This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Brazil, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Brazil. In Brazil, there are two operational nuclear power units at the Angra site and one unit under construction; nuclear power provided 2.7% of electricity production to the country in 2018.
1. COUNTRY ENERGY OVERVIEW
1.1. ENERGY INFORMATION
1.1.1. Energy policy
At the end of the 1990s, Brazil’s energy sector faced deep changes, evolving privatization of state owned electric companies and the restructuring of the electric sector. The Government has decided to focus the role of the State on policy making and market regulation, phasing out its previous involvement as owner of the major economic agents.
In that context, the federal Government created two agencies responsible for regulation and inspection of the electricity sector — Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL(1)) and the oil and gas sector — Brazilian Agency for Oil, Natural Gas and Biofuels. In the power sector it also created the Brazilian System Operator(2) and the Chamber of Electric Energy Commercialization(3). In 2004, the federal Government decided to establish the Energy Research Office(4), which heads energy planning according to the Ministry of Mines and Energy(5) policies.
In the power sector, a new regulatory framework was set up in 2004, after energy rationing in 2001–2002. This regulatory framework represented significant fine tuning of the power sector in Brazil, particularly in energy planning, juridical security and regulatory stability, energy auctions and universal access programmes.
As stated in the first article of federal law No. 9478(6), the Brazilian energy policy is composed of 18 objectives, shown below:
1. Preserve the national interest.
2. Promote development, expand the labour market and enhance energy resources.
3. Protect the interests of consumers with regard to price, quality and availability of products.
4. Protect the environment and promote energy conservation.
5. Ensure the supply of petroleum products throughout the national territory, in accordance with the Constitution.
6. Increase the use of natural gas in economic bases.
7. Identify the most appropriate solutions for the supply of electricity in different regions of the country.
8. Use alternative energy sources, through the economic use of inputs available and applicable technologies.
9. Promote free competition.
10. Attract investment in energy production.
11. Increase the country’s competitiveness in the international market.
12. Increase the use of biofuels in the energy matrix, considering economic, social and environmental bases.
13. Ensure the supply of biofuels throughout the national territory.
14. Encourage the power generation from biomass and its by-products, owing to its clean, renewable and complementary character to hydraulic sources.
15. Promote the country’s competitiveness in the international biofuels market.
16. Attract investment in infrastructure for transport and storage of biofuels.
17. Promote renewable energy research and development.
18. Mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants in the energy and transport sectors, including the use of biofuels.
According to the Brazilian Energy Balance 2018(7), Brazil’s energy mix has 43% renewables, among the highest of the global rates (average 13.7% in 2015). The share of renewable energy in electricity is slightly above 80%, while the global rate is only 23%.
According to the 2027 Brazilian Energy Expansion Plan (PDE 2027(8)), the energy required to boost the economy will reach 325 million toe in 2027 (in 2017, this consumption was 260 million toe).
In December 2015, during COP21 (21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), Brazil committed to reducing, by 2025, its greenhouse gas emissions in 37% compared to 2005 levels and, as a subsequent indicative contribution, reducing, by 2030, greenhouse gas emissions by 43% under the same comparison basis. It is worth mentioning that Brazil’s intended nationally determined contribution comprises its whole economy and is based on flexible ways of achieving these objectives. In other words, the achievement of these objectives can occur in different manners, with different contributions from the economic sectors.
According to the Brazilian Energy Balance 2018, Brazil’s electricity sector emitted, on average, a very low index when establishing comparisons with countries of the European Union, the United States of America and China.
1.1.2. Estimated available energy
Table 1 shows estimated available energy sources in Brazil.
TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Solid (106 t)||Liquid (10³ m³)||Gas
|Uranium (t)||Hydro (GW)||Other|
|Total amount in specific units||32 259||4 729 440||703 267||309 370||135||—|
|Total amount in exajoules (EJ)||294.0||76.0||15.4||90.2||3.5||—|
Note: Solid = coal, liquid = oil, gas = natural gas.
—: data not available.
1.1.3. Energy statistics
Table 2 shows energy statistics for Brazil.
TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS (PJ)
|2000||2010||2015||2017||Compound annual growth rate (%)|
|2000 to 2017|
|Domestic Energy Supply [PJ]|
|- Total||7 956.7||11 250.2||12 546.7||12 278.5||2.6%|
|- Liquids||3 631.8||4 258.6||4 673.6||4 449.6||1.2%|
|- Gases||429.4||1 152.9||1 715.4||1 588.4||8.0%|
|- Hydro||1 255.2||1 576.9||1 419.2||1 466.3||0.9%|
|- Other/Renewables||2 020.5||3 494.9||3 839.3||3 895.7||3.9%|
|Energy production [ktoe]|
Note: Domestic Energy Supply = Production of primary energy + Imports ( Exports (+() Inventory variation ( Non-utilized – Reinjection.
Imports and exports refer to primary and secondary sources.
Liquids = oil and its products.
Solids = coal and coal coke.
Gases = natural gas.
Other/Renewables = firewood and charcoal, sugarcane products, wind and solar power, other renewables and other non-renewables.
—: data not available.
1.2. THE ELECTRICITY SYSTEM
1.2.1. Electricity system and decision making process
According to ANEEL(9), the installed generation capacity in 2019 is almost 170 GW, with over 64% hydro, 25% thermal energy (including natural gas, biomass, nuclear, etc.), 9% wind and 2% solar energy. According PDE 2027(10), the installed generation capacity will reach over 216 GW in 2027, with over 54% hydro, 23% thermal energy, 13% wind, 4% solar and 6% “peak alternative” (for instance, thermal, storage or demand side management).
According to PDE 2027, transmission lines will reach almost 200 000 km (compared to 140 000 km in 2017).
Considering the regulatory framework of power sector in Brazil established in 2004, new generation competes for long term contracts in auctions to supply the regulated market or bilaterally negotiate their contracts to supply free (eligible) consumers.
Regulated auctions are periodic and organized every year for future delivery: “A(x”, where “A” is the delivery year (A(3, A(4, A(5, A(6, etc.). The main aspects of these auctions are the following:
Meet the regulated consumers’ demand in the long term (as declared by their respective distribution utilities) and serve as price hedging mechanisms for consumers.
Provide exclusivity for new generation capacity and technology specific products and contracts.
Provide long term energy contracts for power generators (backed by firm energy).
Contracts are denominated in BRL and indexed to inflation.
For thermal power plants, fuel purchase instalments can be indexed to a basket of international fuel prices and foreign exchange rate.
According to Chamber of Electric Energy Commercialization(11) and Energy Research Office(12), from 2005 to 2018, Brazil organized almost 40 generation auctions, contracting more than 90 GW (over 1200 power generation projects). The main energy sources of this expansion are: hydro (47%), wind (18%), natural gas (15%), biomass (8%) and solar (3%). Regarding transmission auctions, Brazil has contracted more than 70 000 km in 13 years.
