Türkiye, APC has intensified communication work with stakeholders.
In 2021, the following events were organized and carried out for public information:
Informational webinars for local suppliers based in Ankara and three countrywide webinars for local suppliers as part of the localisation works coordinated by the MENR and a seminar for local and national suppliers for Akkuyu NPP project in Mersin to familiarize potential suppliers with procurement procedures of the company.
Visits of the President of the Republic of Türkiye and the ministers of the cabinet including the Minister of Energy and Natural Resources to the construction site of the Akkuyu NPP with the participation of Turkish media.
APC executives interviews about the Akkuyu NPP construction progress to Turkish media.
Coordination meetings with the Governor of Silifke District, the Governor of Gülnar District and the Gülnar Advisory Group on Public Acceptability Issues, where an approach to communications joint work was developed.
Participation in international exhibitions and forums on nuclear energy (NPPES-2021 in online format, EIF-2021 in Antalya and Technofest Science Festival organized in Istanbul).
Virtual Open Doors Day event for residents of Mersin province and virtual media tour of the construction site for Mersin media representatives.
Charitable support for the renovation of the Gulnar schools infrastructure, the provision of educational materials to the students, the purchase and distribution of protective equipment against coronavirus infection in the Akkuyu NPP region and the organization of work to counter epidemiological risks.
Support of the regatta organized by the International Humanitarian Mission Sails of the Spirit in Mersin with the engagement of local community.
Live broadcast We Call Upon Talents program from Akkuyu NPP site, which is being implemented by the Human Resources Department of the Administration of the President of the Republic of Türkiye (was watched by more than 4 million people).
Child oriented activities (online national children's drawing contest on the topic of nuclear power and entertainment performances for children in schools of Gulnar in Mersin).
Fishing competition in the area of Akkuyu NPP construction site with the participation of local residents.
Support of Gulnar residents for Ramadan (500 food packages for locals) via District Administration Social Mutual Aid Fund.
Mass media-oriented activities (educational events for Mersin and Ankara media representatives and virtual media tour to Leningrad NPP for leading Turkish media organized in cooperation with Rosenergoatom Concern JSC).
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Ministry of Interior, Disaster and Emergency Management Authority (AFAD) is an institution working to prevent disasters, minimize disaster-related damages, plan and ensure the coordination of a post-disaster response, and promote cooperation among various government agencies. Also, provincial disaster and emergency directorates, affiliated with AFAD, are established within the body of governorship in all 81 provinces.
AFAD and other related stakeholders have specific centers for disaster and emergency management that have roles in emergency response according to the related regulations.
All the responsible authorities take part in the Presidency AFAD Center to provide an effective response, coordination, and collaboration when a national-level response is required for the management of disasters and emergencies.,
Disaster and Emergency Council is another notable institution that consists of representatives of all relevant ministries, institutions and organizations and convenes under the direction of the Minister of the Interior. If the Minister of Internal Affairs deems it necessary, representatives of other ministries, public institutions and organizations, universities, non-governmental organizations and experts may be invited to the Councils meetings. The legal duties of the Council are stated below:
To determine risk factors related to disasters and emergencies,
To put forward suggestions about earlier protective and preventive actions and works that should be conducted before disasters and emergencies,
To guide institutions and organizations,
To determine policies and primary proposals related to disasters and emergencies.
The mission of NDK is to undertake regulatory and inspection activities within the scope of emergency preparedness and response. NDK is recognized as the national warning point and competent authority by the IAEA according to the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency.
NDK conducts the national radiation monitoring activity or ensures that it is carried out.
NDK will take part in the Presidency AFAD Center in case of large radiation emergencies and provide technical consultancy regarding preparedness and response infrastructure., NDK is also one of the support solution partners of the Disaster Search and Rescue Group established according to the National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP).
In terms of emergency/disaster response, the roles and responsibilities of ministries, related institutions and governorships are defined in related legislation and in the NDRP, which was issued in 2014. The NDRP is the highest-level overarching plan and can be executed for all types of emergencies and disasters. Twenty-five working groups are designated in the NDRP for a national-level response. Each working group is associated to a specific service that may be required in case of emergency/disaster.
Based upon the Regulation on Disaster and Emergency Response Services and NDRP , the National Radiation Emergency Plan (NREP), which is an event-type plan according to the NDRP, was prepared by NDK in collaboration with AFAD (Fig.5). The preparation process for the NREP was carried out transparently, and the comments and inputs from the related stakeholders were taken into consideration. NREP was ratified by the Presidency of the Republic of Türkiye on 6 April 2019.
The most recent approach of the IAEA on emergency preparedness and response was adopted, and international practices were taken into account during the preparation of NREP. The roles of ministries, institutions, and service groups set forth in the legislation are elaborated in the plan. The emergency facilities, their locations (which were suggested by the IAEA) and related provisions are also adopted in the NREP.
FIG. 5. The national emergency planning framework.
The mission of NDK is to undertake regulatory and inspection activities within the scope of emergency preparedness. NDK is recognized as the national warning point and competent authority by the IAEA according to the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency.
NDK takes part in the Presidency AFAD Center with other related stakeholders in case of large radiation emergencies and provides technical consultancy regarding preparedness and response infrastructure. Also, an authorized entity (i.e. Akkuyu Nuclear JSC) carries out on-site management of radiation emergencies and cooperates with AFAD and other relevant institutions and organizations in the management of off-site radiation emergencies according to the related regulations.
