This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Ukraine, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Ukraine.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. Energy Information
1.1.1. Energy Policy
The energy policy of Ukraine and its top priorities are established in the “Energy Strategy of Ukraine for the period until 2030” (Energy Strategy). This document, approved by the Cabinet of Ministers on 24 July 2013 (#1071-r), sets the following objectives:
Setting-up the conditions for reliable and proper satisfaction of the demand for energy products at the lowest total costs that also has to be economically justified;
Improving the energy security of the country;
Enhancing the effectiveness of consumption and use of energy products;
Reducing the human impacts on the environment and securing the public protection in the area of industrial safety of the FEC (Fuel and Energy Complex).
Guided by these objectives, the main tasks and areas of implementation of the Energy Strategy of Ukraine are as follows:
Formation of an integral and effective system of management and regulation in the Fuel and Energy Sector, fostering of competitive relations in the energy resources marketplace;
Gradual liberalization and development of competitive relations in the energy resources markets and the related services markets;
Creation of the preconditions for significant reduction of energy consumption of the economy by incorporating new technologies, advanced standards, innovative systems of monitoring, control and accounting, transportation and consumption of energy products, and development of market-driven tools to incentivize the energy saving;
Increase in output and production of domestic energy resources having regard to the economics of mining, along with the increase in volumes of electricity and energy products resulted from renewable and non-conventional energy sources;
Diversification of external sources of energy products supply;
Achieving a proper balance of the economically justified pricing policy for energy products that has to ensure reimbursement of costs of their production and delivery to end-consumers, as well as establishing of appropriate conditions for reliable functioning and development of the FEC’s enterprises;
Setting of the conditions for attracting private investments, new innovative technologies and state-of-the-art best operating practices;
Legal and regulatory support for implementation of the FEC development objectives being in line with the national legal framework, numerous commitments set forth in the international agreements and the European Energy Laws.
1.1.2. Estimated Available Energy
The estimated energy resources are shown in Table 1. The historical data on energy supply and demand are given in Table 2.
Table 1. ESTIMATED ENERGY RESERVES
|Estimated available energy sources|
|Total amount in Exajoule (EJ)||965.89||7.44||30.53||44.23||4.34||1052.49|
|Total amount in specific units*||33.873||151||787||86 800||22 000|
* eg. Mtoe, Btu, Mt,TWh.
(*) Sources: 20th WEC Survey of Energy Resources, 2004 and Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand ("Red Book")
(1) Coal including Lignite: proven recoverable reserves, the tonnage within the proven amount in place that can be further recovered under present and expected local economic conditions with using existing available technology
(2) Crude oil and natural gas liquids (Oil Shale, Natural Bitumen and Extra-Heavy Oil are not included): proven recoverable reserves, the quantity within the proven amount in place that can be further recovered under present and expected local economic conditions with using existing available technology
(3) Natural gas: proven recoverable reserves, the volume within the proven amount in place that can be further recovered under present and expected local economic conditions with using existing available technology
(4) Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) under < USD 130/kgU
(5) Hydropower: technically exploitable capability, the amount of the gross theoretical capability that can be exploited within the limits of current technology
1.1.3. Energy Statistics
Table 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|EJ||Average annual growth rate (%)|
|2000||2005||2010||2013||2000 to 2013|
|Net import (Import - Export)|
* Latest available data
** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import - Export) of secondary energy.
*** Solid fuels include coal, lignite
1.2. The Electricity System
1.2.1. Electricity System and Decision Making Process
According to the Energy Strategy of Ukraine for the period until 2030 (the CMU’s Resolution No. 1071-p of 24.07.2013 on Approval of the Energy Strategy of Ukraine for the period until 2030) the state control and regulation shall facilitate the economic growth of Ukraine based on the harmonized development and functioning of energy markets. Besides the need for structural reforms, one of the most important pre-condition of sustainable development of the FEC is determining and unbundling the functions of the state control and regulation, and also avoiding the natural monopolies’ impact on the decisions approved by the state authorities. Therefore, securing the independence of actions of the state regulatory body in the energy sector is the essential factor of sustainable development of the FEC.
The following main changes in the role the State in electric power sector include:
Liberalization of the electricity marker;
Privatization of several assets group of the sector;
Promotion of modernization and improvement of effectiveness of the electric power sector;
Construction of new generating capacities and electric networks.
One of the key pricing changes in the electric power sector is elimination of cross-subsidizing in the electricity consumption market. Liberalization of prices for electricity for all groups of customers will be followed by the transition to a new market model that should comprise the following main components, such as: a bilateral contract market, a day ahead market, a balancing market and an auxiliary services market.
The dedicated ownership structure of sector’s assets provides for a full privatization of thermal power plants, co-generation plants and distribution networks and for preservation of the state control of large hydro- and nuclear power plants, transmission networks and the operator of the Unified Energy System of Ukraine. The state-owned companies, which have energy assets, have to be corporatized. It is the very structure of ownership in the sector that will contribute to improving the effectiveness and attracting private investments provided that national interests will be respected and strategic tasks of the sector development will be accomplished.
The important tasks that the state performs in the area of regulation of electricity generation operations are the promotion of modernization and building-up of capacities to meet the growing electricity demand. When accomplishing the tasks, we should take account of the transition to a new electricity market introducing the market-based pricing of producers’ electricity.
The regulations of electricity transmission and distribution networks have to stimulate the development, upgrading, improvement of efficiency of networks operation and assurance of appropriate quality level of energy supply services. To that end, it is necessary that the tariffs for electricity transmission be determined using the model of regulation of the rate of return on investments which would take account of the factor of effectiveness improvement and the service quality factor.
1.2.2. Structure of Electric Power Sector
The Unified Energy System of Ukraine (UES) is the foundation of the energy sector. The UES performs a centralized electricity supply to domestic consumers, interacts with energy systems of neighboring countries and secures electricity export and import. It unifies the energy generation capacities, distribution networks of Ukraine’s regions, which are interconnected by the system-forming 220–750 kV electricity transmission lines. The centralized UES operation and process management as well as the centralized control of energy system modes are provided centrally by the State Enterprise NEC “Ukrenergo”. The State Enterprise NEC “Ukrenergo" is under control of the Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine. The company has been structured based on a regional principle and now it incorporates 8 electric power systems (Dniprovska, Donbaska, Zakhidna (Western), Krymska, Pivdenna (Southern), Pivdenna-Zakhidna, Pivnichna (Northern), and Tsentralna (Central) systems).
Back in 1996 the Wholesale electricity market (WSEM) of Ukraine was established, being patterned after the electricity pool of England and Wales. The market operates within the legal framework established by the Verkhovna Rada, President of Ukraine and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. All energy sectors’ entities – licensees (generating companies, distribution companies, suppliers of electricity) form the Wholesale electricity market (WSEM). The Market Board is the executive body of the Wholesale electricity market. The State Enterprise “Energorynok” (Energy Market) is the WSEM operator and the market pool (sole buyer). NEC “Ukrenergo" (owner and operator of transmission lines) fulfills dispatching functions of the technical operator of the WSEM. Produced by power generating companies, electricity is physically delivered to consumers through the electricity transmission and distribution networks as specified in the contracts concluded between the respective WSEM entities for electricity supply.
The current trends in the electric power sector development as accumulated outstanding issues require the transition from the pool-type market to a more effective consumer-oriented electricity market model. Ukraine has approved the concept of gradual phased transition from the current market model to a more advanced competitive model of bilateral contracts with a balancing market.