In 2012, companies owned by Brazilian states and private companies, along the companies of Eletrobrás Group, were responsible for the electrical generation, transportation and distribution in different regions, which satisfied all the Brazilian demand. Today, 80% of these distribution companies, previously owned by Brazilian states, is owned by the private sector owing to a privatization programme. About 75% of the generating capacity in the country is still government owned.
Additionally, it is important to mention that another round of policy innovation is ongoing, mainly in the fields of renewables, distributed energy resources, consumer empowerment and digitalization. Capacity expansion did occur in Brazil in recent years but it is important to recheck the model, with the objective to adapt for the power system of the future (for instance, this recheck aims to increase incentives for efficient, decentralized decision making, improvements on spot price formation, removal of legal and regulatory barriers to innovation and separation of products in the areas of energy, reliability and ancillary services).
1.2.2. Structure of electric power sector
The present model establishes a number of measures to be followed by the agents, such as a requirement for distributors and free consumers to contract for their entire demand, a new methodology to calculate physical coverage of power sale contracts, a way of contracting for hydro and thermal energy so that a better balance between supply cost and safety is assured, and a permanent supply safety monitoring structure to detect possible imbalances between supply and demand.
Distributors have to purchase electricity at the regulated contracting environment through least price auctions, in order to minimize the acquisition costs of electricity to be passed on to the tariffs of consumers.
The model also includes social insertion initiatives, by promoting the universalization of access and use of electricity for those citizens who do not enjoy this benefit yet, as well as by ensuring subsidies to low income consumers so that they can bear the costs of their power bills. These initiatives are to be funded by the Energy Development Account.
According to the PDE 2027, transmission lines will reach almost 200 000 km (compared to 140 000 km in 2017).
1.2.3. Main indicators
Table 3 shows Brazil’s installed capacity, electricity production and consumption, and Table 4 shows energy related ratios (some of the following information should be available in PRIS).
TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION (GROSS VALUES)
|2000||2010||2015||2017||Compound annual growth rate (%) 2000 to 2017|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GW)||G/N|
|Electricity production (TWh)||G/N|
|- Other renewable||7.86||31.94||49.94||53.74||12.0%|
|Total electricity consumption (TWh)||331.79||464.70||524.75||528.06||2.8%|
Note: Thermal excludes biomass.
Other/Renewables includes biomass and solar PV.
TABLE 4. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)||1 899.59||2 373.98||2 568.32||2 543.05|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)||19.6%||17.5%||17.5%||16.7%|
|Nuclear/total electricity (%)||1.5%||2.6%||2.4%||2.5%|
*Latest available data.
2. NUCLEAR POWER SITUATION
2.1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
In 1970, a decision was made to build Brazil’s first nuclear power station through an international bid. The contract of a turnkey project for a 626 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) (ANGRA 1) was awarded to Westinghouse Electric Corporation of the United States of America. ANGRA 1 construction started in 1971, and first criticality was achieved ten years later.
In 1975, in an effort to become self-sufficient in nuclear power generation, Brazil signed an agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany to build eight 1300 MW(e) reactors (PWR Biblis B type) over a period of 15 years. Under this agreement, two of these units (ANGRA 2 and ANGRA 3) were scheduled for construction on the following year, with most of their components imported from Kraftwerk Union’s (KWU) shops in Germany. According to this agreement, the rest of the plants were to contain 90% Brazilian made components. The Brazil–Germany agreement created the Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras (NUCLEBRAS) as the Brazilian stated owned nuclear holding company. Additionally, several subsidiaries (joint companies) were established to achieve nuclear technology transfer from Germany, as shown in Table 5.
TABLE 5. NUCLEBRÁS SUBSIDIARIES
|NUCLEP*||Heavy component manufacturing|
|NUCLEI*||Enrichment by jet nozzle process|
|NUCLEN*||Nuclear power plant architecture and engineering|
|FEC||Fuel element manufacturing|
|CDTN||Nuclear technology R&D centre|
|NUCON||Nuclear power plant construction|
|NUCLEMON||Rare earth production|
|CIPC||Mining and yellow cake production|
*Joint Brazilian–German companies.
Brazil’s nuclear regulatory body is the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), responsible for licensing nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities, performing regulatory activities, and training and organizing personnel, according to Law 4 118 of 1962. In the early 1980’s, the Brazilian Navy embarked on a nuclear propulsion programme. The Navy’s main activity has been the development of uranium enrichment by using the ultracentrifuge process. The capability was achieved by the end of the decade, and continued through the 1990s.
Owing to several factors, especially financial, the Brazilian–German technology transfer programme stalled. ANGRA 2 and ANGRA 3 construction was interrupted several times, resulting in further delay in the Brazilian nuclear programme. Owing to Brazil’s foreign debt and high inflation, with added pressures from the privatization programme and budget cuts, Brazil’s nuclear programme was reorganized at the end of the 1980s.
In 1988, a new company, Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil SA (INB) replaced NUCLEBRÁS and its subsidiaries, with limited authority. INB became responsible for rare earths, mining of nuclear minerals, and yellow cake and nuclear fuel production, assuming FEC, NUCLEMON and CIPC activities. FEC, renamed as Nuclear Complex of Resende, was transformed into an INB Directorate. Both INB and NUCLEP, responsible for heavy equipment fabrication, became CNEN’s subsidiaries. However, both companies, INB and NUCLEP, report directly to the Ministry of Science and Technology and are administratively independent from CNEN. Responsibility for the construction of nuclear power stations was transferred to the state owned utility, FURNAS/ELETROBRAS, incorporating NUCON activities. NUCLEN maintained responsibility as nuclear power plant architect and engineer. In 1997, the architecture/engineering company NUCLEN merged with the nuclear directorate of FURNAS, a utility responsible for the bulk supply of electricity for most developed region of Brazil. The new company, named ELETRONUCLEAR — ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S/A., is responsible for design, procurement and follow-up for Brazilian and foreign equipment, and management of construction, erection and commissioning of nuclear power plants, and is the sole owner and operator of nuclear power plants in the country. Siemens sold its 25% holding in NUCLEN to ELETROBRAS when ELETRONUCLEAR was formed. NUCLEI and NUCLAM were disbanded.
Currently, Eletronuclear is focused on its Top 10 Corporate Goals, which include some important projects like the construction of its Spent Fuel Dry Storage Facility, the licence renewal for long term operation of Angra 1 NPP, and the resumption of Angra 3 NPP, among other projects of strategic importance for the company.
The Business and Management Plan also follows the directives from the Business and Management Plan — PDNG 2018–2022 of the Eletrobras System, with the goals of the five year period being monitored through the main operational performance and management, governance and socio-environmental indicators. These strategies also cover the maintenance of the safe and high performance operation of Angra 1 and Angra 2, and the resumption, according to higher definitions and in the shortest possible time, of the Angra 3 nuclear power plant project.
2.1.2. Current organizational structure
The current organizational structure of Brazil’s nuclear sector and the relationships among different organizations, since January 2019, is shown in Figure 1. CNEN is the regulatory body, which reports to the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications.
ELETROBRAS, responsible for planning and coordinating all activities of the electrical sector at national level, is under the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The remaining organizations are discussed in the following sections.