Akkuyu Nuclear JSC is responsible for developing the on-site emergency plan, which determines the required actions to mitigate the accident consequences. Respective governmental organizations (Mersin Governorship, supported by local and national authorities) are going to prepare the provincial radiation emergency plan that is associated with the NREP and NDRP. The off-site emergency plan regulates zones and distances of emergency planning and defines actions to be taken by authorized local and national authorities to protect the public, property and the environment in the event of a radiation emergency.
According to the Regulation on Management of Radiation Emergencies, the on-site emergency plan should generally include the following topics:
General information regarding facility or practices;
Classification of the emergency and identification of the established operational criteria, underlying events and plant parameters when this classification is made;
Formation of on-site emergency response organization and determination of responsibilities;
Principles of response activities to be carried out on-site and preparations for response activities;
Arrangements for alarms, notifications, and communication;
Emergency management and realization of situational assessments;
Emergency workers safety and radiation protection
Radiological monitoring to be carried out in the facility, on-site, and near the site during emergencies;
Information to be provided for off-site emergency response organization and to inform the public about the situation;
Facilitating the access of emergency workers who will come to support the facility or the place where the application is carried out within the scope of the intervention, and the preparations to be made to protect these people from radiation and to be included in the intervention;
Information on theoretical and practical training and exercises to be given to emergency workers for the radiation emergency preparedness;
Centers and points to be used during emergency response, equipment, and other additional units;
Information on the characteristics and locations of emergency equipment and instructions for their use;
Termination of emergency, remedial actions, and radioactive waste management;
Implementation instructions of the emergency response organization
The on-site emergency plan is going to provide a clear and straightforward interface with off-site decision-makers. The necessary procedures are going to be identified, developed, and agreed upon with the responsible officials before the commissioning of the Akkuyu NPP.
After the on-site emergency plan is developed, it is going to be submitted to the NDK for review and approval before the fuel loading for the first reactor at the site. NDK is going to evaluate the on-site plan for consistency with the off-site plan, according to related regulations. The plan is going to be revised and updated periodically, and also specific circumstances that require revision are going to be considered.
A full-scale exercise for Akkuyu NPP should be conducted before the nuclear fuel arrives at the field according to NREP. Therefore, preparations for a full-scale field exercise have been ongoing within coordination of AFAD. As soon as the full-scale exercise for Akkuyu NPP is conducted before the nuclear fuel arrives at the field, this procedure is going to be repeated once every three years. When a full-scale exercise is not conducted, a tabletop exercise is going to be carried out.
The analysis related to emergency planning and the applicability of the emergency planning to the Sinop site is going to be evaluated in the Sinop Site Report, which is a part of the assessment for site suitability. The detailed on-site and off-site plans for emergency conditions are going to be prepared in accordance with national and international requirements, and the emergency plan for the Sinop NPP is going to be submitted before fuel loading.
The emergency facilities and their locations suggested by the IAEA, and related provisions, are adopted in the NREP. The off-site emergency management center will be the Provincial Disaster and Emergency Management Center of Mersin.
Excluding the backup control room, on-site emergency facilities can be collocated under the same facility. According to the Regulation on Management of Radiation Emergencies, the on-site emergency facilities should be built to satisfy the following requirements and to perform the following functions:
To support management and control arrangements that allow the fulfillment of emergency management functions needed to mitigate foreseen accident conditions;
To be operable during the whole response period during emergencies;
To be operable in all conditions;
To ensure the continuous operation of communication-related functions;
To provide controlled access to the centre;
To ensure the radiological monitoring of personnel entering the centre;
To ensure preventing contamination within the centre;
To ensure communication with off-site centres in case of damage to infrastructure or overload of communication lines;
To be protected against earthquakes and other natural hazards;
To ensure road transport in emergency conditions;
To meet humanitarian needs during an emergency;
To ensure the protection of the workers from the centre for the radiological and other dangerous conditions foreseen in the emergency and providing adequate personnel protective equipment for center workers
To provide required data, as close to real time as possible, from reliable informational sources;
To have access to design and safety analysis information;
To establish an off-site backup emergency management center to provide issues as mentioned above and to fulfil the functions of the on-site emergency management center.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
188.8.131.52. Establishment of the regulatory body
Türkiye established its first nuclear regulatory body (the Atomic Energy Commission) on 27 August 1956 with Law No. 6821 and pursued this effort to benefit from international experience in the area and become one of the founding members of IAEA in 1957. The Atomic Energy Commission was replaced by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) in 1982 under Law No. 2690. Regulation of all the activities in the field of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including issuing regulations, making safety reviews and assessments, granting permissions and licences, conducting inspections, and applying enforcement actions, were among the authorities and responsibilities of TAEK. However, TAEK also had responsibilities as the operator of some facilities requiring regulatory control.
In July 2018, with a referendum amending the constitution, the Turkish governance transformed the country into a presidential republic. Consequentially, all governmental institutions modified to adapt to the new system.
To improve the regulatory system in Türkiye and achieve full compliance with international requirements and expectations in the area, a draft Nuclear Energy Law was prepared by TAEK in coordination with MENR. This draft law has been enacted with Decree- Law No. 702 and with Presidential Decree No. 4.