1.2.3. Main Indicators
Table 3. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND INSTALLED CAPACITY
|Average annual growth rate (%)|
|1970||1980||1990||2000||2005||2010||2014||2000 to 2014|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GWe)|
|- other renewable||0.002||0.4|
|Electricity production (TW.h)|
|- other renewable||0.0005||0.5|
|- Total (1)||137.6||236.0||298.5||171.4||186.1||188.1||181.9||0.43|
|Total Electricity consumption (TW.h)||116.4||184.8||229.6||122.9||137.9||147.5||134.7||0.66|
(1) Electricity transmission losses are not deducted.
* Latest available data
Table 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kW.h/capita)||2 472.3||3 703.5||4 428.7||2 486.4||2 916.6||3 209.1||2 964.2|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||0||6.0||25.5||45.3||47.9||47.4||48.6|
|Ratio of external dependency (%) (1)|
(1) Net import / Total energy consumption.
* Latest available data
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. Historical Development and Current Organizational Structure
Nuclear energy in Ukraine had started its development in the early 70s with the construction of the first nuclear reactor at Chernobyl. The first RBMK-type unit with a capacity of 1000 MW(e) commenced operation in 1977. The Ukrainian nuclear energy programme had been developed as a part of the nuclear energy programme of the Soviet Union. Close co-operation had been set up between research centres and relevant industries to encompass all the areas needed for the use of nuclear energy, including geology, ore mining and processing industry, metallurgy, chemistry, among others. A significant part of the technical and scientific nuclear complex was based in Ukraine: 15 power reactors, uranium ore mining and processing enterprises, facilities for production of metallic zirconium and hafnium, several S&R and R&D institutes. The reactors were built on 5 sites: Chernobyl (ChNPP), Rovno (RNPP), South Ukraine (SUNPP), Zaporozhye (ZNPP) and Khmeltnitski (KhNPP).
After the accident at the 4th reactor unit of Chernobyl NPP, on 2 August 1990 the Supreme Soviet of Ukraine adopted a moratorium on building new nuclear power units in the Ukraine. The civil works at unit 6 of Zaporozhye NPP were suspended and the construction of 4 new reactors at Khmelnitski and Rovno NPPs was also halted.
In the second part of 1991, the breakdown of the USSR deeply affected the structure of the energy complex, resulting in the separation of its various enterprises and loss of the centralized management system. Because of that situation, the Cabinet of the Minister made the NPP managers personally responsible for the NPP safe operation. Changes were also introduced into the management structure and into the documentation needed by Ukraine NPP for receiving permission for the operation. All these documents had been submitted to the regulatory body - GOSATOMNADZOR.
In December 1991 all nuclear power enterprises had been incorporated into the Ukrainian State-owned Concern for Operation of Nuclear Power Engineering and Industry (as per the Cabinet of Ministers’ Decree #354 dated 02.012.1991). In January 1993 State-owned Concern had been reorganized into the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization (Goscomatom of Ukraine) in order to create the State Management System ensuring the safe operation of the nuclear energy in Ukraine (as per Decree# 22 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on 16 January 1993).
On 6 May 1997, based on both the former Ministry of Power and Electrification and the State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization, a Ministry of Power of Ukraine was established in accordance with the Decree of President. This new ministry included the State Department for Nuclear Power which was entrusted with the functions of the state authority responsible for nuclear power sector administration.
On 14 April 2000, according to Presidential Decree #598/2000, the Ministry of Fuel and Power Industry of Ukraine (Mintopenergo) was formed on the basis of the Ministry of Coal Industry of Ukraine, the Ministry of Power Industry of Ukraine, the State Department of Ukraine on Electric Power Issues, the State Department of Ukraine on Oil, Gas and Oil-refining Industry and the State Department of Ukraine on Nuclear Power. The main task of Mintopenergo was the state management of the fuel and energy complex.
On 9 December 2010, the President of Ukraine issued Decree No. 1085/2010 to establish the Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine by restructuring the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of Ukraine and the Ministry of Coal Industry of Ukraine in order to optimize the systems of central executive authorities by preventing the duplication of their powers, reducing the number of managerial staff’s members and cutting costs of their support, and by improving the effectiveness of the state management. The Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine (Minenergovugillya Ukrayiny) is a central executive authority, the activity of which is guided and coordinated by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Minenergovugillya is the central body within the system of central executive authorities in charge of forming and securing the state policy implementation in the electric power sector, nuclear industrial complex, coal industrial complex, peat extracting, and oil & gas extracting complexes (hereafter referred to as “Fuel and Energy Complex”). On December 9, 2010 according to the same Presidential Decree No.1085/2010, the State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine (SNRCU) was renamed “State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine”. The State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine (SNRIU) (Derzhatomregulyuvannya Ukrayiny) is a central body within the system of central executive authorities in charge of formation and implementation of the state policy in the area of safety of nuclear power utilization.
The State Enterprise National Nuclear Energy Generating Company “Energoatom” (NNEGC Energoatom) had been set up in accordance with the Decree of the Government, dated 17 October 1996. This company was established with the aim of improving the electricity supply to the population and the national economy, improving the NPPs operation, improving the competitiveness under various market conditions and restructuring the nuclear energy management system in accordance with the requirements of the effective laws and regulations. In May 1997 NNEGC Energoatom joined the World Association of Nuclear Operators-Moscow Centre as an associate member.
2.1.2. Current Organizational Structure
The Ukrainian Law on the Use of Nuclear Power and Radiation Safety is the fundamental legal act within the nuclear legislation of Ukraine. This Law sets up the first priority to the safety of a human being and the environment, rights and obligations of citizens in the field of nuclear power utilization, regulates the activities related to the use of nuclear installations and ionizing irradiation sources, and lays the foundations of international commitments of Ukraine with respect to the use of nuclear power.
The fundamentals of the national policy in the field of the nuclear power utilization and radiation protection are formed by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. In the field of nuclear power utilization and radiation safety the following issues fall within the competence of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine:
Determining the fundamentals of the national policy in the field of nuclear power utilization and radiation safety;
Approving the National Nuclear Power Development Program as a constituent of the National Program of Fuel and Energy Complex Development;
Making decisions on siting, designing, construction of nuclear installations and facilities intended for radioactive waste management that are of national importance;
Endorsing the procedure for development and approval of nuclear and radiation safety norms, regulations and standards.
The following issues fall within the competence of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine:
Ensuring the development and implementation of national programs in the field of nuclear power utilization;
Making decisions on siting, designing, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations;
Implementing the international cooperation in the field of nuclear power utilization;
The state control in the field of nuclear power utilization is exercised by the Ministry, other central executive authority assigned by the President of Ukraine.
The state regulation of nuclear and radiation safety is exercised by an executive authority as specified by the laws of Ukraine. The state body for nuclear and radiation safety regulation is independent on state bodies, agencies, institutions and officials, activity of which is related to the nuclear power utilization, local executive bodies, local self-administration bodies and public associations.
An Operating Organization - Utility (Operator) is a legal entity, assigned by the State, who undertakes the activity related to the siting, designing, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations or to the siting, designing, construction, operation and closure of a storage facility for nuclear waste repository (burial), assures the nuclear and radiation safety and is held liable for nuclear damage.
An Operator shall:
get a license, according to the effective laws, to perform the activities at individual stages of the life cycle of a nuclear installation or a radioactive waste storage facility;
elaborate and implement the measures on safety improvements of a nuclear installation;
provide the radiation protection of the personnel, the public and environment;
determine, create and support the continuous functioning of the physical protection system of nuclear installations, nuclear materials, facilities designed for management of radioactive waste, other ionizing radiation sources.
2.2. Nuclear Power Plants: Overview
2.2.1. Status and Performance of Nuclear Power Plants
The Technical Specification for Safe Operations is the fundamental document describing safe operation of NPP, which specifies limits and conditions of safe operation, requirements and basic methods of unit's safe operation, as well as general procedure for operations related to NPP safety.