FIG. 1. Organizational structure for nuclear energy development in Brazil.
2.2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: OVERVIEW
2.2.1. Status and performance of nuclear power plants
According to the 36th Annual Operation Report of Angra 1, covering the period from 1 January to 31 December 2018, the plant operated for 325 days synchronized to the National Interconnected System.
Regarding Angra 2, according to its 18th Annual Operational Report, issued in 2019 on similar normative bases to those of Angra 1, the plant operated for 334 days in 2018 synchronized to the National Interconnected System, with its scheduled refueling, maintenance and periodic testing outage lasting 31 days. The plant produced 10 701 345.2 MWh of gross energy with a capacity factor of 90.34%, the fifth best result in the history of the plant and the third best result considering only the years in which refueling influenced results. In August, the plant generated 965 531 MWh of net energy, the best monthly result in the history of the plant. In addition, Angra 2 operated in the year 2018 without fuel failure.
All the nuclear safety indicators suggested by the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) and IAEA, and others adopted by the plant to assess safe and reliable operation, as well as measuring and monitoring the effectiveness of the operation and maintenance programmes, have met the established targets as well as all the indicators related to nuclear safety generation and availability.
In July 2018, Angra 1 and Angra 2 underwent an international evaluation, WANO Peer Review. In the final report of the evaluation, the areas of chemistry, radiological protection and training were highlighted and had no area for improvement detected, compared to the last evaluation by WANO in 2014. Information on the status and performance of Brazil’s nuclear power plants is shown in Table 6.
TABLE 6. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Data source: IAEA - Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
Hydroelectric power plays a paramount role in the Brazilian electricity system while thermal power plants (conventional and nuclear) are lower contributors to national electricity supply.
The ANGRA 1 nuclear power plant located between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, has a net capacity of 626 MW(e). It started commercial operation in December 1984. During the period 1985-1989, the plant experienced two unscheduled outages due to problems on the main condenser and main electric generator.
Construction of ANGRA 2 nuclear power plant began in January, 1976, but due to financial problems the construction of the unit was slowed down and was halted several times. The economic recovery of the second half of the 90's led to the acceleration of the unit's construction. This reactor became critical on July 14, 2000. On July 21st, 2000, at 10:16 pm, ANGRA 2 was synchronized for the first time to the Brazilian interconnected electrical grid. ANGRA 2 trial operation (a test phase of continuous operation at a 100% power level) was successfully completed on December, 2000. In February, 2001 Angra 2 started commercial operation.
The third nuclear station (ANGRA 3), a 1,405 MW(e) PWR reactor, and similar to ANGRA 2, was acquired from Siemens/KWU together with ANGRA 2. ANGRA 3 has about 70 per cent of the design work completed and 70 per cent of the imported major equipment already manufactured and stored on site. The civil works and electro-mechanical assembly activities were postponed in 1991. ELETRONUCLEAR and several independent consulting firms developed technical and economic feasibility studies for ANGRA 3, which were submitted to government authorities. Finally, on July 1st 2010, the construction of ANGRA 3 was resumed with the first concrete pouring in the Reactor Building. So far 43% of the engineering work has been completed. It is expected that Angra 3 will be connected to the grid early of the next decade, by which time it will add 1405 MW to the Brazilian electrical output.
ANGRA 1, since December 1984, has operated at full capacity, on several occasions, when it was necessary. In March 1993, the plant experienced problems with some fuel rods. It resumed energy production in December 1994. From 1994 on, the performance of ANGRA 1 followed a more reliable path, reaching its generation record in 1999, 3,976.9 GWh, with an availability factor of 96%. However, due to the restriction to operate at a maximum of 80% capacity, to ensure the safe operation of its Steam Generators, ANGRA 1 had unsatisfactory performance until 2009, when the steam generators were replaced. Since then the plant has operated at a level of excellence, having broken its generation records, consequently, in 2010, 2011 and 2012.
In July, 2002, the National Electric Power Agency approved the new installed capacity value of 1,350 MW for ANGRA 2. ANGRA 1 and ANGRA 2 play an important role in the reliability of the southeast electric system (predominantly of hydro origin), assuring continuous electric power supply to the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, where local water resources are virtually exhausted and power supply depends on long transmission lines. In 2012, ANGRA 1 and ANGRA 2 generated 16,040,790.5 GWh, with load factors of 96.0 and 89.8%, respectively.
Table 5. STATUS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
Data source: IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS, 2019).
2.2.2. Plant upgrading, plant life management and licence renewals
In 2018, Eletronuclear created an organizational structure to implement the Angra 1 Life Extension Program, one of the company’s priorities in the coming years. The purpose of this new structure is to accelerate and integrate the activities carried out so far by several areas of the company. As part of this work, Angra 1 received a Pre-SALTO mission (Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation), composed of experts from the IAEA, which evaluated the unit’s life extension programme. The plant’s operating license expires in 2024, and Eletronuclear has already commenced work to renew the Angra 1 NPP current licence with the CNEN.
2.2.3. Permanent shutdown and decommissioning processes
Eletronuclear does not have reactors in the process of decommissioning in the short term.
2.3. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER SECTOR
Eletronuclear is studying teaming up with a private partner for the completion of Angra 3 NPP. Several business models for this partnership are currently under study. A survey of market acceptance and conditions for those models is being conducted, and a final decision on the actual business model is expected by the end of 2019.
2.3.1. Nuclear power development strategy
The prospects for the construction of new Brazilian nuclear plants are currently being considered in the long term.
2.3.2. Project management
The prospects for the construction of new Brazilian nuclear plants are currently being considered in the long term.
2.3.3. Project funding
The prospects for the construction of new Brazilian nuclear plants are currently being considered in the long term.
2.3.4. Electric grid development
2.3.6. Public awareness
Regarding information to the public, SIPRON norm NG-05 establishes the requirements for public information campaigns about emergency plans. The first public information campaign was conducted by FURNAS in 1982 before the first criticality of Angra 1. Several other campaigns have been conducted on a regular basis.
The campaigns combine information on both on-site and off-site emergency plans, including the population living in the 15 km area around the plant. These campaigns include training courses for community leaders and public school teachers, guided tours of the nuclear power plant for students from public schools, educational lectures in community associations and the distribution of informative material on a house to house basis to local newspapers, radio, TV broadcasts, buses and bus stations, schools, community associations, churches, and administrative offices.
In addition, visitors to the Site Information Center (almost 11 000 in 2018) receive general information covering nuclear energy generation, the Angra site, the operation of the plants, as well as site emergency plans.
2.4. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF NPPs
Two companies related to nuclear power plant engineering and component supply are active in the nuclear sector: NUCLEP and Eletrobras Termonuclear S/A — ELETRONUCLEAR.
NUCLEP was established to design and fabricate heavy nuclear power plant components, especially those used in the reactor primary circuit. NUCLEP is specialized in fabrication of large components made from steel, nickel and titanium alloys. It maintains modern quality control laboratories, outfitted with precision instruments, qualified and certified according to international standards, for mechanical, chemical and metallurgical testing. NUCLEP assembled the replacement steam generators for Angra 1.