The decree-law on Organization and Duties of Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Amendments to Various Laws, Decree-Law No. 702, was issued by the Cabinet on 9 July 2018 as one of the transition decree laws. Decree-Law No. 702 is a comprehensive nuclear law regulating nuclear safety, nuclear security, nuclear safeguards, radiation safety, radiation protection, and other related subjects on this topic. Furthermore, it established a new independent nuclear regulatory authority, the NDK. However, Decree-Law No. 702 was annulled with the decision of the Constitutional Court due to procedural reasons. Due to annulment decision, there was need to replace Decree Law No. 702 and Presidential Decree No.4. To replace these laws, Law No. 7381 and Presidential Decree No. 95 were prepared and came into force on 8 March 2022. The content of the Law No. 7381 remains mostly same with the Decree-Law No. 702.
184.108.40.206. Legal foundation and statue of the regulatory body
The duties and responsibilities of NDK were defined under the Presidential Decree No. 95 on Organization and Duties of Nuclear Regulatory Authority. This Presidential Decree also defines the organizational structure of NDK and the duties and responsibilities of its units.
The former nuclear regulatory body, TAEK, was transformed into a research and development organization and also given the responsibility of disposal of all radioactive waste produced in the territory of Türkiye.
NDK is associated with MENR by Presidential Decree No. 95.
220.127.116.11. Mandate, mission, and tasks
The aim and scope of Law No.7381 were defined in Art. 1. This article also defines the general mandate of NDK (the regulatory control of activities regarding utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation) as follows:
Furthermore, Presidential Decree No. 95 defines the activities, topics and areas to be regulated by NDK in the scope of Law No. 7381 as follows:
Protection of employees, the public, the environment, and future generations from radiation;
Safety, security and safeguards in the activities regarding nuclear energy and ionizing radiation;
Site assessment, design, construction, commissioning, operation, decommissioning and closure of nuclear installations, radiation facilities, and radioactive waste facilities;
Mining, production, transportation, storage, export, import, trade, possession, transfer, accounting and control, processing, reprocessing, and use of nuclear materials;
Production, transportation, storage, export, import, trade, possession, transfer, use, installation, dismantling, manufacture, maintenance, and repair of radiation sources;
Possession, transfer, processing, transportation, storage, export, import, trade, and disposal of radioactive wastes;
Exports and imports of all kinds of substances, materials, equipment, systems, components, or related technology subject to control within the scope of safeguards;
Radiation emergency management;
The qualifications and training of the personnel ;
Other issues, areas, and activities which are to be determined by the Board.
18.104.22.168. Authorities and responsibilities
The duties and authorities of the NDK are determined by the President of the Republic in Presidential Decree No. 95. The duties and authorities of the NDK are as follows:
To determine the strategy, target, and working principles of the Authority.
To issue regulatory requirements and decisions in the areas of its duties and authorities.
To grant authorizations; to define and modify the technical, legal, administrative and financial scope and conditions of the authorizations; to restrict, suspend, end and revoke the granted authorizations; to determine and change the duration of the authorizations; to review and evaluate the information and documents submitted to the Authority for or after the authorization; to define and modify the conditions of the authorization given as a result of the evaluation.
To inspect or investigate the activities or places within the scope of its duties or authorities or have them inspected or investigated before and after the authorization;
To determine issues requiring approval with the scope of safety, security and safeguards; to grant approval and to determine conformity criterion if necessary.
To request and evaluate all the required information and documents from the applicants and authorized persons, to use the information and documents in compliance with the confidentiality requirements.
To request the authorized person to carry out a safety assessment for the activity when deemed necessary;
To determine whether the authorized persons have fulfilled their obligations related to the insurance or financial guarantee for nuclear liability and related to the special accounts of radioactive waste and decommissioning.
To carry out the tasks and procedures related to the administrative sanctions with scope of the Law No. 7381.
To establish and operate the national radiation source recording system, national central dose recording system, and national nuclear material accounting and control system.
To conduct the national radiation monitoring activity or to have it conducted.
To cooperate with the institutions and organizations of other countries and international organizations, participate in joint activities, or coordinate the activities carried out with these organizations in the scope of its field of responsibility.
To inform relevant national or international organizations about extraordinary events.
To have research and development activities in the field of safety and security necessary to support its regulatory activities carried out.
To exchange information, cooperate, and communicate directly with the public and private institutions and organizations, non-governmental organizations and the public.
To determine regulatory activities, decisions, and opinions to be sent to national and international institutions and organizations and to be disclosed to the public.
To request all kinds of necessary information and documents related to a subject from all real and legal persons, including public institutions and organizations, and/or to examine them on-site.
To cooperate with the AFAD and relevant institutions and organizations in the management of radiation emergencies that may occur as a result of activities not under regulatory control.
22.214.171.124. Organizational structure of the regulatory body
NDK is composed of a Nuclear Regulatory Board and Presidency. The decision-making body of the NDK is the Nuclear Regulatory Board. The Nuclear Regulatory Board consists of five persons, including the President of NDK (who also chairs the Board) and a Second Chairperson. All Board members are assigned by the President of the Republic. The President of the Republic also appoints the President of NDK and the Second Chairperson. On 5 February 2019, the President of NDK and the Board Members were appointed by a Presidential Decree. The Regulation on Working Procedures and Principles of Nuclear Regulatory Board was issued on 11 April 2019.