Limits and conditions of safe operation are constantly monitored and adjusted based on the analysis of operational experience, assessment of the current safety level, new scientific and technical information, in connection with equipment upgrading and new systems introduced, as well as in accordance with new regulations that were developed and put into force.
Normative document "General Provisions on Safety Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants" requires the utility notify the state regulatory body about all violation of normal plant operation, limits and conditions of safe operation.
Table 5. STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|KHMELNITSKI-3||PWR||1035||Under Construction||NNEGC||JSC ASE||1986-03-01|
|KHMELNITSKI-4||PWR||1035||Under Construction||NNEGC||JSC ASE||1987-02-01|
|SOUTH UKRAINE-4||PWR||950||Suspended Constr.||NNEGC||1987-01-01|
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
*UCF (Unit Capability Factor) for the latest available year (only applicable to reactors in operation).
** Latest available data
As of 2014 there are 15 power units with water-cooled water-moderated reactors in operation at four nuclear power plants in Ukraine. Three power units of SSE "Chernobyl NPP" are being decommissioned. After shutdown of Chernobyl NPP, Ukraine now operates only VVER - type nuclear power plants. The overwhelming majority of reactor installations in operation in Ukraine are VVER - 1000 (V-320 design). Nowadays, there are 11 installations of this type in operation. Besides, there are two power units with VVER - 440 (V-213) at Rovno NPP, and one VVER - 1000 Unit (V-338) and one VVER - 1000 Unit (V-302) at South Ukraine NPP.
Fig: 2 Map of the country indicating the nuclear power plants
ZNPP became the first among the CIS NPPs to build on-site dry storage facility of the spent fuel (DSFSF). Commercial operation of Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility started on August 10, 2004. Today two stages of ZNPP DSFSF are in operation.
SOUTH UKRAINE NPP is the first Ukrainian NPP to implement the project for diversification of the nuclear fuel supply.
KhNPP site is the most promising in terms of expansion of the nuclear power facilities in Ukraine. Construction of KhNPP Unit#3 and Unit#4 according to initial design (each reactor’s capacity is 1000 MW, having reactor installation VVER-1000/V-320) started in 1986, but it was suspended in 1990 by the moratorium for NPP construction. Today, the construction availability of the power units is assessed at the level: 75% for Unit#3 and 28% for Unit #4.
The situation which has become usual in the Nuclear Power Sector, on the one hand, corresponds to the general tendencies to manufacture stagnation, and, on the other hand, has its specific features. Taken as a whole, the condition of Nuclear Power Sector can be characterized as the following:
Growth of a share of NPP electricity generation in the overall energy mix from 25.5% up to 48.6% for the period from 1990 to 2014.
39.0% reduction of total electricity production for the same period.
The reduction of total electricity production was not connected either with the reduction of NPP installed capacity or with decrease in operational reliability. Actually, the Capacity Factor (or Load Factor) even grew in 2014 (72.9%) as compared to 1990 (62.9%). Even taking into account the basic-mode operation of NPP, the above stated figures demonstrate a high stability of NPP operation.
2.2.2. Plant Upgrading, Plant Life Management and License Renewals
Activities on extension the NPP units operation beyond the design lifetime are carried out in compliance with the "Comprehensive Program for Lifetime Extension of Operating Nuclear Power Units" approved by Resolution No. 263-r the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, dated 29 April 2004.
On 12 December 2010, the SNRCU’s Board extended the design lifetime of RNPP power units: RNPP Unit 1 – until 22.12. 2030; RNPP Unit 2 - until 22.12.2031.
On November 28, 2013 the SNRIU’s (the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine) Board extended the design lifetime of SUNPP Unit 1 until 02.12.2023.
On December 9, 2015 the SNRIU’s Board extended the design lifetime of SUNPP Unit 2 until 31.12.2025.
At present, the preparatory works are conducted concurrently for lifetime extension of the next three power units. The activities are carried out to extend the design lifetime of ZNPP Units 1 and 2 (as a top priority); ZNPP Unit 3 and RNPP Unit 3.
Main investment projects of SE NNEGC Energoatom
Implementation of the Comprehensive (Integrated) Program of Safety Improvement of Power Units of Nuclear Power Plants
Rehabilitation of out-door 750 kV switchyards of ZNPP (Project has been approved by the CNU’s resolution No. 734-p, dated 13.08.2014. The objective of the Project is secure reliable power supply to the south of Ukraine; robustness of the energy system and dynamic stability of ZNPP units in case of cascading (sequential) failures of two 750 kV overhead lines; upgrading the ZNPP connection circuit to make it compliant with the engineering design solutions and eliminate the limitations of the plant’s installed capacity)
Rehabilitation of outdoor 750 kV switchyards of KhNPP and RNPP (Projects approved for KhNPP as per the MECI’s order No. 969 (dated 19.12.2013); for RNPP as per the CMU’s resolution No. 733-p dated 13.08.2014. The objective of the Project is to provide the power flows from Rovno NPP and KhNPP to the Central region which is short of electricity.
In 2013, the integrated management System (IMS) of SE NNEGC Energoatom successfully passed a certification audit. Based on its results, the representatives of the Certification Authority TUV NORD CERT (Germany) and the group of auditors from TUV NORD UKRAINE, Ltd. awarded the ISO 9001:2008 Certificate (Quality Management System) and the ISO 14001:2004 Certificate (Ecological Management System) to the top management of SE NNEGC Energoatom and executives of the Company’s separated entities.
2.3. Future Development of Nuclear Power Sector
2.3.1. Nuclear Power Development Strategy
According to the Energy Strategy of Ukraine for the period till 2030, it is envisaged to keep the share of the NPP generation in the electricity production mix at the level NPP have attained that means that nuclear power plants will keep accounting for about a half of the total electricity production in the country. The share of nuclear power sector in the total energy mix of electricity production shall be subject to revision based on the micro-economic indicators of the Ukraine’s economy, the conditions of global energy resources markets and the extent of development and implementation of innovative technological solutions in the energy sector.
Development of nuclear power generation over the period till 2030 will include:
Enhancing the safety of NPP in operation;
Improving the operational reliability and effectiveness of NPP in operation;
Extending the lifetime of NPP beyond their design life term;
Constructing and commissioning, by 2030, new nuclear power units that involves:
Getting approval of the inventory list of industrial sites for construction of new NPP power units;
Making the decision on construction of power unit of new NPPs and power units replacing the current capacities of NPPs in operation;
Construction of Khmelnitski NPP Units 3 and 4;
Construction of power units on new sites;
Construction of new power units on sites of existing NPPs in operation (including those replacing the power units to be decommissioned);
Implementing the works for preparation of power unit for decommissioning at the expiration of their extended life-time.
From 1980s onward several programs have been implemented at Ukraine NPP with the aim of improving their operational safety level. Based on the conclusions made by the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine and international experts, this level corresponds to the international safety level of NPPs of the same generation. However, the potential for continued upgrading of the safety level of domestic NPPs has not yet been exhausted. Further activities to be conducted in this area shall be completed under the Comprehensive (Integrated) Program on Safety Improvements of Ukraine NPPs, which was enacted by Decree 1270 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on December 7, 2011, along with additional measures that were recommended according to the conclusions by the Ukraine’s National Report on outcomes of the target safety re-assessment of nuclear facilities located on NPP sites (“stress-tests”), taking into account the lessons learned from the accident occurred at Fukushima Daiichi NPP in Japan in March 2011. The combination of measures has been specified proceeding from the needs to:
Assure a full compliance with the requirements and provisions of the national legal and regulatory framework;
Meet the national safety requirements;
Take into consideration the recommendations issued by international expert organizations so as to meet the international safety standards;
Implement the measures recommended and set forth in Safety Analysis Reports;
Secure the functioning of the physical protection systems of nuclear facilities and materials;
Consider the domestic and international operating experience and best practices.