ELETRONUCLEAR is responsible for design, procurement and follow-up of Brazilian and foreign equipment and management of construction, erection and commissioning of nuclear power plants, and is the sole owner and operator of nuclear power plants in the country.
2.5. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN OPERATION OF NPPs
ELETRONUCLEAR is the only utility responsible for construction and operation of Brazil’s ANGRA 1 and ANGRA 2 nuclear power plants. The Angra site has a PWR simulator of ANGRA 2, in operation since 1985. In 2015, a simulator for ANGRA 1 was inaugurated. The Angra 2 simulator has provided operator training services for utilities which operate nuclear power plants supplied by KWU.
During 2012, Eletronuclear finished the periodic safety review (PSR), in compliance with condition No. 20 Authorization Operation Permanent of Angra 2 issued by CNEN Resolution No. 106 of 14 June 2011. This work was conducted from August 2011 to October 2012, by a multidisciplinary team of Eletronuclear. Based on the results of the PSR, Angra 2 has operated in a safe manner during the last 10 years, without any safety issue of great relevance. The few deficiencies found as well as the set of opportunities for improvement identified, should be integrated into the continuous improvement programme through plant action plans, prioritized as to their relevance to safety.
The second PSR for Angra 1 was concluded in July 2014, covering the period 2004–2013. Strong points, including some deficiencies and opportunities for improvement were identified, for which action plans have been developed. Deficiencies identified were related to documentation updating, full completion of the environmental qualification programme, completion of the planned PSA scope, and timing for conclusion of the evaluations of the operational experience programme — none of them of high safety significance. The main conclusion of the PSR was that in these 10 years, Angra 1 continued to operate within the safety standards and keeping current important functions for operational safety, and meets the operating conditions to complete its lifetime. For the scope evaluated, no deficiencies that could hinder the continued safe operation of the plant were identified.
2.6. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN DECOMMISSIONING OF NPPs
Brazil’s NPPs are fully operational. The decommissioning standard was issued in 2012 and correlated activities are in the planning stage. Funds for these activities are being consolidated.
2.7. FUEL CYCLE INCLUDING WASTE MANAGEMENT
INB, a state owned company which has succeeded NUCLEBRAS, has as its main goal the implementation of industrial units related to the nuclear fuel cycle for NPPs. At present in Brazil there are industrial units for uranium mining and milling, isotopic enrichment, reconversion, pellet production and fuel element assembly. The mineral exploration programme carried out in recent decades resulted in the discovery of new deposits. It should be taken into account that only 50% of favourable areas of the Brazilian territory have been prospected.
Mining and milling
Systematic prospecting and exploration of radioactive minerals in Brazil began in 1952. The exploration was accelerated by the availability of funds for this purpose from 1970 onwards. There was active exploration and many occurrences were identified through the use of geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys, and related research. From 1974 to 1991, the total amount spent on uranium exploration was equivalent to US$ 150 million. With changes in nuclear policies and, consequently, uranium requirements, investments fell sharply. Since 1991, uranium prospecting was limited to the surroundings of the Caetité production plant.
Brazil’s uranium resources occur in a number of geological environments and, consequently, belong to several deposit types, some of them hosted near the surface. In addition to known resources, there is a high potential for further discovery of uranium deposits.
Brazil has been producing uranium since 1982. Between 1982 and 1995 the cumulative uranium production was 1030 tU from the Poços de Caldas Unit, and since March 2000 the cumulative production was 3761 tU from the Caetité Unit, the only commercial plant currently in operation, for which the short term uranium concentrate production capability has been 340 tU/year.
Expansion of milling capacity of Caetité to 670 tU/year has been studied. After the planned expansion of Caetité, INB will concentrate on the development of Santa Quiteria deposits. However, since at this new site uranium will be a coproduct of phosphate, the feasibility of the project depends mainly on the phosphate market. Direct employment in Brazil’s uranium industry is rising. Losses caused by closure of the Poços de Caldas Unit were offset by increases associated with the beginning of operation and planned expansion of the Caetité Unit.
Uranium production in Brazil is only for domestic use. All uranium concentrate produced is shipped to other countries for conversion and enrichment and then returned to Brazil for fuel fabrication.
Brief information on main uranium sites is given below:
Poços de Caldas site
The Poços de Caldas site is located at one of the biggest alkaline intrusions in the world. Discovered in 1948, this deposit was developed into an open pit mine. The Poços de Caldas Unit started production in 1982 with a design capacity of 425 tU/year.
Since the exploration of the uranium deposit was no longer economically feasible, the Poços de Caldas Unit ceased operations in 1995. After two years of standing by, it was finally shut down in 1997. The closure planning and rehabilitation actions are still under development.
The closure of the Poços de Caldas Unit in 1997 brought to an end the exploitation of a low grade ore deposit, which produced vast amounts of waste rock. Studies for proper decommissioning are being conducted by INB. The operational costs of collecting, pumping and treating acid drainage were estimated to be US$ 610 000 per year. With the end of the mine exploitation, INB in the first half of last decade used the industrial facilities for other projects such as monazite chemical processing and rare earth production. The project was aborted some years after owing to market reasons.
Lagoa Real site (Caetité Unit)
Caetité is currently the only operating uranium site in Brazil. The deposits were discovered in 1977 and its known resources were estimated to be 85 000 tU in the below US$ 80/KgU cost category, averaging 0.30% U3O8. There are 35 occurrences detected, 12 of which were considered uranium ore deposits. Cachoeira deposits were mined by open pit methods. Surface acid heap leaching methods are used. The plant has a design capacity to produce 400 t/year of uranium concentrate (which is enough to meet the needs of both Angra 1 and Angra 2 nuclear power plants), and there are plans for expansion.
Mining activities, decommissioning planning, and area rehabilitation are done simultaneously. Monitoring programmes are implemented to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. As part of the regulatory licensing process, INB has done an independent hydrogeological assessment of the local aquifer.
Feasibility studies and basic planning for Caetité Unit expansion have been carried out. The expansion will increase annual production capacity, which will double current production levels. The cost of expansion is estimated to be US$ 90.0 million.
Since the Cachoeira mine is exhausted as an open pit and awaits the commissioning of an underground mine, the new project for an open pit mine at the Engenho deposit is underway, expected to start production in 2020.
Santa Quiteria Site
Discovered in 1976, Itataia uranium/phosphate deposits account for almost 50% of the total known low recovery cost resources (below 40 USD/kgU). After signing a partnership agreement with a Brazilian fertilizer producer, the project applied for construction license in 2012, but the environmental license has not yet been granted. The estimated nominal uranium production capacity of the Santa Quitéria project is 1600 tU/year.