The Presidency consists of the President of NDK, two vice presidents, and service units. The organizational structure of the Presidency was determined by the Presidential Decree No. 95.
NDKs main organization consists of six technical and five administrative units. Technical units are the following:
Department of Nuclear Installations (regulatory activities in nuclear safety);
Department of Radiation Practices (regulatory activities in radiation practices and radiation facilities);
Department of Security and Safeguards (regulatory activities in nuclear security and safeguards, and in transportation and import/export of radioactive materials);
Department of Radiation Protection (regulatory activities in radiation protection, emergency preparedness and response and radioactive waste management);
Department of Inspection (nuclear and radiation safety inspections);
Department of External Relations (national and international coordination of all kinds of activities within the scope of duties and responsibilities of NDK).
Administrative units are:
Department of Legal Services;
Department of Strategy Development (administrative and financial activities of NDK);
Department of Support Services (human resources and other supporting services);
Press and Public Relations Consultancy;
Directorate of Board Services (conducting secretarial work and operations of the Nuclear Regulatory Board).
Decree-Law No. 702 allows for the transfer of current regulatory personnel employed within TAEK in the departments of Nuclear Safety, Radiation Health and Safety, and Technology to the NDK; however, in accordance with Law No. 7381, NDKs personnel was kept the same as Decree-Law No. 702. Figure 6 shows the organizational structure of NDK.
FIG. 6. Organizational structure of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority.
3.1.2. Licensing process
In Türkiye, nuclear installations are licensed by NDK in areas relating to nuclear safety, security, safeguards and radiation protection. Before the establishment of NDK as an independent nuclear regulatory body, , TAEK was the Authority, making the authorization, inspection, regulation, assessment and enforcement.
A new regulation will be developed by the NDK to establish the licensing process in accordance with provisions of the new nuclear law. Until this regulation is issued, the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations will be in force.
The Turkish licensing system includes a 3S (safety, security, and safeguards) approach. During the evaluation of licence application, submitted reports and programmes related to safety, security, and safeguards are reviewed by the regulatory body. The approval of the physical protection programme and the nuclear material accountancy and control system of the NPP is a prerequisite before granting permission to bring nuclear material on-site. The final information regarding emergency management is reviewed before the fuel loading is permitted.
The licensing process includes the review and assessment of a set of documents for each licence application. These documents include:
Preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) or final safety analysis report (FSAR);
Physical protection programme documentation;
Nuclear material accountancy and control system documentation;
Management system documents;
Nuclear power plant licensing activities are carried out by the Nuclear Installations Department. This departments main responsibilities are licensing of nuclear installations (review and assessment of documentation related to nuclear safety) and coordination of licensing activities between technical departments. All authorizations related to nuclear installations are awarded by the Nuclear Regulatory Board.
The licensing procedure is initiated by the applicant, to be recognized as the owner. The licensing process for an NPP comprises three main stages in succession: site licence, construction licence, and operating licence. There are several permits functioning as hold points during the licensing process. These include the limited work permit, commissioning permit, fuel loading, and test operations permit for the operating licence. For each authorization, documents required for review and assessment are defined in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations of 1983. There is no design approval authorization in Türkiye. NDKs authorization is also required for every modification that may have an impact on the safety of the nuclear installation. The authorization process for the decommissioning stage is not defined in the decree. This issue is addressed under new regulatory legislation.
FIG. 7. Licensing system under Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Facilities
The licensing approach is defined in the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards, and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants of 2012, which lays out the rules for establishing a licensing basis for NPPs. These rules state that the issues insufficiently addressed by existing Turkish regulations on nuclear safety shall be covered by requiring compliance with the regulations of the vendor or designer country and the IAEAs Safety Standards, particularly its safety fundamentals and safety requirements. For remaining issues, third party country laws, regulations and standards are referenced. The directive also requires the applicant to submit a reference plant of the proposed design to the regulatory body to facilitate the licensing process. The directive was established in accordance with the principles laid out in the IAEA publication INSAG-26, Licensing the First Nuclear Power Plant.
This directive is being implemented for the Akkuyu project. A list of applicable regulations, guides, and standards was determined by the owner. TAEK approved the list on 2 November 2012. The revised list (Rev. 2) was approved on 14 November 2014. The licensing basis for the Akkuyu NPP is mainly composed of Turkish regulations, IAEA safety fundamentals and requirements, and Russian Federation regulations. The list also contains standards and guides of Türkiye and the Russian Federation. Novovoronezh-II NPP in the Russian Federation was approved as the reference plant for Akkuyu NPP by TAEK.
In addition, according to the Regulation on Environmental Impact Assessment, NPPs should obtain an affirmative decision on an EIA from the MoEU as a prerequisite to the site approval and an electricity production license from the EMRA.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
The Turkish regulatory structure is composed of laws, decree-laws, presidential decrees, regulations, guides, and codes and standards. The hierarchical pyramid of the Turkish regulatory structure is given in Fig.8. Within this structure, the legislative and regulatory framework of Türkiye is consistent with international conventions, treaties, and IAEA Safety Standards in most aspects of nuclear safety, security and safeguards.