It is planned to improve the reliability and effectiveness of NPP operation, also by replacing certain obsolete equipment, implementing relevant actions to reduce the outage duration, enlarging turnaround cycles, switching over to the operation at increased (uprated) capacity, cutting the costs of electricity production at NPPs
By 2030, for power units of running NPP, an average annual load factor is expected to be raised up to 78-80% and for new power units an average annual load factor is expected to reach 82-85%.
During the period until 2030 it is necessary to ensure that the measures will be implemented and the decisions will be made concerning the life-time extension of the running 11 power units for 20 years provided that approving positive conclusions of the Periodic Safety Reassessment will be issued. Based on the experience of life-time extension of Rovno NPP units 1 and 2 as well as international experience of VVER-440 and VVER-1000 type power units, it is envisaged to implement the measures of programs on service-life extension, obsolete equipment replacement and the measures of national programs on safety improvements and stress tests.
2.3.2. Project Management
In 2008 the Regulatory Body put into force the regulatory document "General Provisions on Safety Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants" (NP 306.2.141-2008) that take into account IAEA recommendations specified in the General Provisions of Nuclear Power Plants Safety (INSAG-12). The designs of all nuclear installations constructed in Ukraine after the implementation of this and other regulations were subjected to revision regarding their compliance with the established requirements. Upon discovered inconsistencies, measures have been developed and implemented to remove these inconsistencies. Project on modernization and reconstruction of NPP are elaborated according to requirements of new safety regulations.
Pursuant to the regulatory document "General Provisions on Safety Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants" the technical and organizational decisions made to upgrade and improve the safety level incorporate scientific and technical achievements and are implemented in accordance with the established requirements, namely: they should be proven by the experience or by trial operation. Pursuant to regulations and rules on nuclear and radiation safety, the licensing procedure provides for the need to introduce at first a technology at a "pilot" power unit and then, after having acquired favorable results of trial operation, to adapt this measure to other power units. This procedure fully complies with the international experience and permits implementing the measures on the basis of the operating experience and proven practice.
2.3.3. Project Funding
2.3.4. Electric Grid Development
The total length of electricity transmission lines of Ukraine is 22.9 thousand km, including the 400–800 kV lines stretching over 4.9 thousand km; 330kV lines with a length of 13.3 thousand km; 220 kV line with a length of 4.0 thousand km; and 35–110 kV lines stretching over 0.7 thousand km.
In accordance with the Energy Strategy of Ukraine for the period until 2030, the top priority projects are as follows:
Complete formation of two 750 kV transit transmission lines– the southern one (KhNPP – Dnistrovsksa hydro power pumped storage– Prymorska substantion –Kakhovska substantion – ZNPP) and the northern one (Rovno NPP – Kyivska substantion– Pivnichnoukrayinska substantion– Kharkivska substantion – Donbaska substantion), that allow lifting the grid limitation on power output of KhNPP, RNPP, ZNPP and regulating capacities of Dnistrovska hydroelectric pumped storage power plant;
Full-scope program of modernization of high voltage lines and substation, aimed at and not limited to the reduction of electricity losses;
Development and extension of 330 kV lines to improve the electric power supply reliability.
The UES of Ukraine, through the electricity transmission lines of interstate importance, is interconnected with the Energy Systems of the Russian Federations, Moldova, Belarus, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. Increasing capabilities of export to ENTSO-E (the European Network of Transmission System Operators) countries will require the reconstruction of available high voltage interconnectors (being disconnected as of the end of 2010), namely, 750 kV overhead lines from KhNPP to – Zesuv (Poland) and from SUNPP to Isaktcha (Romania), and reconstruction of the operating 750 kV overhead line – Zakhidnoukrainska - Albertirsa (Hungary) or construction of new high-voltage lines.
2.4. Organizations Involved in Construction of NPPs
2.5. Organizations Involved in Operation of NPPs
Pursuant to the Cabinet of Ministers' Decree 830 “On assignment of operating organization (operator) of Nuclear Installations” (June 8, 1998) the state enterprise NNEGC Energoatom is the Operator of 4 NPPs.
According to the Cabinet of Ministers' Decree 1532 "On assignment of operating organization (operator) of Nuclear Installations of Chernobyl NPP" (November 17, 2001) the State Specialized Enterprise “Chernobyl NPP” is the Operator of ChNPP.
The following separated subdivisions are within the structure of NNEGC Energoatom:
SS “Scientific and Technical Center”;
SS “Emergency and Technical center”;
SS”Atomprylad Design Bureau”;
SS “Automation and Machinery Construction”
Separated Subdivision Atomremontservis (SE ARS) of NNEGC Energoatom was found in November 2000. The major task of SS Atomremontservis (SS ARS) is to provide complex and non-conventional maintenance and repair at Ukrainian NPPs in a safe and effective manner, including dismantling, repair, rehabilitation/retrofitting and upgrading of nuclear power plant equipment. Moreover, SS ARS is involved in international projects for Chernobyl NPP. Comprehensive engineering and technological support for maintenance campaigns enables the utility to reduce the overall outage time while implementation of advanced diagnostic systems and technologies improves quality of the maintenance work. SS ARS has a training facility to allow the personnel retraining and professional development. To ensure technical and information support to structural units of the emergency response system of NNEGC «Energoatom», SS ARS incorporates an Off-Site Emergency Response Center. Back in May 2006, SS ARS certified its Quality Assurance System to the requirements of the international ISO 9001:2000 standard. SE ARS confirms through annual TUV SUD audits that its quality management system is compliant with ISO 9001 requirements. Owing to the comprehensive engineering and technological support for maintenance campaigns the overall outage time has been reduced while implementation of advanced diagnostic systems and technologies improves quality of the maintenance work.
Separated Subdivision Atomkomplect of NNEGC Energoatom was found in August 2002, with the aim to make universal policy of providing NNEGC Energoatom with material and technical resources. For today, one of the main tasks of SS Atomkomplect is to select suppliers by tender and provide the centralized supplies of material and technical resources for NPP. Among the main functions of SS Atomkomplect, there are also refilling of centralized and emergency stocks of NPP of Ukraine, control of the storage conditions of ware and material values on the storehouses of the Company and participation in development of the regulations for the stocks of ware and material values, organization of effective usage of material and technical resources.
Separated Subdivision “Scientific and Technical Center" was founded on May 7, 2003. The purpose of SS "Scientific and Technical Center" is to form in Ukraine a comprehensive and effective system of scientific and technological support for nuclear power, which would provide for an optimum use of intellectual and technical capabilities of scientific and engineering organizations rendering services in the field of use of nuclear energy and radiating safety.
Primary goals of SS "Scientific and Technical Center":
Definition of real NPPs’ needs for services on scientific and technical support, formation of an effective system of planning and management of projects to perform research and developments.
Coordination of activity of institutes and the organizations performing works on scientific and technical support for nuclear power engineering.
Development and support of introduction of effective engineering decisions in the field of operation, maintenance, modernizations and upgrades of NPP safety.
Scientific and technical support for development of legislative acts and normative documents, adaptation of Russian documents and the international standards in the field of use of a nuclear energy.
Participation in development of programs and plans for development of a fuel and energy complex.
As the organization, which coordinates works on scientific and technical support in the field of nuclear power engineering, SS "Scientific and Technical Center" should provide an interaction between all enterprises, which give scientific, technical and engineering services to NPP. Thus, the primary goals is to provide an effective utilization of all intellectual resources and capabilities of these enterprises, to prevent the works from being unreasonably duplicated, to receive the maximal effect from introduction of research and developments at the nuclear power plants.