As part of its nuclear propulsion programme, the Brazilian Navy installed in Iperó (100 km from Sao Paulo) a demonstration enrichment centrifuge pilot plant. Subsequently, the Government of Brazil decided to start an industrial plant in Resende, Rio de Janeiro, using technology developed by the Navy. The first cascade was inaugurated in May 2006. In December 2008, the second cascade of the first module of the industrial plant began operation. The operation of the third and fourth cascades, completing the first module, began in June 2010. The construction of the second module of the industrial plant, with a new set of cascades, began in 2011. Today, a total of three modules have been built, with the commissioning of eight cascades, accounting for 50% of the fuel used in the nuclear reactor of ANGRA 1.
Whereas full capacity in the enrichment process at national level has not yet been achieved, the goal of INB continues to be achieving self-sufficiency, as is already the case in the subsequent phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. The plans point to an installed capacity capable of fully meeting the needs of ANGRA 1 and ANGRA 2 by 2033, and encompassing the needs of the future reactor ANGRA 3 by 2037. The future increase of the capacity will depend on technical evaluations and availability of financial resources.
The Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN) is located at Resende, state of Rio de Janeiro, and comprises three units (i.e. UO2 powder reconversion, pellet manufacturing and nuclear fuel assembly). The annual capacity for each plant is 160 metric tonnes for UO2 powder, 120 tonnes for pelletizing units and 240 tonnes for fuel manufacturing. The reconversion and pelletizing units started commercial operation in 2000, while the assembly plant has been in operation since 1982. The FCN plant also produces components for nuclear fuel, such as top and bottom nozzles, for its own needs and for export. The fuel engineering capacity for supporting the activities of INB has been developed and culminated in the design of a new advanced fuel for the Angra 1 reactor, in a joint programme with KNFC Korea and Westinghouse USA.
2.8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
2.8.1. R&D organizations
In Brazil, all nuclear R&D activities are developed by governmental institutions. They are carried out mainly by CNEN’s six R&D institutes, which are under the Ministry of Science and Technology, Innovations and Communications, and by military technology institutes, which are under the Ministry of Defense. These ministries are responsible for the establishment of the country’s nuclear R&D policies and strategies, as well as for the provision of the necessary budget and financing mechanisms to make the corresponding R&D projects feasible.
Six nuclear research centres have been established for carrying out R&D in nuclear sciences, technology and engineering. Research reactors, accelerators and several R&D laboratories, including pilot plant facilities, were progressively set up in these centres. These research centres belong to the Research and Development Directorate of CNEN and are listed below:
IPEN (São Paulo/SP) — Nuclear and Energy Research Institute
Research reactors: two pool type reactors, one of 5 MW power and the other of 100 W power. Cyclotron: radioisotope production (99mTc, 131I, 123I, 18F, etc.). Research on fuel cycle and materials, reactor technology, safety, nuclear fundamentals, radiation and radioisotope applications, biotechnology, environmental and waste technologies.
IEN (Rio de Janeiro/RJ) — Nuclear Engineering Institute
Research reactor: 1 (100 kW, Argonaut type nuclear reactor). Cyclotron: radioisotope production (123I, 18F, etc.). Research on instrumentation, control and human–machine interfaces; chemistry and materials, safety, and reactor technology.
CDTN (Belo Horizonte/MG) — Nuclear Technology Development Centre
Research reactor: 1 (250 kW power, TRIGA pool type nuclear reactor). Research on mining, reactor technology, materials, safety, chemistry, environmental and waste technologies.
IRD (Rio de Janeiro/RJ) — Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute
Research on radiation protection and safety, environmental technology, metrology and medical physics.
CRCN-NE (Recife/PE) — Nuclear Sciences Regional Centre of the Northeast
R&D on radiation protection, dosimetry, metrology and reactor technology.
CRCN-CO (Goiânia/GO) — Nuclear Sciences Regional Centre of the Central-West
R&D on underground water and environmental technologies.
Brazil has an ongoing project to build a Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB). With a maximum power of 30 MW and powered by uranium silicate enriched up to 20%, it will have a neutron flux of over 2 × 1014 neutrons/cm2s. Upon completion of its conceptual project, the reactor’s site was chosen and environmental impact assessments were conducted.
The RMB aims to provide the country with a science, technology and innovation infrastructure of fundamental importance to the nuclear sector. The project comprises a 30 MW research reactor as well as several associated facilities and laboratories to perform the following functions: radioisotope production, with emphasis on molybdenum 99 (Mo-99); irradiation tests of nuclear fuels and materials; and scientific research using neutron beams. The reactor’s site has been chosen in São Paulo State, and environmental impact assessments have been conducted. Local approval and a preliminary environmental licence have been issued to RMB by the corresponding nuclear and environmental regulators. Basic engineering design has been concluded and detailed engineering design is in progress. Both designs were contracted in cooperation with Argentina.
2.8.2. Development of advanced nuclear power technologies
Brazil participated actively on the Generation IV International Forum from its beginning until the conclusion of the roadmap in 2003. From that point on, the country became a non-active member.
Since 2002, Brazil has been a member of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), coordinated by the IAEA. Brazil contributed to the project by performing two nuclear system assessment studies using INPRO methodology, and participating in three INPRO collaborative projects and some INPRO dialogue forums. In the past, the country also took part in the consortium for development of the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) nuclear reactor, a small to medium power (335 MWe) integral type pressurized water reactor. The CNEN’s R&D institutes participated in specific design activities and some matching research.
2.8.3. International cooperation and initiatives
Brazil is an active member of the international community for promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. Its role is both as recipient and as donor. Under the sponsorship of the IAEA, roughly 100 trainees come to Brazil annually for fellowship, training courses and scientific visit programmes and 50 nationals go abroad for the same purpose.
In the Latin America and Caribbean region, the main fields of cooperation are human health and food safety. Special attention is given to cooperation in radiation protection as Brazil has one of the best infrastructures in the region and is setting up a medical facility for acute radiation syndrome treatment in cooperation with France and the IAEA. Brazil is also cooperating with Portuguese speaking countries to raise radiation protection profiles and training regulators to increase safety in the use of ionizing radiation in those countries.
In the region, only Brazil, Argentina and Mexico have nuclear power programmes. Although the technological bases of the three programmes are different (HWR in Argentina, PWR in Brazil and BWR in Mexico), good cooperation in emergency planning and preparedness and safety culture are in place. Through the IAEA technical cooperation programme, Brazil also participates in the activities for NPP newcomers or those countries that are planning to increase their existing fleet.
Technical cooperation with the European Union, Gesellschaft für Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit and FORO Iberoamericano on operational and regulatory issues was established, including probabilistic safety assessment, digital instrumentation and control, new fuels, emergency preparedness, severe accident management, long term operation, Fukushima peer review, and regulatory competences in the nuclear area.
Appendix 1 presents the list of international multilateral and bilateral agreements signed by Brazil.
2.9. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
The human resources development programme for the Brazilian nuclear sector aims to meet the needs of human resources for the sector. A few universities offer graduate, specialization and post-graduate courses in the nuclear area, and these activities complement the specialization and graduate courses offered by the technical/scientific units of the CNEN Research and Development Directorate. The demand for this type of education and training depends on the level of implementation of the Brazilian nuclear programme and expansion of the use of nuclear techniques in industry, health and agriculture.