Türkiyes legislative and regulatory framework ensures that nuclear materials and facilities are utilized and nuclear activities are performed with proper consideration for the health, safety, security, and protection of people and the environment. As a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Türkiye has established a system of accountancy for and control of nuclear materials based on the Agreement between Türkiye and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Safeguards Agreement) and Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Türkiye and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Additional Protocol). Türkiye received an IAEA State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material Advisory Service (ISSAS) Mission from the IAEA in June 2010 to review this system and revisions with respect to the Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol. Within contexts of nuclear safeguards and nuclear export control, Regulation on Nuclear Safeguards was issued on 25 January 2020, and Regulation on Nuclear Export Control was issued on 13 February 2020.
FIG. 8. Hierarchy of regulatory documents in Türkiye (July 2018).
Türkiye is a party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and fully implements its provisions. The Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was ratified by the Turkish Parliament on 10 February 2015 and entered into force on 8 July 2015. Both regulations, on Nuclear Export Control and on Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Nuclear Materials, reflect the latest developments in the country and in the international framework.
The main Turkish legislative framework regulating nuclear installations consists of Decree-Law No. 702 and Presidential Decree No. 4, which regulate nuclear safety, security and radiation protection, inspections and the enforcement process (administrative fines and criminal penalties, limiting, suspending and revoking the authorization); the Environmental Law, which regulates the environmental impact of these facilities; and the Law on the Electricity Market, which regulates electricity production licences. NDK, the MoEU, and the EMRA are the main regulatory bodies for NPPs. There are several other regulatory bodies, such as the Ministry of Transportation and the Ministry of Health, which indirectly regulate NPPs with regard to other issues under their responsibilities.
Regarding nuclear safety, there is Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, 1983;
Further details regarding safety principles are addressed in regulations. There are currently 22 regulations directly or indirectly addressing safety, security, and safeguards.
The Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations; the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants; and the regulations constitute the basis of the legal framework of the nuclear safety of nuclear installations in Türkiye.
Rules and procedures related to the licensing of nuclear installations are laid out in the Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, which entered into force in 1983. The decree defines permits and licences to be obtained; requirements for applications for these permits and licences, including lists of documents to be submitted; review and assessment procedures; the authorizing entities within NDK for each authorization; and approval mechanisms for modifications during construction and operation. It also authorizes NDK to inspect the installations throughout their lifetime.
Another important regulatory document is the Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants, which lays out the rules for establishing a licensing basis for nuclear power plants. The licensing approach of NDK is defined in the directive.
Rules and procedures for accounting and control of nuclear materials are described in the Regulation on Nuclear Safeguards of 2020, which satisfies the requirements of the Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. This regulation has been prepared in compliance with the Additional Protocol. The national aspects of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material were implemented in the Regulation on Nuclear Security of Nuclear Facilities and Nuclear Materials of 2020. This regulation was prepared in compliance with INFCIRC/225/Rev. 5. Additionally, Türkiye received the IAEA International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) Mission in 2021; the IPPAS team has observed that the Republic of Türkiye has established a nuclear security regime with essential elements of the IAEAs guidance on the fundamentals of nuclear security.
There are several regulations associated with nuclear safety. The suitability of NPP sites is addressed in the Regulation on Nuclear Power Plant Sites of 2009. Basic requirements on the design of an NPP are laid out in the Regulation on Design Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants of 2008, and those on construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of an NPP in the Regulation on Specific Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants of 2008. Nuclear and radiological emergencies are covered in the Regulation on Management of Radiation Emergencies. This regulation covers the on-site management of radiation emergencies for facilities and applications subject to regulatory control where activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation are carried out. This regulation also stipulates that off-site preparation, planning, and response activities for radiation emergencies will be carried out under the coordination of AFAD and within the scope of relevant legislation, regulations, and plans, especially the NREP. For radiation emergency planning, the requirements of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 7, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, is addressed in the regulation. The NREP has been ratified by the Presidency of the Republic of Türkiye on 6 April 2019. The Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management of 2013 lays out the rules on the safe management of radioactive wastes which may arise from the use of nuclear energy as well as sources of ionizing radiation in order to protect the public, the environment, and the future generations. The Regulation on Clearance in Nuclear Facilities and Release of Site from Regulatory Control of 2013 covers the methods and principles related to clearance of radioactive material and waste which arise during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and release of sites from regulatory control. All regulations previously issued by TAEK are in the process of revision by the NDK to comply with the Decree-Law No. 7381 and Presidential Decree No.95 issued in 2022.
The Regulation on Radiation Protection for Nuclear Facilities of 2018 covers radiation protection principles, dose criteria to be applied in licensing, responsibilities related to radiation protection, operational radiation protection, records, and reports. This regulation is applied to planned, existing and emergency exposures due to nuclear facilities. This regulation is in the process of revision to combine with the radiation protection provisions in radiation applications, radioactive waste and radiation facilities and to comply with the Decree-Law No. 7381 and Presidential Decree No. 95 issued in 2022.
The Regulation Regarding Equipment Procurement Process and Approval of Manufacturers for Nuclear Facilities of 2015 establishes the provisions for the procurement process for all equipment used in nuclear facilities, including the permits the owner must obtain to initiate the procurement process and issues regarding approval of manufacturers taking part in the procurement process for equipment important to safety, as well as regulatory inspections and sanctions to be implemented in the procurement process.