The basic areas of activity to provide scientific and technical support:
Operational modes and practice, maintenance of emergency readiness of NPP
Introduction of new equipment and technologies, modernization of the equipment of NPP
Improvement of maintenance technologies and procedures
Management of a resource of designs, systems and components, extension of NPP unit lifetime
Metallurgical science, introduction of new welding techniques, metal and weld inspection
Chemical technologies and water and chemistry modes
Physics of a reactor and fuel utilization
Analysis of safety, introduction of risk-informed approaches
Management of radioactive waste products
Radiation safety, environmental protection, ecology
Decommissioning of nuclear power plants
Control and quality systems, standardization, suppliers’ evaluations
Strategy of nuclear power sector development, choice of a new type of nuclear power plant.
SEPARATED Subdivision ATOMENERGOMASH was established in November 2003. The separated subdivision includes the following three enterprises:
Special structures plant (Energodar, Zaporozhye region);
Non-standard equipment and pipeline plant (Energodar, Zaporozhye region);
Engineering and repair plant (Yuzhnoukraisk, Mykolayiv region).
The main areas of activity of SS “AtomEnergoMash” are the following:
Design and manufacture of heat-exchange and heat-mechanical equipment, components for NPP pipelines;
Activities on unit maintenance of NPP heat-exchange equipment;
Manufacture of metal structures, containers for radioactive waste and spent fuel, removable thermal insulation, fireproof doors, fitting tendons of CPS (Containment Pre-stressing System) for NPP;
Manufacture of special and civil engineering structures;
Complete overhaul and equipment rehabilitation;
Development of new product types for nuclear power needs of Ukraine.
Emergency and Technical center (SS ETC) is a separated subdivision within the state enterprise “National Nuclear Energy-generating Company “Energoatom” (SE NNEGC Energoatom). SS Emergency and Technical Center is engaged in production and utilization of nuclear power, as well as in other sectors of the national economy of Ukraine, operating on the basis of licenses obtained according to the respective procedure established by SE NNEGC Energoatom, according to the applicable laws, standards and nuclear safety regulations, statutory (institutional) of SE NNEGC Energoatom, “Regulations for SS ETC” and commitments under the respective licenses. Till 1993 the production association of robot technology and accident recovery work “Spetsatom” (Prypyat) had been a lead organization involved in technological development and utilization of robotic complexes and remotely-controlled mechanisms deployed in the increased radiation situation. Under resolution No. 447 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 16.06.1993, the State Emergency and Technical Center (SETC) was established and became a successor of Spetsatom.According to Resolution No. 619 by the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of Ukraine of 25.10.02 “On SETC reorganization” and Order No. 765 of SE NNEGC Energoatom, dated 13.11.02, “On establishment of SE ETC of SE NNEGC Energoatom, 2 September 2003 saw a separated entity “Emergency and Technical Center” of SE NNEGC “Energoatom” was created.
The main goals of SS ETC:
Preparedness of Ukraine for prompt and effective response actions in case of accidents at nuclear power plants and industrial enterprises in accordance with the international obligations of Ukraine and the IAEA requirements (requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency) for creation of a national system for nuclear accident management;
Decommissioning and preservation of nuclear installations and facilities intended for nuclear technologies utilization and radioactive wastes;
Post-accident activity planning in case of transport accidents during hazardous radioactive material transportations.
The separated subdivision “Atomproektinzhiniring” was established by the Resolution of the Management of SE NNEGC “Energoatom” that was put into force by the Order of December 8, 2008. The strategic purpose of SS “Atomproektinzhiniring” activity is construction of new nuclear facilities and implementation of investment projects on new builds, including Customer functions in capital construction and centralized planning of activities related to development of new NFs and implementation of Company’s investment projects. The main task of SS “Atomproektinzhiniring” – is organization of Customer activities designated by state for SE NNEGC “Energoatom” when selecting a site, carrying out design activities, construction and commissioning of new nuclear facilities, as well as preparation for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at the end of their lifetime. To fulfill this task SS “Atomproektinzhiniring” ensures organization, planning and monitoring of activities in the following areas:
Coordinating activities of other Company’s separate entities on capital construction;
Developing designs of new nuclear facilities and ensuring compliance with licensing procedure for construction and putting into operation provided for by the law;
Developing a concept and design engineering documentation regarding decommissioning of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management and conditioning of nuclear wastes generated during decommissioning of nuclear facilities and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing ;
Developing a concept and design engineering documentation regarding spent nuclear fuel storage;
Construction of nuclear facilities and their transfer for commissioning;
Preparing proposals regarding pricing for equipment manufacturing, carrying out construction and erection works; providing support for consideration and approval of prices by government bodies;
Carrying out audit of Suppliers quality assurance programme that provide equipment, works and services;
Developing procurement system for major, special and general-purpose equipment and materials, developing technical requirements for supplies;
Participation of SE NNEGC “Energoatom” in international cooperation activities in the area of development and analysis of nuclear facilities design for construction in Ukraine.
Separated Subdivision “Skladske Gospodarstvo” (Warehousing) was established with a purpose of effective use of material and technical assets stocks (MTAS). The main task of subdivision is storage and inventory count of MTAS for operation, maintenance and upgrade of NPP, mobilization and material reserve on the case of emergency, and creation of centralized inventory of MTAS. Subdivision receives and serves out MTAS, equipment and repair parts from the centralized inventory in accordance to requests of other separated subdivisions of NNEGC “Energoatom”, corrects requests from NPPs by taking into account available supplies, maintains automatic records.
SS “DO "Atomprylad” (SS "Energoefektyvnist" till September, 2014) personnel have been working in the field of special energy instrumentation since 1969. Besides the main construction department, experts in the field of standardization, metrology, and information technologies are working in the subdivision’s structure; also there is a production center geared to produce experimental (pilot) new technology samples, single run of up-to-date products. The specification of small-scale production allows operatively rebuilding it to produce various products to the needs of customers. Lately SS “Energoefektyvnist” performed a number of developmental works with adjustment for production of new types of production, including import-substituting ones, which are also used both for equipping new energy objects as well as for repair works and modernization of existing nuclear power plants and thermal power plants.
2.6. Organizations Involved in Decommissioning of NPPs
The State Specialized Enterprise “Chernobyl NPP” (SSE ChNPP) is the enterprise in charge of power plants units decommissioning and Shelter Object transformation into the ecologically safe system. SSE ChNPP had been created on the basis of Chernobyl NPP according to Decree No. 1084/2000 of the President of Ukraine, dated 25 September 2000, and Decree No. 399 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, dated 25 April 2001.
According to the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, dated 17.11.2001, the Enterprise is appointed as operation organization (operator) of Nuclear Installations of Chernobyl NPP.
2.7. Fuel Cycle Including Waste Management
Ukraine possesses sufficient resource capability for aggressive development of the national nuclear energy sector. However, Ukraine is implementing on its own only the first stage of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, i.e., uranium ore mining and uranium concentrate production.
It is the Russian contractors who now dominate in the market of nuclear fuel supplies for the Ukrainian NPPs. In order to diversify the fuel supply opportunities, the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the USA signed on June 5, 2000 the Implementing Agreement on the Project on Ukrainian Nuclear Fuel Qualification. On December 30, 2014 Westinghouse and SE NNEGC Energoatom signed an Amendment to the Contract for supply of Westinghouse nuclear fuel (WRFA) for the period until 2020.
Under the Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Ukraine, beginning from 1993, spent fuel has been transported to Russian Federation for storage and reprocessing. SF from six VVER-1000 type units of ZNPP is not transported to the RF but stored in casks at on-site Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility that was put in operation in 2001. In 2005 SE NNEGC Energoatom concluded a contract with the U.S. Company - Holtec International for designing, licensing, construction and commissioning of the first stage of the dry-type central spent fuel storage facility. On February 09, Law of Ukraine 4384-17 “On Spent Fuel Management Related to Siting, designing and construction of the Central Storage Facility for Nuclear Fuel of VVER –type Reactors of Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants”. This Law settled the issue of siting, designing and construction of the CSFSF. For the central spent fuel storage facility, a site has been selected within the exclusion zone that was radioactively contaminated as a result of the disaster at Chernobyl NPP.