Presently, the human resources of CNEN are about 1700 persons, mostly working on nuclear R&D activities. CNEN staff involved in R&D work are highly qualified, with half of them holding MSc or PhD degrees. More than 1000 professionals hold jobs in the power generation and fuel cycle nuclear industries (ELETRONUCLEAR and INB). Currently the main concern in the area of human resources is related to the ageing of experts. Efforts in knowledge management and capacity building are being developed to face the current scenario. The hiring of new staff has also occurred, although in a moderate way.
Eletronuclear currently has about 1700 employees, of whom 645 have university degrees, 814 are middle level technicians with a high school level, and 256 are support technicians with a fundamental degree level.
Eletronuclear invests in a relevant way in its employees. Knowledge management is considered a strategic process for the company. Today, the current and future priority knowledge of each area of ??the company is being mapped to define the most efficient strategies for retention or acquisition of this knowledge. In addition to the mapping, a Knowledge Management Policy is being developed to guide the process within the company.
In recent years, the human resources area has had the opportunity to participate in several international events held by the IAEA, which has enabled a rich and very important exchange of experience with professionals of the area and experts from several countries.
2.10. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT
In the beginning of 2018, Eletronuclear issued its new internal website and started creating a Facebook page from the Visitor Information Center inspired on a Laguna Verde initiative in Mexico, and its Instagram page. A new scope for contracting the communication services for the company (Internet, intranet, extranet and social media) will be under the company’s Institutional Communication Superintendence administration in 2019.
In June 2018, Eletronuclear closed its plant information centre in Angra dos Reis (located at the power site) for it to undergo extensive modernization. After an eight month refurbishment, the space reopened with a new name — Nuclear Observatory — and equipped with the latest technology, including a video wall and interactive screens. Even with the centre closed, the company still received programmed visits. One of the intended initiatives is to restart visits of students from the public educational system of the towns located around the Angra nuclear power plant. The goal is to double the number of annual visitors, going from 20 000 to 40 000.
In June 2019, after a contracted research pool to assess the acceptance of nuclear energy, Eletronuclear scored 709 references, where 85% were neutral. Positive perceptions represented only 1%, while negative ones were 14%. The volume of people reached in social networks was 9 544 654. The male audience accounted for 53% of the citations, the female audience for 31% and the press for 16%. Although there was no LinkedIn posting, the social network has grown in the fan base: 117 new users started following the company’s profile.
Facebook is also worth mentioning, as it gained 1739 new followers, which represents a 730% increase. The Sim Score, which shows the company’s health in the digital environment, jumped from unsatisfactory to regular.
Other actions by Eletronuclear in the area of institutional communications include planning for increasing proximity with local press in Angra dos Reis, the municipality where the site is installed, and increasing the number of events with the presence of the company CEO and corporate directors in the neighboring cities of the plants.
2.11. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Brazil has established an extensive structure for emergency preparedness and response under the Brazilian Nuclear Program Protection System (Sipron). The Sipron has as its first legal framework the Decree-Law 1 809, issued 7 October 1980, which assigns the objective of “ensuring integrated planning, joint action and continuous execution of measures aiming to meet safety and security needs of the Brazilian Nuclear Program and its personnel, as well as the population and the environment related thereof”. In this context, Sipron integrates federal, state and municipal public bodies and entities, private companies and foundations, which have attributions related to the safety and security of Brazil’s nuclear programme. On 21 November 2012, Brazil’s President sanctioned Law 12 731, which revokes Decree-Law 1 809 and institutes the new structure of the Sipron.
More recently, the Sipron was restructured. The new configuration provides better conditions for compliance with Law 12 731 in terms of preparedness and response to nuclear emergency situations and nuclear security events. This new structure allows these activities to be carried out with greater efficiency, as it is a direct and immediate advisory body to the Chief Minister of the Institutional Security Cabinet of the Presidency of Brazil, in addition to facilitating stakeholders’ involvement.
The Sipron is now organized as follows:
Central body: GSI/PR — Institutional Security Cabinet of the Presidency of the Federative Republic of Brazil;
Three nuclear emergency response centres: CNAGEN — National Nuclear Emergency Response Center, in Brasília/DF; CESTGEN — State Nuclear Emergency Response Center, in Rio de Janeiro/RJ; and CCCEN — Local Nuclear Emergency Response Center, in Angra dos Reis/RJ.
Five planning collegiates: COPRON — Coordination Commission for the Protection of the Brazilian Nuclear Program; COPREN/AR — Planning Committee for Response to Nuclear Emergency Situations in the Municipality of Angra dos Reis (Eletronuclear NPP); COPREN/RES — Planning Committee for Response to Emergency Situations in the Municipality of Resende (INB Fuel Fabrication Plant); CASLON — Articulation Committee in the Security and Logistics Areas of the Brazilian Nuclear Program; and COPRESF/AR — Planning Committee for Response to Nuclear Security Event in the Municipality of Angra dos Reis (Eletronuclear NPP).
Both the nuclear response centres and the collegiate bodies include organizations at the federal, state and city levels involved with nuclear emergency preparedness and nuclear security activities as well as those involved with public safety, security and civil defense. Moreover, the Sipron performs annual exercises and drills to test system response structure, where procedures and response plans are checked, as well as the coordination of actions during a nuclear emergency or nuclear contingency situation.
The planning basis for on-site and off-site emergency preparedness in case of an accident with radiological consequences in the Angra Nuclear Power Station is based on the emergency planning zone concept.
The emergency planning zone (EPZ) encompasses the area within a circle with radius of 15 km centred at the Angra1 nuclear power plant. This EPZ is further subdivided in 4 smaller zones with borders at approximately 3, 5, 10 and 15 km from the power plants.
The on-site emergency plan covers the area of property of ELETRONUCLEAR, and comprises the first zone (EPZ-1.5 up to ~1.5 km from the power plants). For these areas, the planning as well as all actions and protection countermeasures for control and mitigation of the consequences of a nuclear accident are under ELETRONUCLEAR responsibility.
3. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS
3.1. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
3.1.1. Regulatory authority(s)
The governmental organization responsible for the licensing of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and other nuclear installations in Brazil is CNEN. CNEN, created in 1956, comprises three functionally independent directorates, whose responsibilities are:
Directorate of Radiation Protection and Safety: radiation protection, safety, control and licensing of nuclear power plants and other nuclear and radiation installations, safeguards and normalization.
Directorate of Research and Development: fuel cycle and materials; reactor technology; radiation utilization and radioisotopes application in health, industry, agriculture and environment; radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production; instrumentation and control and human–machine interface; nuclear safety; nuclear physics and chemistry, etc.;
Directorate of Institutional Management: human resources, administration and information management, financial reporting and control.
In August 1962, with the enactment of Law No. 4 118, a National Policy on Nuclear Energy was established with the Government monopoly of nuclear materials and nuclear minerals.