All existing regulations issued by TAEK will be revised and reissued by NDK. Implementation of existing regulations will continue until new NDK regulations come into force. NDK already issued seven administrative (Organization, Working Procedures and Principles of NDK Board, Human Resources, Training of Nuclear Regulatory Specialists, Ethical Principles to Be Followed by NDK, Administrative Hierarchy, Transaction and Service Fees) and nine technical regulations (Nuclear Security, Safeguards, Export Control, Emergency Management, Environmental Reinstatement Activities, Authorization of Radiation Facilities and Radiation Applications, Administrative Sanctions, Inspection and Authorization of Dosimetry Services) to replace the older TAEK regulations.
IAEA and EU requirements are being taken into account in revision studies. A gap analysis between requirements of EU acquis and requirements of Turkish legislation concluded in the frame of IPA Twinning Project Improvement of Nuclear Safety Regulatory Infrastructure of Türkiye (TR13 IPA NS 01 16 R) (2017-2018).
Decree laws, presidential decrees, regulations, and guides concerning the safety of nuclear installations
Decree laws and presidential decrees:
Decree-Law No.7381, 2022.
Presidential Decree No.95, 2022.
Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations, 1983.
Decree on Radiation Safety, 1985.
|1||Decree on Licensing of Nuclear Installations||1983||Establishes the licensing system, defines rules and procedures for licensing, inspections, and enforcements|
|2||Decree on Radiation Safety||1985||Defines general rules for radiation safety regarding the keeping, using, producing, importing and exporting, acquiring, selling, transportation, and storage of the ionizing radiation sources|
|3||Regulation on Radiation Safety||2000||Defines measures to be taken against dangers of radiation during activities utilizing radiation sources|
|4||Regulation on Wastes from the Use of Radioactive Materials||2004||Defines the conditions regarding discharge of wastes from the use of radioactive materials, to the environment by not damaging to public, workers and environment|
|5||Regulation on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material||2005||Defines measures for stages of loading, transportation, unloading, temporary storage as well as delivery to the recipient of the packages containing radioactive materials, including its design and preparation, for transportation by road, railways, air, or sea.|
|6||Regulation on Specific Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants||2008||Determines the safety principles to be complied with to achieve the nuclear safety objectives defined by the Authority in site assessment, design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning phases; as well as principles related to emergency and accident management.|
|7||Regulation on Design Principles for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants ||2008||Establishes safety principles to be followed during the design of nuclear power plants to achieve nuclear safety objectives defined by the Authority.|
|8||Regulation on the Control of High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources and Orphan Sources||2009||Defines administrational and technical provisions to be done in order to prevent workers, public and environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation that might arise from registered sealed radioactive sources with high activity and from the orphan sources|
|9||Regulation on Site of a Nuclear Power Plant ||2009||Establishes the nuclear safety requirements for siting of nuclear power plants.|
|10||Regulation on Protection of Outside Workers in Controlled Areas from the Risks of Ionizing Radiation||2011||Defines the requirements for radiation protection of outside workers performing nuclear and ionizing radiation activities in controlled areas|
|11||Regulation on Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Nuclear Materials||2012||Defines the principles regarding the physical protection measures to be taken to protect nuclear materials used in peaceful nuclear activities and nuclear facilities against sabotage and theft within the borders of the Republic of Türkiye.|
|12||Regulation on Radioactive Waste Management||2013||Defines rules and procedures for the safe management of radioactive wastes that may arise during the use of nuclear energy and sources of ionizing radiation. |
|13||Regulation on Clearance in Nuclear Facilities and Release of Site from Regulatory Control||2013||Determines the methods and principles related to clearance of radioactive material and waste that arise during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and to release of a site from regulatory control|
|14||Regulation Regarding Equipment Procurement Process and Approval of Manufacturers for Nuclear Facilities||2015||Defines rules and procedures for the procurement and manufacturing of all equipment used in nuclear facilities; defines required permits and approvals for procurement and manufacture; defines inspections and enforcements regarding procurement and manufacturing|
|15||Regulation on Construction Inspection of the Nuclear Power Plants||2017||Defines the scope of the inspections which will be performed by the Owner for the purpose of constructing nuclear plants in compliance with nuclear safety principles and related legislation and standards; defines the methods and principles regarding the authorization of nuclear construction inspection organizations; defines the duties and responsibilities of relevant parties, and defines the scope of the contract of service that will be concluded between nuclear construction inspection organization and the Owner.|
|16||Regulation on Operating Organization, Operating Personnel Qualifications and Training and Operating Personnel Licenses||2017||Establishes rules and procedures for operating organization, qualification and training of operating personnel, and operating personnel licenses. |
|17||Regulation on Management System for Nuclear Installations||2017||Defines the basic requirements for establishing, maintaining and continuously improving a management system that gives priority to safety, develops leadership skills at all levels of management and supports a strong safety culture in the organization that constructs, operates, decommissions or closes a nuclear installation.|
|18||Regulation on Radiation Protection in Nuclear Installations||2018||Defines rules and procedures for radiation protection in all phases during the lifetime of a nuclear installation.|
|19||Regulation on Authorizations Regarding Radiation Facilities and Radiation Practices||2020||Defines the procedures and principles regarding the authorization of activities in order to determine and confirm that the activity related to radiation facilities and radiation practices are carried out within the framework of radiation protection, safety and security principles|