SE NNEGC Energoatom is handling the radioactive waste according to:
Law No. 255/95-BP of Ukraine, dated 30.06.1995, On Radioactive Waste Management;
Revised (updated) Energy Strategy of Ukraine for the period until 2030;
Strategy of Radioactive Waste Management in Ukraine, as approved by the CMU’s Resolution No. 990-p, dated 19.08.2009;
National Dedicated Ecological Program on Radioactive Waste Management (Law No. 516-VI of Ukraine , “On the National Dedicated Ecological Program on Radioactive Waste Management”, dated 17.09.2008;
Comprehensive Program of RAW Management of SE NNEGC Energoatom for the period from 2012 to 2016, enacted according to Resolution No. 838-r dated 1.10.2012.
2.8. Research and Development
2.8.1. R&D Organizations
Engineering and technological support to the Utility’s nuclear installations is provided by the respective subdivisions of SE NNEGC Energoatom, Ukrainian and Foreign Institutes and specialized organizations. Ukrainian R&D institutes, academic institutions and organizations of the Academy of Science of Ukraine are engaged in engineering and technological support along with organizations of the Czech Republic, Slovakia and other countries. For SE NNEGC Energoatom, the engineering and technical support is provided by respective engineering subdivisions existing on each NPP site, industrial tasks are fulfilled by the SE NNEGC Energoatom’s Head Office’s subdivisions, Separated Entity “Science and Technology Center”.
Separated Entity “Science and Technology Center provides science and engineering support to the nuclear industry in the areas as follows
Safety analysis of NPP units;
Science and technology support for development of nuclear energy
Science and technology support to operation of reactor cores and fuel utilization;
Science and engineering support to life-time extension, implementation of advances innovative equipment and technology;
Radiation material science;
Radiation safety, environmental protection, SF and RAW management, decommissioning;
Improvement and optimization of water chemistry control;
System of management and quality, metrology, management and quality systems, metrology, informational technology for NPP engineering support.
2.8.2. International Co-operation and Initiatives
International co-operation in Nuclear branch is based on bilateral and multilateral agreements, international programs and projects, memorandums and commercial contracts.
International co-operation intended for:
the improvement of nuclear safety and safety culture;
NPP units upgrading;
diversification of nuclear fuel supplying;
planning of stability of nuclear power development;
participation in development of new units construction co-operation.
NNEGC Energoatom is a member of international organizations such as WANO, WNA, EUR and FORATOM.
Of particular importance is the Company's participation in projects of the IAEA, under which provided not only assistance, but also the obtaining of the best world experience of the nuclear energy sector. For instance, INPRO - International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles. NNEGC Energoatom joined the Project in 2005. Under the Project, a one-region model of the Ukraine‘s energy system was developed. Based on this model, a forecasting estimate of development of the nuclear power system of Ukraine till 2100 was made, along with the review of concepts of innovative nuclear energy systems, using the INPRO methodology areas, such as, “Economics”, “Infrastructure”and “RAW Management”, followed by the issuance of a reporting document.
IFNEC Program (International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation) was launched by the U.S. Government in 2006. NNEGC Energoatom has been monitoring the IFNEC’s activities focused on development and application of the advanced fuel cycle technologies that would contribute to securing the ecologically-friendly CO2-free development worldwide, enhancing the environmental condition and reducing the risk of proliferation of fissionable nuclear material.
SE NNEGC Energoatom became a full member of the International Group (EUR) in 2007. Experience acquired in evaluating the compliance of EPR design against the EUR requirements, enabled the Company to get a sufficient volume of information on the European Light-water Reactor - EPR (AREVA), as well as the methodology of analysis of European reactor designs compliance with the applicable requirements, and will facilitate the licensing of reactor installations in Ukraine. These efforts contribute into strengthening the public acceptance of the Company in Europe and presenting the Company as a serious business partner for cooperation in the nuclear power sector
2.9. Human Resources Development
In Ukraine, created and functioning system for nuclear sector staff training. The System is based on the IAEA-recommended systematic approach to training and generalized experience acquired in staff training of the leading IAEA member states.
Staff training system operates in conjunction with research organizations, enterprises, public administration and regulation, as well as other educational systems to achieve quality training, retraining, and support the training of personnel in order to gain and maintain the knowledge and skills necessary for safe plant operation. The Regulatory Body of Ukraine carries out licensing of NPP personnel.
2.10. Stakeholder Involvement
There are the web-site addresses:
Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine - http://mpe.kmu.gov.ua
NNEGC Energoatom - http://www.energoatom.kiev.ua
2.11. Emergency Preparedness
SE NNEGC Energoatom-level Emergency response plans and those of the NPP level have been elaborated based on actual recommendations issued by the IAEA with respect to organization of emergency planning. When developing emergency response plans, the best practices of other Member States of the IAEA were also taken into account, in particular, France and the USA In addition, each NPP has developed and put into force several guidelines and procedures that specify the NPP operators’ actions in case of emergency. The model emergency response plan for an Ukrainian NPP as well as emergency plans of operating NPPs, which were developed on the basis of this model plan, have been repeatedly reviewed during the expert missions of the IAEA, OSART, WANO.
Off-site response and external support (outside the site boundaries) during accidents and emergencies occurred at NPP are provided for in the emergency plans of Ukraine NPPs, the Emergency Response Plan of the Head Office of SE NNEGC Energoatom and the Plan of Response to Radiation Accidents. The Operating Organization – Utility carries out a joint full-scale common emergency response training at each NPP every three years.
The Chernobyl NPP system of emergency preparedness and response is part of the emergency preparedness and response of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. Regulatory Authority(s) and the Licensing Process
The system of licensing of activities, which are related to nuclear installations, is legally determined in the Laws of Ukraine “On the Use of Nuclear Power and Radiation Safety” and “On the Licensing Activity in the field of Nuclear Power Utilization” covering the life cycle stages of nuclear installations. As set forth in Article 26 of the Ukrainian Law on “On the Use of Nuclear Power and Radiation Safety”, any legal or physical persons who have no dully issued permit (licenses) shall be not allowed to perform any activity related to the utilization of nuclear installations and ionizing radiation sources. Operating organizations have got licenses for all necessary stages of the life cycle of nuclear installations as required by the Law of Ukraine “On the Licensing Activity in the field of Nuclear Power Utilization””.
The main functions of the Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority, as specified by the Nuclear Safety Convention and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, have been entrusted to the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine. The objectives, functions and powers of the Regulatory Body are specified in the Regulations for State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, as approved by Presidential Decree No.403/2011 of April 6, 2011.
There are two operating organizations that perform activities in the nuclear power sector, namely: State Enterprise “National Nuclear Energy Generating Company “Energoatom” and the State Specialized Enterprise “Chernobyl NPP”.
SE NNEGC Energoatom has got a license issued by the SNRIU for operation of SUNPP Units 1, 2 and 3; Rovno Units 1, 2, 3 and 4; Khmelnitski Units 1 and 2l and Zaporozhye Units 1-6 (including operation of the dry-type SFSF on ZNPP site). Subject to this license for operation of NPP Units, SE NNEGC Energoatom obtains individual permits to restart the power units of NPP after refueling outages.
SSE Chernobyl NPP has got licenses issued by the SNRIU for
Decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP;
Operation of the Shelter Object;
Operation of the Spent Fuel Storage Facility – SFSF-1;
Construction and commissioning of a spent fuel storage facility – SFSF-2.