In 1981, the Environmental Policy Law was promulgated and, from 1983 to 1989, CNEN was also responsible for conducting the environmental licensing of nuclear installations. In 1989, the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA) was created and designated to conduct the environmental licensing of all installations, including nuclear facilities. CNEN is the co-authority on radiation aspects related to environmental licensing of nuclear facilities. This co-authority role means that a CNEN assessment has to be considered in the final decision by IBAMA.
3.1.2. Licensing process
In the early 1970s, owing to the needs of Brazil’s nuclear power programme, nuclear safety standards started to be used. An extensive set of rules and standards, as listed under section 3.2, regulate nuclear activities in Brazil. CNEN regulatory staff amounts to more than 300 qualified professionals. The regulatory process involves the issuance of licenses or authorizations as listed below:
Nuclear material utilization authorization;
Initial operation authorization;
Permanent operation authorization;
Authorization for decommissioning;
Withdrawal of regulatory control.
Standards CNEN-NE-1.04 and CNEN-NE-9.01 establish the requirements for the licensing process for nuclear installations. The initial operation authorization is issued after safety analysis approval and for a limited period of time to complete the initial tests and to evaluate the preliminary operational experience. The permanent operation authorization is limited to 40 years. A periodic safety reassessment is conducted every ten years of operation, when the conditions of authorization can be modified or extended. A programme of inspections and audits is implemented and regular meetings with operators are held.
During the operational phase of nuclear facilities, periodic safety reports are required. Regulatory safety evaluation is conducted by CNEN through the review of the licensee’s reports as well as through periodic inspections. On-site resident inspectors are assigned for permanent supervision of operational safety.
In January 1999, a law establishing fees and taxes for license and operating authorization was approved by the National Congress and signed by the President of Brazil (Law 9 765/99). It establishes the fees for all phases of the licensing process as well as annual fees for operating units. These fees are directed to a special account to be used by CNEN in its licensing and inspection activities.
In 1981, the Environmental Policy Law was promulgated and, from 1983 to 1989, CNEN was also responsible for conducting the environmental licensing of nuclear installations.
Concerning public communication, CNEN listens to public concerns and makes available information and standards through the Internet, distributes printed material, responds to emails and participates in professional association exhibits, meetings and events. CNEN is permanently open for interviews with the media. CNEN has an Internet channel open for all kind of questions asked by the population. It also participates in public hearings and meetings whenever invited. Public representatives, such as parliamentarians and officers of the Public Prosecutor’s Office, receive timely and factual answers to all questions.
3.2. NATIONAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN NUCLEAR POWER
Decree 9 828, of 10 June 2019, restructured the Development Committee of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (CDPNB), created by the Decree of 2 July 2008 and resumed by the Decree of 22 June 2017, which assigned its coordination to the Chief Minister of the Institutional Security Cabinet of the Presidency of the Republic. Pursuant to Decree No. 9 828, this committee is an advisory body to the President of the Republic aiming to establish guidelines and goals for the development of Brazil’s nuclear programme and supervise their enforcement.
In this context, a technical group was set up in 2018, under the CDPNB, with the purpose of elaborating Brazil’s nuclear policy, consolidating the major directions for the development of this sector.
The document produced within the scope of this technical group was the basis for Decree 9 600, of 5 December 2018, which consolidates the guidelines of Brazil’s nuclear policy. This policy is intended to provide guidelines for: the development of the Brazilian nuclear industry; the capacity building of qualified human resources; the maintenance of the domain and the use of nuclear technology in various segments. In addition, it outlines nuclear and radioactive activities in order to ensure the safe and secure use of this technology.
Thus Decree 9 600 provides coherence to infraconstitutional legislation with the objectives of the Brazilian State, is aligned with the international commitments assumed by the Government and, above all, contributes to the national development and for the promotion of the well-being of Brazilian society.
Main laws in nuclear power
The Brazilian National Congress approves the legislation related to nuclear activities. CNEN’s regulations and standards are based on IAEA standards, commonly used by many countries. The main laws and standards in Brazil are:
Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1988;
Decree No. 40 110/1956: establishes the National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN);
Law No. 4 118/1962: National Policy on Nuclear Energy;
Law No. 5 740/1971: authorizes CNEN to establish the Companhia Brasileira de Tecnologia Nuclear - CBTN;
Law No. 6 189/1974: CNEN’s Set-up as regulatory and licensing federal authority;
Law No. 6 453/1977: civil nuclear liability;
Decree No. 1 809/1980: establishes the SIPRON (revoked);
Decree No. 1 865/1981: provisional occupation of real estate to allow research and mining of mineral substances that contain nuclear elements;
Law No. 2 464/1988: nuclear sector reorganization;
Law No. 7 781/1989: Revision of Law No. 6 189/1974;
Decree No. 8/1991: enacts the Convention on the Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency;
Decree No. 9/1991: enacts the Convention on the Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident;
Decree No. 95/1991: enacts the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material;
Decree No. 1 065/1994: enacts the Quadripartite Agreement (Safeguards Agreement);
Decree No. 1 246/1994: enacts the Treaty of Tlatelolco;
Law No. 9 112/1995: export of sensitive goods and services;
Decree No. 2 210/1997: regulates Decree No. 1 809/1980 (related to SIPRON’s roles);
Decree No. 2 648/1998: enacts the Convention on Nuclear Safety;
Decree No. 2 864/1998: enacts the Treaty on Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT);
Law No. 9 765/1999: licensing, control and inspection tax for nuclear and radioactive materials and utilities;
Decree No. 3 976/2001: related to the implementation of the UNSC Resolution 1373 (2001) in Brazil;
Law No. 10 308/2011: management and regulation of radioactive waste deposits;
Decree No. 4 394/2002: enacts the International Convention on the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings;
Decree No. 4 899/2003: authorizes some alterations of Eletronuclear Statute;
Decree No. 5 935/2006: enacts the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and Radioactive Waste;
Decree s/n 2 July 2008: establishes the Committee for the Development of the Brazilian Nuclear Programme;
Decree No. 7 722/2012: related to the implementation of the UNSC Resolution 1540 (2004) and UNSC Resolution 1977 (2011) in Brazil;
Law 12 731/2012: establishes the SIPRON and revokes Decree No. 1 809/1980;
Decree s/n – 22 June 2017: makes changes to Decree s/n 2 July 2008;
Decree 9 600/2018: consolidates the guidelines on the Brazilian Nuclear Policy;
Medida Provisória No. 870/2019: establishes the organization of the bodies linked to the Presidency of Republic of Brazil;
Decree No. 9 828/2019: on the Committee for the Development of the Brazilian Nuclear Programme.