|20||Regulation on Management of Radiation Emergencies||2020||Establishes the procedures and principles for the management of radiation emergencies that may occur during the execution of activities subject to regulatory control and the duties and responsibilities of authorized persons.|
|21||Regulation on Nuclear Security of Nuclear Facilities and Nuclear Materials||2020||Determines the principles regarding nuclear security measures to be taken during activities related to nuclear facilities and nuclear materials in line with INFCIRC/225/Revision 5.|
|22||Regulation on Safeguards ||2020||Establishes the procedures and principles to be followed within the framework of the national nuclear material accounting and control system in compliance with the requirements of the Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA and its Additional Protocol. |
|23||Regulation on Nuclear Export Control||2020||Establishes the procedures and principles for the export of items specifically designed or prepared for use in the nuclear field and nuclear dual-use items in order to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons in compliance with INFCIRC/254 Part 1 and INFCIRC/254, Part 2.|
|24||Regulation on Authorization of Environmental Reinstatement Activities of Areas Exposed to Radioactive Contamination||2020||Defines the procedures and principles regarding the authorization of environmental reinstatement activities to be carried out in areas exposed to radioactive contamination. |
|25||Regulation on Administrative Sanctions of Nuclear Regulatory Authority||2021||Establishes rules and procedures for the administrative sanctions (suspension, restriction, or revocation of the authorization, administrative fines) to be applied by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the procedures and principles regarding their implementation.|
|26||Regulation on Inspections Regarding Nuclear Energy and Ionizing Radiation||2021||Regulates the procedures and principles regarding the inspections carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority for activities requiring authorization related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, and the qualifications of the inspector, the type and scope of the inspection.|
|27||Regulation on Authorization of Organizations to Provide Dosimetry Service.||2021||Regulates the authorization conditions, responsibilities, authorizations of organizations that will provide personal dose monitoring services to those working in activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation and regulates the procedures and principles regarding the operation of the National Central Dose Registration System.|
Communique on Administrative Fines to Be Applied in 2022 in Accordance With Article 4/A of the Decree-Law No. 702, 2021, 2022.
Guides on Nuclear Safety:
Guide on Format and Content of Site Report for Nuclear Power Plants, 2009.
Guide on Specific Design Principles, 2012.
Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant for Nuclear Power Plants, 2012.
Guide on Owner and Authorization Application for Nuclear Installations, 2016.
Guide on the Construction Activities in Nuclear Installations that are Authorized as per the Authorization Stages, 2016.
Guides on Radiation Safety:
Working Guide on Industrial Radiography
Guide on Dosimetric Quantities
Guide on Dismantling and Transporting Lightning Rods Containing Radioactive Sources
Guide on Working Procedures and Principles of Radiation Safety Committees
Guide on Radiation Warning Signs
Guide on Classification of Radiation Areas
Guide on Shielding Calculations
Guide on Considerations and Shielding Conditions in the Design of Rooms Where Medical Radiology Practices are Made
Guide on Monitoring of Radioactivity and Radiation Protection in Metal Scraps
Guide on Discharge of Patients Receiving Radionuclide Treatment
Guide on the Temporary Storage of Packages Containing Radioactive Material in Warehouses
Guide on Classification of Sealed Radioactive Sources
Guide on Ventilation of Medical Radiology Laboratories
Guide on Radon in Indoor Environments and Radioactivity in Building Materials
Guide on Preparation of Radiation Protection Program in Medical Radiology Practices
Radiation Safety Guide on Package/Baggage Control Devices and Explosive/Fugitive Substance Detection Devices Using Security Purposes
Guide on Personal Dosimeter Use
Guide on Radiation Sources to be Exempted from Authorization Conditions
Radiation Safety Guide on Practices with Dental X-Ray Devices
Guide on Monitoring of Radiation Areas
Guide on Radiation Protective Equipment
Guide on Preparation of Working Procedures for Analyzers Used for Industrial Purposes
Guide on the Assessment of Radiation Dose Exposed by Flight Personnel due to Cosmic Radiation
Guide on Security of Radioactive Sources Used in Nuclear Medicine
Guide on Preparation of Radiation Protection Program for Veterinary Radiology Practices
Guide on Decommissioning of Nuclear Medicine Units
Guide on Preparation of Radiation Protection Program in Vehicle Container Scanning Practices
Guide on Preparation of Working Procedures for Safe Working with Low-Activity Radioactive Sources
Guide on Preparation of Radiation Protection Program for Practices with Nuclear Measurement Devices
Guide on Radiation Protection in Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Substances
Guide on Radiation Protection Program in Nuclear Medicine Practices
Guide on General Procedures to be Used for the Evaluation of and Response to Radiological Emergencies
Guide on the Security of Radioactive Sources
Guide on Classification of Radiation Incident or Accidents
Guide on Preparation of Radiation Protection Program in Industrial Radiography
Guide on the Safe Transportation of Radioactive Materials
APPENDIX 1. INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
International treaties, conventions, and agreements signed/ratified by Türkiye
|1||Convention on Cooperation in the Atomic Energy Field Between the NATO Members and Its Amendment||22 June 1955||10 September 1956|
|2||Paris Convention (1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy)||29 July 1960||13 May 1961|
|3||Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water||5 August 1963||13 May 1965|
|4||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960||28 January 1964||13 June 1967|
|5||International Labour Conference Convention Number 115 Concerning the Protection of Workers Against Ionizing Radiation|
17 June 1962
25 July 1968
|6||Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||28 January 1969||28 November 1979|
|7||Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution||16 February 1976||12 June 1981|
|8||The International Convention on Railway Transportation||21 March 1985||1 June 1985|
|9||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as Amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964||16 November 1982||23 May 1986|
|10||Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||23 August 1983||7 August 1986|
|11||Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution from Land-based Sources||17 May 1980||18 March 1987|
|12||Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||28 September 1986||3 September 1990|