3.2. National Laws and Regulations in Nuclear Power
The Constitution of Ukraine: 254k/96-VR (June 28, 1996) reads.
Article 16. It is the duty and responsibility of the State to guarantee ecological safety and maintain the ecological balance in the territory of Ukraine, to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe and ensure genetic conservation.
Article 50. Everybody shall have the right to a safe environment and indemnification, and shall be provided with a guaranteed right to free access to information on the environment condition, quality of food and goods
The Law on Environment Protection: 1264-XII (June 25, 1991).
The Law on Atmospheric air Protection: 2707-XII (October 16, 1992).
Cabinet of Ministers' Decree on the Creation of State Emergency and Technical centre on the basis of the "SPEZATOM" liquidated according to the same decree: 447 (June 16, 1993).
Concept of the State regulation of safety and nuclear sector administration in Ukraine: 3871-XII (January 25, 1994).
The Law on Ensuring of sanitary and epidemic welfare of population: 4004-XII (February 24, 1994).
The President's Decree on the Creation of the Ministry of the Environment Protection and Radiation Safety of Ukraine (On the basis of the Ministry of the Environmental Protection and the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, which were liquidated by the same Decree: 768/94 (December 15, 1994).
The Law on the Nuclear Power Utilization and the Radiation Safety: 39/95-VR (February 8, 1995).
The Law on Ecological expertise: 45/95-VR (February 9, 1995).
The Law on Radwaste management: 255/95-VR (June 30, 1995).
The President's Decree on the Creation of the Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology: 300/96 (April 26, 1996)
The Law on Ukraine Joining to Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage: 334/96-VR (June 12, 1996).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Decree on Establishment of the National Nuclear Energy Generating Company “Energoatom”: 1268 (October 17, 1996).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Decree On confirmation of Principle on state system of nuclear materials accounting and monitoring: 1525 (December 18, 1996).
The Law on Ratification of grants Agreement (Nuclear Safety Project for Chernobyl NPP) between EBRD, Ukraine government and Chernobyl NPP: 147/97-VR (March 18, 1997).
The President's Decree on Establishment of the Ministry of Power Industry of Ukraine (On the basis of the Ministry of Power and Electrification and the State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization): 388/97 (May 06, 1997).
The Law on “Power industry”: 575/97-VR (October 16, 1997).
The Law on Uranium ore mining and processing: 645/97-VR (November 19, 1997).
The Law on Ratification of Convention on nuclear safety: 736/97-VR (December 17, 1997).
The Law on Person protection from ionizing radiation: 15/98-VR (January 14, 1998).
The Law on Ratification of Framework agreement between Ukraine and EBRD on Chernobyl fund “Shelter” activity in Ukraine: 80/98-VR (February 04, 1998).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Decree on Assignment of operation organization (operator) of Nuclear Installations: 830 (June 8, 1998).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Decree on Confirmation of public hearing conducting Order on Nuclear energy utilization and radiation safety: 1122 (July 18, 1998).
The Law on the general principles of Chernobyl NPP further operation and decommissioning and transformation of the destroyed fourth Unit of this NPP into ecologically safe system: 309-XIY (December 11, 1998).
The Law on Permission activity in the Nuclear Power Utilization sphere: 1370-XIY (January 11, 2000).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Decree on Unit 3 ahead of schedule shutdown and Chernobyl NPP final closure: 598 (March 29, 2000).
The President’s Decree n Measures, connected with Chernobyl NPP closure statement: 1084/2000 (September 25, 2000).
The Law on Physical security of nuclear installations, nuclear materials, radwastes and other source of ionizing radiation: 2064 –III (October 19, 2000).
The Cabinet of Ministers’ Decree on Some issues on State regulation for ionizing source using activity: 1718 (November 16, 2000).
The Cabinet of Ministers’ Decree on Final closing of Chernobyl NPP: 1747 (November 29, 2000)
The President’s Decree on the State Nuclear and Radiation safety regulation: 1303/2000 (December 5, 2000).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Decree on Creation of the State Specialized Enterprise “Chernobyl NPP”: 399 (April 25, 2001).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Decree on Assignment of operation organization (operator) of Nuclear Installations of Chernobyl NPP: 1532 (November 17, 2001).
The Law on Civil liability for nuclear damage and their finance compensation: 2893-III (December 13, 2001).
The Cabinet of Ministers’ Decree on Approval of State Level Emergency Response Plan: 1567 (November 16, 2001)
The Cabinet of Ministers' Decree on the Civil liability compulsory insurance for nuclear damage: 953 (June 23, 2003).
The Cabinet of Ministers’ Decree on the determination of competent national authorities for the implementation of international conventions in the field of nuclear energy: 1570 (October 02, 2003)
The Cabinet of Ministers' Direction on “Approval of the Comprehensive Program for Lifetime Extension of Operating Nuclear Power Units”: 263-r (April 29, 2004).
The Law on Adjustment of questions, connected with Nuclear Safety assurance: 1868-IY (June 24, 2004).
The Law on Order of decision making on location, design, construction of Nuclear installations and objects, intended for radioactive waste treatment: 2861-IY (September 8, 2005).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Direction on “Approval of the Plan of Measures on Ukrainian Energy Strategy for the period until 2030”: 436-r (July 27, 2006).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Decree on “Some issues of State economic associations in Nuclear industry”: 650-r (April 17, 2008).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Decree on Some issues of State concern “Nuclear Fuel”: 841 (September 10, 2008).
The Law on National ecological radioactive waste treatment program: 516-YI (September 17, 2008).
The Law on State Program of Chernobyl NPP Decommissioning and Shelter Transformation into Ecologically Safe System: 886-YI (January 15, 2009).
The Cabinet of Ministers' Direction “On approval of the Strategy of Radioactive Waste Management in Ukraine”: 990-r (August 19, 2009).
The President's Decree on optimization of central executive bodies: 1085/2010 (December 09, 2010)
The President's Decree on the Status of the Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine: 382/2011 (April 06, 2011).
The Cabinet of Ministers’ Decree on approval of the Complex (consolidated) Safety Upgrade Program of NPP units: 1270 (December 07, 2011)
The President's Decree on the Status of the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine: 403/2011 (April 06, 2011)
The Law on design and construction of reactors number 3 and 4 of the Khmelnitski nuclear power plant: 5217-VI (September 06, 2012)
The Law on spent nuclear fuel location, design and construction of centralized storage facility for spent nuclear fuel of VVER domestic NPP: 4384-VI (February 09, 2012)
The President's Decree on some measures for optimization of central executive bodies: 726/2012 (December 24, 2012)
The Cabinet of Ministers' Direction “On approval of the Energy Strategy of Ukraine till 2030”: 1071-r (July 24, 2013).
The Cabinet of Ministers’ Decree on approval of the Unified State Civil Protection system: 11 (January 09, 2014)
The Law on Ratification of the Guarantee Agreement between Ukraine and the European Atomic Energy Community: 1268-VII (May 15, 2014)
The Cabinet of Ministers' Direction “On approval of the project "Reconstruction of open switchgear 750 kV Rivne NPP (adjustment)”: 733-r (August 13, 2014).
The Cabinet of Ministers’ Decree on the State commission on technogenic and ecological safety and emergencies: 18 (January 26, 2015)
The Law on economic activities licensing”: 222-VIII (March 02, 2015)
 Statistical Yearbook of Ukraine. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine.
 Energy Strategy of Ukraine for the Period until 2030.
 Nuclear legislation. Kiev, Ukraine 1999.
 National report of Ukraine “On compliance with the obligations of the Convention on Nuclear Safety”
 IAEA Energy and Economic Data Base (EEDB).
 IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA
|Amendments to Articles VI and XIV of the Agency statute||Entry into force:||7 March 2002|
|Agreement on privileges and|
|Entry into force: ||5 October 1966|
|NPT related safeguards agreement|
|Entry into force: ||22 January 1998|
|Additional Protocol||Ratified on:||16 November 2005|
|The agreement with the IAEA to conduct International Research of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the scientific center||Entry into force: ||21 September 1990|
|Agreement between Ukraine and the Agency on safeguards for all nuclear material in all peaceful nuclear activities of Ukraine||Entry into force: ||14 January 1995|
MAIN TREATIES OR AGREEMENTS
|NPT||Entry into force: ||5 December 1994|
|Conventional on the physical protection of|
|Entry into force: ||5 August 1993|
|Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||Ratified on:||3 September 2008|
|Convention on early notification of a nuclear|
|Entry into force:||26 February 1987|
|Convention on assistance in the case of nuclear accident or radiological emergency||Entry into force:||26 February 1987|
|Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage||Entry into force:||12 July 1996|
|Paris convention on civil liability for nuclear|
|Joint protocol ||Entry into force:||24 June 2000|
|Protocol to amend Vienna convention on civil|
liability for nuclear damage
|Signed on: ||29 September 1997|
|Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage||Signed on: ||29 September 1997|
|Convention on nuclear safety||Entry into force:||7 July 1998|
|Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel|
management and on the safety of radioactive
|Entry into force:||18 June 2001|
|Convention on the assessment of the environmental impact in a transboundary context||Ratified on:||20 July 1999 |
OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL TREATIES OR UNDERTAKINGS
|Improved procedures for designation of safeguards inspectors||Not requested |
|Zangger Committee||Non Member |
|Acceptance of NUSS Codes||No replay |
|Nuclear Suppliers Group||Member |
|Nuclear export guidelines||Not adopted |
The agreement between Ukraine and Russian Federation government on nuclear energy science and technical-economic co-operation (January 14, 1993)
The agreement between Ukraine and Poland government on notification of a nuclear accident, information exchange and co-operation in the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection area (May 24, 1993)
The agreement between Ukraine and Germany government on issues, which represent mutual interest in view of nuclear-technical safety and radiation protection. (June 10, 1993)
The agreement between US government and Ukraine government on operational safety improving, operational risks decreasing and civil nuclear objects regulatory system strengthening (October 25, 1993)
The agreement between Kingdom of Norway and Ukraine government on notification of a nuclear accident and nuclear installation information exchange (September 28, 1994)
Law on Ratification of agreement on partnership and co-operation between Ukraine and European communities and their member-states: 237/94-VR (November 10, 1994).
The common understanding memorandum between EU committee and Ukraine government on technical aid program implementation on Nuclear safety area (October 23, 1995)
Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Ukraine and G7 countries Governments and Commission of the European Union on ChNPP closure (December 20, 1995)
The agreement between Ukraine and Finland government on notification of a nuclear accident, information exchange and co-operation in the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection area (February 08, 1996)
The grant agreement (ChNPP nuclear safety project) between EBRD, Ukraine government and ChNPP (November 12, 1996)
The agreement between Ukraine and Hungary government on notification of a nuclear accident, information exchange and co-operation in the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection area (November 12, 1997)
The framework agreement between Ukraine and EBRD on Chernobyl Fund “Shelter” activity in Ukraine (November 20, 1997)
The cooperation agreement between Ukraine and USA on nuclear power peaceful utilization (May 6, 1998)
The agreement between Cabinet of Ministries of Ukraine and French Republic government on nuclear energy peaceful utilization cooperation (September 03, 1998)
The agreement between Ukraine and Slovak Republic government on notification of a nuclear accident, information exchange and co-operation in the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection area (September 24, 1998)
The Agreement between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the exchange of information on nuclear installations (March 23, 1999)
The agreement between Ukraine and Turkey government on notification of a nuclear accident and nuclear installations information exchange (November 23, 2000)
The agreement between Ukraine and Latvia government on notification of a nuclear accident, information exchange and co-operation in the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection area (October 17, 2001)
The agreement between Ukraine and Bulgaria government on notification of a nuclear accident, information exchange and co-operation in the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection area (January 31, 2003)
Action Plan "Ukraine - European Union" (February 21, 2005)
Memorandum between Ukraine and the European Union of Understanding on Energy Cooperation (December 1, 2005)
The agreement between Ukraine and Kingdom of Sweden government on general conditions of technical and finance co-operation (August 29, 2007)
Grant Agreement (Chernobyl NPP Nuclear Safety Project) between the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and the State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine, (July 8, 2009)
On 1 February 2011 Ukraine was granted a status of a Contracting Party to the Energy Community of South East Europe
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY AUTHORITIES |
|Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine |
30, Khreshchatik Str., Kiev, Ukraine 01601
|Tel: 8 (044) 206-3801|
Fax: 8 (044) 239-4686
|NATIONAL REGULATORY AUTHORITY|
|State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine (SNRIU)|
9/11, Arsenalna Str., Kiev, Ukraine 01011
|Tel: 8 (044) 254-3375|
Fax: 8 (044) 254-3311
|State Enterprise National Nuclear Energy Generating Company Energoatom||http://www.energoatom.kiev.ua|
|Zaporozhye NPP (ZNPP)||http://www.npp.zp.ua|
|South-Ukraine NPP (SUNPP) ||http://www.sunpp.mk.ua/|
|Rovno NPP (RNPP)||http://www.rnpp.rv.ua|
|Khmelnitski NPP (KhNPP)||http://www.xaec.org.ua|
|State specialized enterprise “Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant” ||http://chnpp.gov.ua/en|
|Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine ||http://www.menr.gov.ua/|
|The State Agency of Ukraine - Management Exclusion Zone||http://dazv.gov.ua/|
|International Nuclear Safety Centers ||http://www.insc.gov.ua|
|Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology||http://www.chornobyl.net/|
|Public Joint-Stock Company ”Kyiv Scientific Research and Design Institute “Energoproekt” ||http://www.kiep.kiev.ua|
|Open joint-stock company Kharkov Scientific Research and Design Institute “Energoproekt” ||http://www.energoproekt.com.ua|
|State Enterprise "Eastern Mining and Processing Plant" (SE "VostGOK")||http://vostgok.com.ua/|
|The State Emergency Service of Ukraine||http://www.mns.gov.ua/|
|The National Commission for State Regulation in Energy and utilities||http://www.nerc.gov.ua|
|State Enterprise National Power Company “Ukrenergo”||http://www.ukrenergo.energy.gov.ua|
|State Enterprise "Energorynok"||http://www.er.gov.ua|
|E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute||http://www.paton.kiev.ua|
|State owned "Eastern Mining And Processing Complex" (SkhidGZK)||http://vostgok.com.ua|
|State Enterprise “State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety” ||www.sstc.kiev.ua|
|NPP Operation Support Institute ||www.npp-osi.kiev.ua|
|Research and Production Enterprise “Atom Komplex Prylad” (RPE “AKP”) ||www.akp.com.ua|
|Research Institution “Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Ecological Problems” ||www.niiep.kharkov.ua|
|National Science Center - Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology||www.kipt.kharkov.ua |
|National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Institute for Nuclear Research ||http://www.kinr.kiev.ua|
|G.S. Pisarenko Institute for Problems of Strength|
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
|Public Joint-Stock Company HARTRON||http://www.hartron.com.ua|
|Ukrainian Nuclear Society ||http://www.ukrns.odessa.net/|
Name of the report coordinator:
Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine; National Nuclear Energy Generating Co. "EnergoAtom"
Ulitsa Nazarivska 3; 01032 Kyiv; UKRAINE
Tel: 00380 44 277 7810; Fax: 00380 44 277 7810; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org