Main regulations in nuclear power
CNEN’s national standards are available at www.cnen.gov.br. Among these standards, the following can be mentioned:
CNEN-NE-1.01: Licensing of Nuclear Reactors Operators
CNEN-NE-1.04: Licensing of Nuclear Installations
CNEN-NE-1.13: Licensing of Uranium and Thorium Mining and Milling Facilities
CNEN-NE-1.14: Operating Reports of Nuclear Power Plants
CNEN-NN-1.16: Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants
CNEN-NE-1.25: In-service Inspections in Nuclear Power Plants
CNEN-NN-1.26: Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants
CNEN-NE-1.27: Quality Assurance in Acquisition, Designing and Manufacturing of Fuel Elements
CNEN-NN-1.28: Qualification of Independent Technical Supervisory Organization
CNEN.NE-2.01: Physical Protection of Operational Units of Nuclear Installations
CNEN-NN-2.02: Nuclear Material Control and Safeguards — Regulation for establishing an authorization system, responsibilities of the operator, inspection and enforcement in nuclear material accounting and control and safeguards
CNEN-NE-2.03: Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants
CNEN-NE-2.04: Fire Protection in Fuel Cycle Nuclear Installations
CNEN-NE-3.01: Basic Guidelines for Radiological Protection
CNEN-NE-3.02: Radiation Protection Services
CNEN-NE-5.02: Transport Storage and Handling of Nuclear Fuels
CNEN-NN-7.01: Certification of Qualification of Radiation Protection Officers
CNEN-NN-8.02: Licensing of Waste Repository for Low and Medium Radioactivity Levels
CNEN-NE-9.01: Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants
APPENDIX 1: INTERNATIONAL, MULTILATERAL AND BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
|AGREEMENTS WITH THE IAEA|
|• IAEA Statute||Signature:||26 October 1956|
|• Amendments to the Article VI and XIV of the IAEA Statute||Acceptance of amendment of Article VI||1 June 1973|
|• Agreement on privileges and immunities ||Entry into force:||13 June 1966|
|• Quadripartite safeguards agreement INFCIRC/435 ||Entry into force:||4 March 1994|
|• Safeguards agreement Brazil/Germany INFCIRC/237||Suspension signed:||16 October 1998|
|• Safeguards agreement Brazil/USA INFCIRC/110||Entry into force:||31 October 1968|
|• Amendment to the safeguards agreement Brazil/USA||Signature:||27 July 1972|
|• Technical assistance agreement between UN, its specialized agencies and the IAEA||Signature:||29 December 1964|
|• Supplementary agreement on provision of technical assistance by the IAEA||Entry into force:||27 February 1991|
|• ARCAL||Entry into force:||September 1984|
|• New ARCAL Agreement||Signed:||4 August 1999|
|MAIN INTERNATIONAL TREATIES|
|• NPT||Entry into force:||18 September 1998|
|• Tlatelolco Treaty||Signed:||29 January 1968|
|• Amendment of the Treaty||Ratified:||30 May 1994|
|OTHER RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL TREATIES|
|• Nuclear suppliers group||Member|| |
|• Nuclear export guidelines||Adopted|
|• Missile Technology Control Regime||Member||1995|
|• Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water (Partial test ban treaty)||Signature:||5 August 1963|
|• Partial test ban treaty||Entry into force:||15 December 1964|
|• ILO Convention||Signature:||7 April 1964|
|• Treaty on the prohibition of the installation of nuclear weapons and other lethal weapons in the seabed, deep ocean floor and sub-seabed||Signature:||3 September 1971|
|• Convention on civil liability in the field of maritime carriage of nuclear material||Signature:||17 December 1971|
|• Convention on prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other materials||Signature:||29 December 1972|
|• International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings ||Entry into force:||23 August 2002|
|• Antarctica Treaty||Signature:||1 December 1959|
|• Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||Entry into force:||8 February 1987|
|• Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||Entry into force:||4 January 1991|
|• Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||Entry into force:||4 January 1991|
|• Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||Entry into force:||26 June 1993|
|• Convention on Nuclear Safety||Entry into force:||2 June 1997|
|• Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management||Signature:||31 October 1997|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Use of Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy||Argentina||1980|
|Agreement for Scientific, Technological and Industrial Cooperation||Belgium||1985|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Bolivia||1966|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Canada||1996|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Chile||2002|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||China||1984|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Ecuador||1970|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Development of Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy||France||2002|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Germany||1975|
|Cooperation Agreement for the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy||Italy||1958|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Paraguay||1961|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Peru||1981|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Republic of Korea||2001|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Russian Federation||1994|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||Spain||1983|
|Agreement on Cooperation in the field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy||United States of America||1997|
|Cooperation Agreement on Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Uses||Venezuela||1983|
APPENDIX 2: MAIN ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED IN NUCLEAR POWER RELATED ACTIVITIES
|NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY (CNEN)||Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN)|
Address: Rua General Severiano 90, Botafogo
22290-901 — Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil
Phone: +55 21 2173 2101
|CNEN’s research institutes|
|Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear|
|Address: Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6.627|
Campus da UFMG — Pampulha — CEP 31270-901 — Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil
Phone: +55 31 3069 3261
|Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares (CRCN)||Address: Av. Professor Luiz Freire, n. 200, Cidade Universitária, Recife — PE, Brazil|
Phone: +55 81 3797 8000
|Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN)||Address: Rua Hélio de Almeida, 75 — Cidade Universitária — Ilha do Fundão |
CEP. 21941-972 — Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
Caixa Postal 68550
Phone: +55 21 2173 3702
|Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN)||Address: Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242|
Cidade Universitária — Pinheiros
CEP. 05508-000 — São Paulo — SP, Brazil
Phone: +55 11 3133 9000
|Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD)||Address: Av. Salvador Allende, S/No, Recreio dos Bandeirantes|
CEP. 22780-160 — Rio de Janeiro — RJ, Brazil
Phone: +55 21 2173 2701
|Amazônia Azul Tecnologias de Defesa S.A. (Amazul)||Address: Av. Corifeu de Azevedo Marques, 1847|
CEP. 05581-001 — Butantã — São Paulo/SP, Brazil
Phone: +55 11 3206 1600
|Associação Brasileira de Energia Nuclear (ABEN)||Address: Rua da Candelária, 65, 14º andar — Centro — Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil|
Phone: + 55 21 2266 0480
|Agência Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC)||Address: Av. Rio Branco, 123 — Gr 515, Centro — Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil|
Phone: +55 21 3171 1200
|Associação Brasileira para Desenvolvimento de Atividades Nucleares (ABDAN)||Address: Av. Nilo Peçanha, 50 Gr 2016, Centro — Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil|
Phone: +55 21 2262 6587
|Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA)||Address: Avenida Centenário, 303 — São Dimas — Piracicaba, São Paulo/SP, Brazil|
Phone: +55 19 3429 4600
|Eletrobrás Termonuclear S/A (ELETRONUCLEAR)||Address: Address: Rua da Candelária, 65, Centro — Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil|
Phone: + 55 21 2588 7000
|Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB)||Address: Av. República do Chile, 230 - 24º e 25º andares - Centro – Rio de Janeiro/RJ – Brazil|
Phone: +55 21 3797 1600
|Nuclebrás Equipamentos Pesados S/A (NUCLEP)||Address: Av. Rio Branco, 1 — Edifício RB1, sala 1610 — Centro, Rio de Janeiro/RJ — Brazil|
Phone: +55 21 2262 4033
Viviane da Silva Simões
National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN)
Phone: +55 21 2173 2121