|13||Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||28 September 1986||3 September 1990|
|14||Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution||21 April 1992||6 March 1994|
|15||Convention on Nuclear Safety||24 September 1994||14 January 1995|
|16||Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty||3 November 1999||26 December 1999|
|17||Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna and the Paris Conventions||21 September 1988||19 November 2006|
|18||Synchrotron Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East||11 September 2002||23 March 2012|
|19||Protocol to Amend the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as Amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol of 16 November 1982||12 February 2004||17 October 2021|
|20||Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||8 July 2005 ||24 April 2015|
|21||International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism||14 September 2005||8 May 2012|
|22||Agreement Between the Republic of Türkiye and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Concerning the Granting of the Status of Associate Member at CERN||12 May 2014||28 April 2015|
|23||Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management||||17 October 2021|
Cooperation agreements with the IAEA in the area of nuclear power
|1||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the NPT||30 June 1981||20 October 1981|
|2||Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the NPT||6 July 2000||12 July 2001|
Bilateral agreements with other countries or organizations signed/ratified by Türkiye in the field of nuclear power
|1||Agreement Between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Türkiye for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||18 June 1985||29 June 1986|
|2||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Government of the Argentine Republic for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||3 May 1988||8 February 1992|
|3||Agreement Between the Government of Türkiye and the Republic of Bulgaria on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||28 July 1997||11 September 1997|
|4||Agreement Between the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Government of the Republic of Türkiye for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||14 January 1998|||
|5||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of the Republic of Türkiye for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||26 October 1998||12 April 1999|
|6||Agreement Between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Republic of Türkiye for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||21 September 1999||18 May 2011|
|7||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||23 November 2000||2 May 2001|
|8||Agreement Between the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Türkiye for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||26 July 2000||9 July 2006|
|9||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Government of Romania on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||3 March 2008||16 May 2008|
|11||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Government of the Russian Federation for Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||6 August 2009||12 February 2011|
|12||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Government of the Russian Federation on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Exchange of Information on Nuclear Facilities||6 August 2009||12 February 2011|
|13||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Russian Federation on Cooperation in Relation to the Construction and Operation of a Nuclear Power Plant at the Akkuyu Site in the Republic of Türkiye||12 May 2010||6 October 2010|
|14||Agreement Between the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (the Republic ofTürkiye) and the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service (the Russian Federation) for Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Licensing and Supervision||8 June 2010||8 June 2010|
|15||Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||17 February 2011||5 June 2015|
|16||Agreement between the Government of the Peoples Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of Türkiye for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||9 April 2012||2 September 2016|
|17||Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Government of Japan for Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||3 May 2013||22 April 2014|
|18||Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Government of Japan on Cooperation for the Development of Nuclear Power Plants and the Nuclear Power Industry in the Republic of Türkiye and Memorandum of Cooperation Between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Government of Japan on Cooperation on the Development of Nuclear Power Plants and the Nuclear Power Industry in the Republic of Türkiye||3 May 2013||23 May 2015|
|19||Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Türkiye and the Government of the Republic of Belarus on Cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes||11 November 2016|||
Other relevant international Committee/Group
|1||Zangger Committee||Member||21 October 1999|
|2||Nuclear Suppliers Group||Member||20 April 2000|
APPENDIX 2. MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
Ministry of Interior Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency
Üniversiteler Mah. Dumlupinar Bulvari, No. 159 (Eskisehir Yolu 9. Km) Çankaya/Ankara
Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
Türkocagi Cad. No. 2 Çankaya
Ministry of the Environment and Urbanisation
Vekaletler Cad. No. 1 Bakanliklar
Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NDK)
Mustafa Kemal Mahallesi, Dumlupinar Bulvari, No. 192
06510 Çankaya, Ankara
Turkish Energy, Nuclear, Mining Research Authority (TENMAK)Authority
Mustafa Kemal Mahallesi, Dumlupinar Bulvari, No. 192
06510 Çankaya, Ankara
Energy Market Regulatory Authority
Isçi Bloklari Mah. Muhsin Yazicioglu Cad. No. 51/C Yüzüncüyil, Çankaya
Turkish Electricity Transmission Company
Inönü Bulvari No. 27 Bahçelievler
Turkish Electricity Trading and Contracting Company
Eskisehir Yolu 7. Km No. 166 Çankaya
Turkish Electricity Generation Company
Nasuh Akar Mah. Türkocagi Cad. No. 2/F-1
Akkuyu NPP Electricity Generation Company
Güvenevler Mah. Farabi Sok. No. 27 Çankaya
Hacettepe University Nuclear Engineering Department
06532 Beytepe, Ankara
Nuclear Engineers Society
Technical University of Istanbul Institute for Energy
Ege University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Hacettepe University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Ankara University Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Head of Nuclear Infrastructure Development Department
Institution: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, General Directorate of Nuclear Energy and International Projects
Türkocagi Cad. No. 2 Çankaya AnkaraTürkiye
Tel.: (+90) 312 212 6420Email: firstname.lastname@example.org